study guide-comm 306 molly
study guide-comm 306 molly Comm 306
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Diana Deshields on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 306 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Molly Eickholt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 194 views. For similar materials see Communication in Organizations/Institutions in Communication at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
COMM 306 Exam 1 Study Guide The following outlines possible topics and items on Exam 1. Please note that this list is not exhaustive; this is merely meant to serve as a guide for studying. Content on the exam will cover lecture notes, textbook chapters, and any additional readings (i.e., Keyton, 2008; Zorn, 2008). Overview and Importance of Studying Organizational Communication (Ch. 1 in textbook) Defining organizations: Structure Defining organizations: Culture Definition of organizational communication: complex and continuous process through which organizational members create, maintain, and change the organization; the process of creating, exchanging, interpreting, & storing messages within a system of human interrelationships. From the textbook: o Change in Communication Technology and the Organization o Change in the Realities of a Diverse Workplace o The Communicative Organization Model (i.e., anticipate misunderstandings, social interaction, strategic communication planning) Classical Approaches to Organizational Communication What is a theory? Systematically related ideas used to describe, predict, and/or explain phenomena. What do we use theory for? Foundation for understanding phenomena. Machine metaphor o Components of a machine o Pros and cons of the machine metaphor: Pros—organizations are efficient, stability leads to positive organizational outcomes. Cons—workers treated like easily replaceable “machine parts.” Taylor’s Theory of Scientific Management o Focus: focused on maximizing profits and worker effort and performance. o Why don’t workers expend maximal effort? Systematic soldiering and its causes: Systematic Soldiering explains that employees put minimal effort to get the job done, and this is caused by belief that max effort decreases work force. o Four elements of Scientific Management 1) The scientific design of every aspect of every task. 2) Careful selection and training of the best worker. 3) Proper compensation for fast and highquality work. 4) Equal division of work and responsibility between worker & management. o Scientific Management in the modern workplace: Assembly line jobs, Customer Service, Call Centers Fayol’s Administrative Theory o Focus: how manager’s should function. o 8 Principles of Management 1) Division of Work: limited tasks, clearly defined roles. 2) Unity of Direction: 1 manager 1 department 3) Unity of Command: 1 worker 1 supervisor 4) Interest of Organization comes before interest of individual. 5) Personnel should be properly compensated & proper benefits. 6) Centralization: decisions made by toplevel management. 7) The Scalar Chain: proper information flow through the organization. 8) Esprit de Corps: loyal employees need to put organization interests ahead of their own. Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy o Focus and types of authority: describes an organizational ideal; workers must respect the authority of managers, follows rules and organizational procedures; charismatic authority, traditional authority, & rational authority. o 8 Tenets of bureaucracy 1) Rules 2) Specifies Sphere of competence 3) Hierarchy 4) Specialized Training 5) Workers do not own the technology 6) No entitlement to “official position” 7) Everything written down 8) Maintenance of “ideal type” o Bureaucracy in the Modern Workplace: example in government, organizations move slow because of being bogged down with rules, BUT everything is written down and explicit. Humanistic Theories of Organizations (Ch. 3 in textbook) Shift in thinking from classical approaches to humanistic theories o Be able to compare and contrast the two approaches o How is communication viewed within each approach? Human Relations Theory o Principles of Human Relations o Hawthorne Studies (purpose, premise, and implications of each study) 1) Illumination: impact of light on worker production. Implication: Hawthorne Effect—being watched affects production 2) Relay Assembly Room: explore behavior of 5 female workers by changing aspects of their job. (hours/day, incentives, etc.) Implication: peer communication & supervisor attention. 3) Interviewing Program: supervisor communication and employee morale. Implication: upward communication 4) Bank Wiring Room Observation: influence of peer coworkers. Implication: emergence of informal communication, influencing production and individual behavior. o Theory X vs. Theory Y Theory X: assumes people don’t want to work because they dislike it, and must be coerced into it; prefer to be directed and avoid responsibility. Theory Y: using your brain and ability to work are natural, workers will seek and accept responsibility. THEORY Y PROTOTYPE Human Resources Theory o Key element of Human Resources Theory: Participation (for workers to feel apart of the organizations’ decisionmaking process). o Likert’s four Systems of Management System 1: EXPLOITATIVE AUTHORITATIVE Motivation through fear and threats Decisions made at the top without participation Mediocre production as a result System 2: BENEVOLENT AUTHORITATIVE Motivation through rewards after threats are made Directive with minor upward communication Hostility between peers Fair Production System 3: CONSULTATIVE Motivation through rewards, occasional punishment Minor participation from employees Directive and upward communication Cooperation with peers, work on tasks together Good Production System 4: PARTICIPATIVE Motivation through rewards Employee feedback is sought after and valued Excellent Production o Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid: a good manager can encourage focusing on tasks with the wellbeing of the employees in mind. Country Club: no real concern for results, extreme concern for people Team Leader: extreme concern for results, extreme concern for people Impoverished: no real concern for results, no real concern for people Authoritarian: extreme concern for results, no real concern for people From the textbook: o The Emergence of Communication (Barnard’s six issues in organizational communication) o Differences between Human Relations and Human Resources (i.e., Why did Human Resources emerge? What problems/misunderstandings does it solve?) Systems Theory (Ch. 4 in textbook) Organization as a system – what this means and implications for misunderstandings: components of organizations are all connected, misunderstandings must be handled with consideration to how other interconnected parts of the organization may be influenced. Organism metaphor: organizations are living entities that can influence by the environment in which they are living. Poole’s promises of Systems Theory: it is designed to deal with complexity, it attempts to do so with precision, it takes a holistic view, it is a theory of emergents (our actions as individuals make up the organization). Know definitions for: system, relevant environment, open system, closed system, entropy, negative entropy The “Closed” System: no information exchange with the relevant environment, overly concerned with internal functioning, only one way to accomplish a goal, & feedback is not used appropriately/effectively. Systems: interrelated parts that work together to transform inputs into outputs Subsystems: interrelated parts Supersystems: combination of systems within a relevant environment Boundaries – permeable boundaries, relative openness, synergy, nonsummativity, and equifinality Transformation Model (InputThroughputOutput Model) 1) Input: energy or material passed through boundaries from the environment 2) Throughput: system transforms inputs in a way 3) Output: what is returned to the environment from the system following throughput Feedback Negative Feedback: information that urges subsystems to return to a prior state or behavior (returns to status quo). Positive Feedback: information that urges subsystems to make a change to a specific state or behavior (challenges the status quo). The role of communication as an adaptive mechanism and with maintenance function Adaptive Mechanism: communication allows information to exchange between the environment and the system. Maintenance Function: facilitates the flow of information between subsystems within the systems. Contingency Theory o Burns and Stalker types of management systems Know each of the two system names: Mechanistic & Organic What each system is characterized by: Mechanistic is clearly defined roles, vertical communication. Organic is interdependent specialized tasks, horizontal and vertical communication. In what type of environment are the systems appropriate? Mechanistic System is appropriate in stable and unchanging environments. Organic System is appropriate in changing environments. o Lawrence and Lorsch (1969) organizational structure Organizations should match their environment Which structure is more appropriate in a stable environment and which is more appropriate in an uncertain/changing envirionment Conflict o Interaction: must be some social interaction. Substantive conflict: conflict over task/content. Affective conflict: conflict about feelings or emotions. o Interpersonal: conflict between 2 or more people, not focused on task or work related problems. Intragroup: (intradepartmental) between group members (or subgroup members), task or workrelated problems. Intergroup: (interdepartmental) between members of different groups (or subgroups) within the organization, task, or workrelated problems. o Conflict Management Distributive bargaining: maximize individual gains, minimize losses. Integrative negotiating: maximizing joint gains. rd Mediation: 3 party facilitates the conversation and communication. Arbitration: 3 party has legal authority to make binding decision. From the textbook: o Types of boundaries o The Learning Organization Exam 1 Review Units 14 Unit 1: Introduction to Organizational Communication 1) What is the difference between business communication, managerial communication, corporate communication, and organizational communication? Business, Managerial, & Corporate are all encompassed by organizational communication. 2) What are the artifacts of the organizations? Assumptions? Values? Artifacts are the tangible things of an organization, values are the things the organizations hold to be important or prioritize, and assumptions are the taken for granted aspects of an organization. 3) What does the organizational communication as a “process” mean? This ongoing idea of organizations, there is no real beginning or end. 4) In the Communicative Organization Model, which behaviors are encouraged in response to misunderstandings? Message exchange (using the correct channel for your message), Psychological Immediacy shows that you care (demonstrate eye contact, closeness, attention to the conversation). Unit 2: Classical Approaches 1) Describe the typical flow of communication from a classical management approach. The worker’s values and ideas aren’t taken into consideration. The communication flows from the superior to the subordinate. 2) Identify/describe 5 of Weber’s 8 tenets of Bureaucracy. 1. Rules 2. Specified Sphere of competence (division of labor) 3. Hierarchy 4. Specialized Training 5. Workers do not own technology 6. No entitlement to “official position” 7. Everything is written down 8. Maintenance of “ideal type”bureaucracy 3) What are the 3 main components of the machine metaphor? Predictability, Standardization, & Specialization 4) What does it mean to have a centralized organizational structure? Power in one area making the decisions for the organization. Unit 3: Humanistic Approaches 1) Which focuses more on cultivating human potential: human relational approach or the human resources approach? The Human Resources Approach 2) What are the assumptions of human nature in McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y? Theory X assumes all humans don’t want responsibility and avoid it. Theory Y says they want to be productive and have a responsibility and obligation to an organization; they actually want to work. 3) Describe the shift in thinking from classical approaches to humanistic approaches. The classical theories only have concern for the production and profit of the organization with a oneway style of communication from superior to subordinate. The Humanistic Approaches now take into consideration the worker, they’re values and ideas are important. 4) Of Blake and Mouton’s 5 managerial styles, which styles are characterized by high concern for people? Country Club and Team Leader. Which are characterized by high concern for production? Authoritative and Team Leader Unit 4: Systems Theory 1) Under which conditions would Lawrence and Lorsch say organizations should utilize a centralized structure? 2) What is a boundary spanner? 3) Which are the 2 forms of dispute resolution that utilize a third party outside of the conflict? 4) Which conflict management strategy attempts to maximize joint gains through open and direct communication?
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