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Basic Speech Science Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Cara Notetaker

Basic Speech Science Exam 1 Study Guide CSCD 3233

Marketplace > Temple University > Computer Science and Engineering > CSCD 3233 > Basic Speech Science Exam 1 Study Guide
Cara Notetaker
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About this Document

This is a study guide for Exam 1.
Basic Speech Science
Rena Krakow
Study Guide
speech, speech pathology, Language, Science, Study Guide, Speech Science
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cara Notetaker on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CSCD 3233 at Temple University taught by Rena Krakow in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Basic Speech Science in Computer Science and Engineering at Temple University.

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Date Created: 02/15/16
sound origin - -some form of movement -movement causes disturbances in air -sounds travel out rapidly from sound source sampling - -taking samples at intervals of time -converts time (continuous) into discrete values quasi-periodic pattern - -repeats somewhat but not exactly period - -how long one instance of a pattern is -cycle analog signals - -continous variables -speech acoustics -temperature digital data - -sequences of numbers -convert analog to digital cycle duration - -how long cycle lasts interpolation - -draw lines between measured points -reasonably predict between each measured point extrapolation - -make predictions beyond last measured point undersampling - -gives error -not getting enough samples sampling rates - -how frequently a signal changes fleeting speech - -need to make a copy bc speech is fleeting transducer - -chances energy from one form into another -microphone microphone - -changes air pressure variations into voltage variations (electricity) -transducer -digital recording -analog- digital compression - -air particles close to each other -high pressure -air coming up through lungs , vocal folds, gets stuck behind lips rarefaction - -air particles far from each other -low pressure schematic - -particle movement over time periodic - -repeating pattern -voiced sounds -tuning fork -vowels -line spectrum aperiodic - -no repeating patterns -/s/ -rustling leaves -no fundamental frequency or harmonics -continuous/smooth spectra adult male phonating - -open and close vocal folds 100x / sec loudness - -measured by amplitude, magnitude pitch - -measured by frequency quality - -measured by complexity -difference in sound wave complexity -shaping of vocal tract waveform - -chance in oressyre iver tune pitch cycle duration - -frequency higher rate of vocal fold vibration... - higher pitch strike tuning fork harder... - louder sound strike larger tuning fork... - get lower sound tuning fork - -loudness can change -pitch stays the same per one tuning fork complex waveforms - -all speech sounds simple waveforms - -pure tone -periodic -sine wave -continous smaller lighter instruments vibrate more rapidly... - gives higher tone higher pitch... - -shorter cycle -more cycles/sec -vibrate more rapidly -causes harmonics to me more spread apart in a spectrogram damped wave - -wave of a sound that is dying out -losing amplitude transient - -click -release -stop consonant -loud speaker turning on -quick on and off sound -aperiodic, complex sounds continous - -sound keeps going -simple sounds fundamental frequency - -overall rate of repetition of the complex wave -gives us pitch in complex sounds -f0 or f1 higher number of cycles / sec... - higher pitch Fourier - -complex waves- combo of simple waves harmonics - -whole number multiples of the f0 1st harmonic - -lowest frequency component -f0 periodicity - -complexity of waves spectrum - -gives us info that's hard to determine from a waveform line spectra - -periodic sound continuous/smooth spectra - -aperiodic sounds -no f0 -no harmonics shaping of vocal tract - -makes a difference in how sound comes out -difference in quality resonance - -occurs when an instrument is set into vibration by the vibrations of another instrument -aka filter filter - -a resonator -see how filter responds to a sound source -vocal tract is a filter -helps determine magnitude of energy at different frequencies -low pass -high pass when is sound produced? - -when interfere with airflow source spectrum - -decreasing frequency of a line spectrum -fundamental frequency -harmonics x-frequency y-dB resonance curve - -sine waveform -formants -resonator- vocal tract shape x- frequency y- dB output spectrum - -up and down pattern of line spectrum -formants -fundamental frequency -harmonics -function of the resonance curve and source spectrum x- frequency y- dB peaks - -where vocal tract can vibrate with a lot of energy or high amplitude at certain frequencies vowel production - -sound source- vibrating vocal folds -resonator/filter- vocal tract -output- sound that comes out of a speaker resonant frequency - -frequency at which a resonator responds with the highest amplitude bandwidth - -the effective frequency range of a resonantor emerging sound changes - -male/female/ whisper can change the source -vocal tract shape can change the resonator digital Fourier transform - digital breaking up of complex waves into pure tones Y axis - f1 x axis - f2- f1 formants - -label peaks of resonance curve -f1, f2, f3 -potential to vibrate is right around the peak -high relative to the amplitude -reflect vocal tract shape f1 and f2 - most important for vowel production resonator - -generates the formants -vocal tract shape tongue gets lower.. - -f1 moves up in frequency (inverse relationship) -f2 decreases in frequency lip rounding - -lowers f2 f1 - -vowel height -x axis low values at top - -get high vowels large value - left small value - right front vowels - -higher f2 -bigger distance between f2 and f1 higher vowels... - -higher f0 tongue moves forward... - -f2 rises normative data - -people compare their data to this men have what f0 - lowest children have what f0 - highest schematic spectrograms - -not too detailed -one vowel after another -steady state vowels where is frequency? - where is time? - -within frequency where is amplitude? - -in the relative darkness f1 inversely related to.. - -vowel height f2 is related to... - -front back dimension of the vowel lip rounding... - -lowers formants -especially f2 plotting dipthongs - -plot an early point (circle) -plot a late point (arrow) spectrograph - -device spectrogram - -output low pass filter - -letting low frequencies through, and filtering out the high frequencies high pass filter - -letting high frequencies through and filtering out low frequencies order of low pass high pass - -low pass first, then high pass spectrogram on paper - -needle on paper and set on bottom -needle carries electricity -needle against spinning drum -needle putting burn marks on paper -high amplitude- high voltage -needle start at bottom of spectrogram (low frequencies) and moves upward (high frequencies) -when needle is at bottom- only lets through low frequencies, filters everything else out higher the amplitude... - -darker the burn mark two types of spectrograms - 1- wideband 2- narrowband wideband - -bandwidth ~300 Hz -formants- over time -can see vertical striations -used more for vocal tract -gives better time resolution narrowband - -bandwidth ~45 Hz -harmonics -no vertical striations are seen -use when we wanna look at f0 and harmonics over time- intonation- changing pitch over time -gives better frequency resolution darkness of spectrograms - -high energy in the signal -where formants are- peaks of energy vertical striations - -alternations of dark and light overtime -varying of amplitude- vocal fold vibration -voiced sound vowel spectrograms over time - -change in articulation where harmonics are more widely spaced.. - -higher f0 horizontal lines - -harmonics over time -narrowband variability in vowel production - -dialect -men/women/children -talking speed -humans good at dealing with this, not computers vocal folds open... - -higher amplitude formant transition - -where formants change frequencies -dipthongs- changing resonator -formants change frequency to reflect that -vocal tract shape moves measures of speech physiology - -articulator position -articulator movement -aperture- opening and closing -muscle activity instruments of speech physiology - -x ray -MRI -ultrasound -EMG- used for muscle activity displays of speech acoustics - -waveforms -spectra -spectrograms measures of speech acoustics - -f0 -f1, f2, f3 -durations- parts of phonemes, whole phonemes, sentences, narratives perception - -what does the listener focus in on cues - -f1 and f2 -help identify vowels -identification and discrimination discrimination - -deals with difference speech synthesis - -gives us total control over the signal researchers - -clinicians- disorders of speech and hearing -linguists- cross language; cross dialect; sound change; interested in language variation -psychologists- motor control and sound perception; interested in human behavior and perception -engineers- speech synthesis; speech recognition recording speech - -location (preferences) -microphone (choice of type) preferences of location for recording speech - -sound attenuated booth- reduce, but don't eliminate noise -quiet room types of microphones - 1- unidirectional 2- omnidirectional/ multidirectional unidirectional microphone - -records best sound coming from just in front of the mic -enhance sound right in front of someone -attenuate sound far away -most everyday microphones -preferred -higher s/n ratio omnidirectional/multidirectional microphone - -equally sensitive to sounds from different directions in the room -use for kids and large groups -lower s/n ratio s/n ratio - -signal to noise ratio -signal we want coming stronger than noise we don't want need for audio recording - -microphone (transduce signal) -recording device: electrically vs batteries -digital recording- taking in sequence of numbers- sampling -analog recording (consider magnetic tape) when a copy is made from a copy in analog - -it gets worse each time a copy is made peak clipping - -want to avoid -can't fix afterwords to avoid peak clipping - -reduce distance between talker and microphone - reduces amplitude -asking talker to reduce volume discrete values - -not continuous -individual points in time -analog wave quantization - -converts continous variations in amplitude into discrete levels -dividing up amplitude scale


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