HDFS 1070 Exam 1 Study Guide
HDFS 1070 Exam 1 Study Guide HDFS 1070
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Tabacchini on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 1070 at University of Connecticut taught by Ronald Sabatelli in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 303 views. For similar materials see Individual and Family Development in Human Development at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
HDFS 1070 Exam 1 Study Guide Questions Why are theories important? o Theories are important because they explain the possible occurrence of something that is observed. What is the lifespan developmental theory? o It is a theory that has nature vs. nurture contributions. Nature and nurture have a mutual influence on each other- environment responds to genetics so the environment can therefore change genes. An example of this would be electrical stimulation decreasing an individual’s attention span. What is Bronfenbrenner’s Developmental/contextual perspective on life-span development? o His perspective highlights the essential interaction between genes and the environment. He stresses on the idea that all environmental factors interact with one another. What are the assumptions of the development/contextual perspective? o 1: potential for growth exists at all stages o 2: continuity and change are possible (Epigenetic principle: early stages of development serve as a foundation for later developmental stages; early stages are predictive of how you will develop). o 3: importance of context (the environment) o 4: context is grounded in time (history and time are important factors- the time an individual develops in has an impact) What are the 3 basic categories of shapers that interact and mutually influence each other? o 1: Individual contributions o 2: environmental contributions o 3: time (historical, family history, age, family life events) What are the factors of individual contributions that shape development? o DNA (contributes to variability in individuals) o Constructions of reality (meta cognition) What is “meta-cognition”? o Meta-cognition is when one thinks about his or her thoughts and therefore reconstructs reality in their mind. This can be used as a tool to reframe one’s experiences. What is Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems model? What are the different kinds of influences called? o It is a multilayered system of influences that mold an individual’s development and life experience. o There are macro-system influences, Exo-system influences, Micro-system influences and Meso-system influences. What do each of the influences from the ecological systems model comprise of? o Macro-system: influence one’s environment and development and influence how policies are structured o Exo-system: observe and experience o Micro-system: personal relationships with significant others that shape how one develops (can also be a significant other’s absence and can be positive or negative shapers) o Meso-system: the interaction among all the influences What is the difference between Individualism and Collectivism? o Individualism demands individual responsibility o Collectivism ensures the welfare of the people What is the difference between hierarchy and egalitarianism? o Hierarchy is present in patriarchal societies where men have more power than women o Egalitarianism minimizes the differences between men and women and emphasizes equality What is a cohort and what are the different events that influence cohort? o A cohort is a person who is born in a particular era that makes their life unique o Evens that influence cohorts include normative history- graded events and normative socio-cultural graded events What is a normative history-graded event? o Events that occur outside the government and are widespread and filter through to an individual and influence all systems What is a normative socio-cultural graded event? o Events that occur inside the government that change policies and laws in different periods of time What are the 2 dimensions that define a family? o Family composition and family dynamics What are the factors that make today’s families unique? o Composition diversity, remarriage rates being higher than divorce rates, higher out of wedlock birth rates, higher cohabitation rates and cultural tolerance/acceptance of gay/lesbian relationships and marriages What is the system’s metaphor? o It says that the family operates as if it were a system- it is defined by the relationships among the parts What are the structural properties of a family? o Wholeness- the sum of the parts o Organizational complexity- different subsets of extended families o Interdependence- a change in one part of the family system changing the entire system or affecting it in some ways o Strategies, rules and customs o Tasks What are the 2 types of family system tasks and what do they comprise of? o 1 order tasks- involve the family developing strategies to meet the task o 2 ndorder tasks- adjusting how the strategies are executed What are the different kinds of boundary tasks within a family? o External: open vs closed o Internal: enmeshed vs disengaged How do open and closed external boundaries differ? o Firstly, they exist on a continuum, which means that families can fall between the extremes. Extremely speaking, an open family would be open to outsiders, have no distinction between inside and outside relations, be free to share private information to others outside of the family. Outsiders would be just influential as insiders. In an extreme open case, there would be no distinction between one’s family and people outside of it. On the other hand, a closed family would have very high boundaries- very private and closed off to relationships with outsiders. The only significant others in their life would be from family. How do enmeshed families and disengaged families differ? o These extremes exist on a continuum, so families usually fall between these two categories. Enmeshed families are over involved with one another, which leads to a high degree of connection at the expense of one’s autonomy and independence. Children from extreme cases of enmeshed families believe that they are not component enough in doing anything by themselves. Disengaged families have disconnection among members. This means that the child is on their own and is able to do whatever they want. This freedom is at the expense of any meaningful emotional connection to other family members. In an extreme case, the child can’t trust that other people will be there to support him or her and will not care. What is the difference between under-organized families and over-organized families? o Under-organized families have no schedule or family ritual. They simply go with the flow with no plan. Over-organized families have rigid rules around everything that has to be done in the household, which in turn can stifle creativity. What is a meta-message? How do we use them? o It is information expressed through behavior. Ex. Eye contact, body position, facial expression. We spend a long time trying to interpret behavior hidden in meta-messages, which means we don’t necessarily need a content message (literal words spoken) to find meaning in interaction. What are the 2 different kinds of conflict? How do they differ? o Contained and uncontained. Contained conflict stays between the parents, which has less of a negative impact on the emotional climate. Uncontained conflict spills over onto the kids and does across generational boundaries and can create triangulation. What is an emotional climate? o It is the byproduct of all the exchanges within a family which results in feeling nurtured, valued respected or rejected and not valued. What is the unit of analysis for most perspective models on family functioning? How do they differ? o Anxiety. o They differ with their sources of anxiety. What is the emotional legacy? o It is the result of family dynamics which either promotes development or creates an environment that raises the levels of anxiety beyond the level of when psychological wellbeing breaks down What is the difference between well differentiated families and poorly differentiated families? o Well differentiated families are present but not intrusive, which develops a healthy feeling of competence in children. Poorly differentiated families are either overly present and intrusive or never present and never intrusive. What is de-centering? o It is when an individual puts their problems aside when another person needs their empathy. It is something that is quite difficult to do (need to teach yourself how to) because you need to put your problems aside and focus on them in that moment for the good of others. What is the multigenerational transmission process? o It is the transmission of effective or ineffective processes from generations, which are transmitted through the partner selection process and the parenting process. How come one child in a family is picked on more than the other children? How come one child has much more anxiety while other siblings don’t? o Parents choose a child to project their anxiety onto when that child reminds them of themselves. They usually become over-involved with this child. o Parents could also reject a child in terms of being hypercritical and hyper-vigilant while the other siblings are left alone. This is done when the child reminds the parent of his or her own parents. When does an individual’s unique development start? o At the time of conception- at the time of conception, your genetic code is established What is mutual regulation? o It is the interaction between genes and the environment. The genetic code can be influenced/changed by one’s environment (ex. Teratogens) What is the difference between a genotype and a phenotype? o A genotype is the genetic code of an individual while a phenotype is the external expression of that genetic code. What is the difference between gender identity and assigned sex? o Assigned sex is the biological/sex chromosomes you are assigned at the moment of conception (XX: female, XY: male) o Gender identity is something that is experienced early in childhood, which is a person’s acceptance of their assigned sex or deviation from their assigned sex. It is what they feel deep inside and can be culturally constructed. What is temperament? o It is the behavioral sensory motor predispositions and tendencies that track back to your genetic makeup. Influenced by genetics. Why is temperament different from personality? o Because temperament is influenced by genetics. What are some factors that influence temperament? o Activity level, rhythmicity, approach-withdrawal, adaptability, and intensity of reaction What is rhythmicity? o It is the cycle of an individual at which they eat and sleep at certain times- differ from others What is “goodness of fit”? o It is when caregivers have to be sensitive to a child’s temperament and have the responsibility to adapt their own behavior to better fit with the temperament of the child creates a better social environment Must do this instead of insisting that the child have a different temperament than they have Why is the US’s infant mortality rate higher than those of other nations? o Prenatal care is promoted in different ways in different countries, the US doesn’t tolerate poverty the same as other countries (we are an individualistic society), therefore, this leads to malnutrition. The US doesn’t have a lot of safety nets in place for people who are poverty stricken, which filters into prenatal care, health and nutrition (all aspects of the fetus’s life) What is the optimal window for a mother to bear a child? o 18 to 35 years of age- there are risk factors such as genetic anomalies if babies are born to mothers outside this range Why is nutrition so compromised during pregnancy in the US? o Because many women are anxious about weight gain during pregnancy, which is supposed to happen (35-40 pounds on average are needed to be gained during a healthy pregnancy). This is because of the cultural mandate that you shouldn’t gain a lot of weight during pregnancy. So if women are anxious about weight gain, nutrition can be compromised, which comprises the prenatal environment for the fetus. What are teratogens? o Teratogens are toxins that compromise the fetus which may not be toxic to the mother because she would need a higher dosage to be affected What trimester of pregnancy has the most devastating effects on a fetus if toxin exposures were to happen? o The first trimester How can maternal stress affect an unborn child? o The higher the stress levels of the mother, the more of a chance that there will be complications during labor and delivery, which can lead to damage to the baby during birth Ex. Cerebral palsy What is the difference between prevention and intervention? o Prevention is providing future parents with the information needed so their baby is healthy. Intervention comes when the damage has already been done, in an effort to manage or reduce it. What is the $1 saves $6 idea? o That for every $1 spent on prevention saves $6 in intervention costs What is the difference between secondary and primary prevention? o Primary prevention for example is making an attempt to make sure that every woman is taking vitamins in anticipation of getting pregnant, has all the information on how to manage a pregnancy before conceiving and has doctor visits regularly right from the beginning o Secondary prevention is when problems start to occur or problems are possible and counter measures are taken (trying to prevent a full-blown problem from occurring) What infants are at risk low survivability? o Infants that have physical defects, developmental abnormality—they don’t elicit important responses from people because they present abnormal behavior which changes the typical exchange between the baby and caretaker What is key to a baby’s survival? o Bonding with the caretaker(s) What is the key to communication between babies and their caretakers? o Emotions What is the theory of primary and secondary emotion? o Humans are born with the ability to express 2 primary emotions: anxiety and joy. All other emotions (secondary emotions) are derived from the primary experience of either joy or anxiety. What emotion do infants start out with? o Just anxiety until they are in a state of non-anxiety, which would create joy. This is fostered by the caretaker successfully reducing the baby’s anxiety. What is the foundation of attachment? o Feeling comforted in the presence of that person and having their anxieties reduced by that person When is an infant capable of attachment? o An infant is capable of attachment when object permanence is learned: the cognitive ability to understand that an object has permanence- it exists when it is not in your sight. This happens around 6-8 months of age. How do we know when attachment is occurring? o We know it is occurring when stranger anxiety, separation distress, and social referencing are present in an infant. What is the difference between secure and insecure attachments? o Secure attachments are working models of social relationships in which individuals believe that they can trust people and that their needs will be met. Insecure attachments are the complete opposite- when individuals believe no one can be trusted and that their needs will never be met. What are the different types of insecure attachments in infants? o Anxious-avoidant attachment: babies that are already differentiating anxiety from anger. They experience anger towards their caretakers in anticipation that they will not understand and wont meet their needs. They expect that people will let them down and that they will be disappointed. o Anxious-resistant attachment: babies that resist separation and are needy and clingy. They are worried that their needs wont be met which makes them believe they cant leave a caretaker’s side; they hold onto the caretaker in a panicked state. These babies can’t regulate their emotions. o Disorganized attachment: babies that exhibit both resistant and avoidant tendencies and are emotionally disregulated. What are the different types of adult attachment styles? o Secure: experience joy in relationships more so than anxiety and trust others o Insecure: experience less joy and experience anxiety- have low trust in others Preoccupied: exaggerated desire for closeness with friends and lovers, depends on others, very concerned with being rejected, clingy and needy, easily made jealous, everything makes them upset, collects all kinds of evidence that provide for closeness with another. Dismissing: want nothing to do with others, defensively independent, don’t give relationships a chance (stop them if get too close in an effort to prevent disappointment), self-reliance, low in trust, high in autonomy. Fearful: combination of preoccupied and dismissing. Desire closeness, approach others, be involved, but when the relationship becomes more intimate they back off and panic. Have a fear of being rejected and avoid intimacy through preemptive distancing. What are the big 5 personality traits that each one of us possesses in different degrees? o Openness: contemplative, open to challenges and life, full of ideas o Conscientiousness: likes order, always prepared, follows a schedule, can be obsessive compulsive in nature o Extroversion: comfortable around people, talkative, likes to be the center of attention o Agreeableness: sympathetic, takes time for others, open to people’s feelings and their experiences o Neuroticism: easily disturbed, worries easily, doesn’t have a lot of space for joy in their life, anticipates or expects the worst How do extroverts and introverts differ in coping with anxiety? o When an extrovert gets anxious, he or she manages that anxiety by seeking out contact with other people. They are most comfortable when they are talking and relating with others. An introvert, on the other hand, tends to isolate himself or herself from other people- they like to be alone. What is Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory? o It is an epigenetically rounded theory that states that people are influenced by how they manage their sources of anxiety in their life. In every stage of life, there are social expectations and environmentally imposed demands that generate anxiety. How their personality evolves stems from how that individual deals with their anxiety. They develop different coping mechanisms to deal with life’s demands. How that individual manages that anxiety sets the stage on how they live their life. What are the basic concepts of Erikson’s theory? o Psychosocial stages: critical points in life we need to develop psychological resources that impact later development o Psychosocial crisis: stage specific expectations and demands that generate anxiety within an individual o Central processes for resolving the crisis: Some key things that need to happen in order to resolve the crisis of a specific stage of life—central processes are the key occurrences that enable you to succeed with resolving a crisis o Coping behavior: As a result of how you manage the crisis, you either get good personality traits and dispositions or bad ones which either help or interfere with future coping What is the difference between prime-adaptive ego qualities and core pathologies in terms of coping? o Prime-adaptive qualities (good coping behavior) involve being optimistic and hopeful. Core pathologies (bad coping behavior) interfere with the success and management with future challenges. Why is trust so important in infancy? o A baby starts out stressing anxiety at everything that creates stress in him or her (sleepy, hungry, noisy environment- basically cry about every stress). Initially when a baby is very young, caretakers meet those needs regardless of the timing and situation, but, as babies move to the later stages of infancy, caretakers expect them to regulate their emotions when they are hungry and they need a few minutes before feeding them. This is a progressive way in which we socialize children to regulate their emotions and trust that their needs will be met. If one doesn’t trust that those needs will be met, they will not regulate those emotions and keep crying. What is the central process for infancy? o When caregivers understand the needs of a child and meet those needs, the child experiences a sense of mutuality with the caregiver. When that happens enough of the time, the child begins to regulate emotions better and trust and develop a set of expectations that the world is a trustworthy place. This mutuality involves these 3 factors: Coordination Mismatch Communication repairs—try something different to reduce the anxiety
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