EXAM1StudyGuidePart2Feb2-11.pdf History 1020
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex Phillips on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari L Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE PART 2 FEBRUARY 2 – FEBRUARY 11 HISTORY 1020 CASTEEL LIFE DURING THE INDUSTIAL REVOLUTION - Nouveau Riche - Working Class (tenements) - Wages of women and children vs. men - Life expectancy = short o Children not living as long b/c dirty conditions - Workplace Injuries o Children got rickets o Missing limbs from dangerous machinery MINING JOBS - Trappers: 8-10 y/o o Opened doors in mining tunnels - Hurrier: young women o Pull carts from chain around waist o Strong but still short enough to move easily in mine - Hewer: teenage boys o Miners SLAVERY DURING THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - Expansion: England needed to keep up w/ cotton production - Mortality rate 3x’s higher for slaves - Ways slaves resisted: working slowing, running away, revolting (like in Haiti), or sabotage (example: they would break their own fingers so they didn’t have to work) o Code Noir: those rules do not necessarily exist anymore CAUSE AND EFFECT OF PROTESTING INDUSTRIALIZATION - CAUSE: - class conflicts o People gathering about working conditions o Gathering considered illegal so military fired on crowd - Revolutions od 1848 o Suffrage for men, protests on working conditions, lower class revolutions - EFFECT: - Government Responses o Amending child labor, poor houses created, voting population bigger, factory work environment updates OLD IDEOLOGY OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - capitalism o government intervention limits liberty o good for factory owners but not the people working in them o poor people had bad living conditions o wealth not evenly distributed NEW IDEOLOGY OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - socialism o each working person earns the proper value based on what he/she contributed to production - communism o means of production belong to the people o goods and services allocated equally among consumers HOW COMMUNISM IS SUPPOSED TO HAPPEN - 1. Seize Control: people are desperate and poor so they are forced to take control of means of production - 2. Violent Revolution - 3. Establish a socialist government PROBLEM OF URBANIZATION - cities didn’t have infrastructure to accommodate population growth - dumped piled garbage into streets and bodies of water - Cesspools (plumbing): too close to drinking wells so they leaked o People got Cholera - Miasma - Cholera killed tens of thousands o Wealthy people thought poor people caused Cholera JOHN SNOW - mapped out where and why people were dying - found out people died who lived near water (bodies of water and wells) o Snow pulled of handle of water well : people stopped getting sick - General Board of Health o Didn’t believe Snow o Told people to dump garbage into the Thames River o The Great Stink of London JOSEPH BAZELGETTE - contracted to design a sewer system - created pip system that prevented further outbreaks - “sewer snake” LOUIS PASTEUR - Father of Germ Theory - Thought germs made things like food spoil and that’s what made people sick EFFECT OF GERM THEORY - people bathed more often o remember “magic” linen - perfume got rid of “bad smells’ that supposedly made people sick - soap (advertisements everywhere) o people became obsessed w/ cleanliness - deodorant - these things only available to those who could afford it o created inequality IMPORTANT QUESTION: WHY WAS THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION CONSIDERED “REVOLUTIONARY”? IMPERIALISM: DEFINITION AND KINDS - one group dominating another - 1. FORMAL IMPERIALISM: colonization by military force - 2. INFORMAL (business) IMPERIALISM: dominating (controlling) economy o spheres of influence - imperialism is a result of the industrial revolution IMPERIALISM IN INDIA - British East India Co. o Took advantage of the weakened Mughal Empire o Set up trading posts along coast – become British India - Deindustrialization of India: British stopped them from producing clothes and furthering their industrial growth by forcing them to only produce cotton and indigo IMPERIALISM IN CHINA - Canton System: Chinese only wanted silver - British set up permanent posts in Canton so they knew the culture better o Found something Chinese would buy: Opium WHY BRITISH BEGAN OPIUM TRADE - silver shortage - British needed tea from China b/c population growth in Brit. - Traded opium for tea instead OPIUM TRADE EFFECTS - 12 million people addicted o becomes a government issue o dumped it into the sea and poisoned it, burned it - destroyed Canton system: illegally smuggling Opium into Hong Kong - cut off trade entirely with Britain SPHERES OF INFLUENCE - other countries sign unequal treaties - trade controlled by foreign nations - China not formally colonized but not completely free (informal imperialism) OPIUM WAR: WHO WON – EFFECTS? - British steam powered ships destroyed Chinese ships o Fought on water b/c trade battle not land battle - Treaty of Nanjing (another unequal treaty) o China paid reparations o China forced to trade with British o Hong Kong controlled by British - Extraterritoriality GREAT DIVERGENCE - Europe catches up and surpasses Middle East b/c of the Industrial Revolution - Separation from nations that were industrialized and those that were not o Industrial revolution and imperialism meet o Colonizer vs. colonized WHY WERE SEPOYS BROUGHT TO INDIA - British Raj didn’t allow India to trade w/ anyone other than British - Caused unrest: British had to start to “police” India - Hired Indian people to become soldiers (called Sepoys) instead of bringing in own British people HOW DID TECHNOLOGY BEGIN A FEELING OF INDIAN NATIONALISM - Enfield Rifle: cow and pig fat cartridge had to put in mouth (against religions) o Sepoys wouldn’t use them o Stole muskets from armory and lost rebellion b/c Britain had better guns o Brit. Brought in more troops - Began a feeling of nationalism as Indians b/c they united against a common enemy WHAT CAME OUT OF SEPOY REBELLION - Indian National Congress o Only wealthy, elite Indians who owned land not owned by the British - Muslim League o Protest for rights of Muslims o Decided they needed to get British out - Gandhi NATIONALIS M o INC leader o Non-violence TAIPING REBELLION - Hong Xiuquan - Large following b/c people sick of Qing and foreign people o Qing called Europeans for help – they helped b/c Europeans don’t want to get kicked out of China o 30 million killed because European’s advanced tech - EFFECT: Qing weakened and there is an even worse hatred for foreigners in China BOXER UPRISING - Boxers were peasants skilled in martial arts - Destroy everything foreign - have Qing’s support and they support the Qing - 8 nations put down rebellion o invaded Beijing EFFECT OF BOXER REBELLION - Boxer protocol (another unequal treaty) - China pays money - 8 nations take Beijing - Larger spheres of influence in China - China weaker and poorer b/c $$$ paid for wars o People upset: Civil wars break out REVOLUTIONOF 1911 - Wuching’s uprising overthrow Qing o No more dynasties - Sun YatSen: first president - Republic of China o Nationalism, democracy, people’s livelihood
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