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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Hannah Kennedy

Exam 1 Study Guide 21001

Hannah Kennedy
GPA 3.98

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About this Document

This study guide contains everything that will or may show up on exam 1
Intro to Ethics
Devon M. Hawkins
Study Guide
Intro to Ethics, ethics, exam 1 study guide, exam guide, philosophy, The Good Life
50 ?




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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Kennedy on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 21001 at Kent State University taught by Devon M. Hawkins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Intro to Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
Copyright ©: Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 1 Intro to Ethics: Exam 1 study guide 1. Define and describe each of the following Term Definition and Description Metaphysics Realism Idealism Epistemology Rationalism Empiricism Skepticism Fideism Logic Axiology Ethics Value theory Metaethics Copyright ©: Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 2 Applied ethics Normative ethics Aesthetics Social and political philosophy Statement Premise Conclusion Argument Descriptive Prescriptive Ought Intrinsic Instrumental A priori A posteriori Copyright ©: Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 3 Empirical Happiness Moderation Catharsis Higher pleasures Lower pleasures Libertarianism The experience machine The transformation machine The results machine Subjective Objective Virtue Excellence Necessary Copyright ©: Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 4 Sufficient Extrinsic Actual Ideal Autonomy  Hedonism Consequentialism Utilitarianism The Greatest Happiness Principle Felicific (Utilitarian) calculus Summum bonum (the greatest good) Theory of welfare The socratic dialectic The Homeric conception of virtue Divine command theory Copyright ©: Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 5 Essence Definition Piety 2. Describe the difference between the following: a. A priori vs. a posteriori b. Intrinsic vs. instrumental c. Ends vs. means d. Necessary vs. sufficient 3. Epicurus  a. Define hedonism and state whether it is prescriptive or descriptive b. How does Epicurus view happiness? c. Describe the difference between pleasure vs. pain  d. Describe the take Epicurus has on moderation and catharsis e. What is the argumentative proof that Epicurus gives stating that we  shouldn’t fear death? f. Put the following quotes into your own words and describe what they are  saying Quote Translated Meaning/Description “direct every preference and aversion  toward securing health of body and  tranquility of mind, seeing that this is the sum and end of a blessed life” pg 13 “sometimes we treat the good as an evil,  and the evil, on the contrary, as a good”  pg 14 Copyright ©: Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 6 4. Mill a. Define utilitarianism b. Define the GHP c. What is the argumentative proof that the GHP is empirical d. Define consequentialism e. Does Mill believe that happiness and pleasure are the same thing?  f. Describe the difference between higher pleasures and lower pleasures g. Describe why we may not seek the higher pleasures h. List some objections to Mill’s philosophy (utilitarian calc, the proof of the  GHP) i. Put the following quotes into your own words and describe what they are  saying Quote Translated Meaning/Description “the creed which accepts, as the  foundation of morals, Utility, or the  Greatest­happiness Principle, holds that  actions are right in proportion as they  tend to promote happiness, wrong as they  tend to produce the reverse of happiness”  pg 17 “of two pleasures, If there be one to which  all or almost all who have experience of  both give a decided preference,  irrespective of any feeling of moral  obligation to prefer it, that is the more  desirable pleasure” pg 19 “it is better to be a human dissatisfied  than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates  dissatisfied, than a fool satisfied” pg 20 “in truth the pleasure and pain seldom  exist separately” pg 25 5. Nozick a. Describe what the experience machine is and what it does Copyright ©: Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 7 b. List the reasons not to plug into the machine c. Describe what the transformation machine is; what reason not to plug into  the experience machine does it answer? d. Describe what the results machine is; what reason not to plug into the  experience machine does it answer? e. What is the moral of the thought experiment? f. What does Nozick think about the though experiment? g. Put the following quotes into your own words and describe what they are  saying  Quote Translated Meaning/Description “Plugging into the machine is a kind of  suicide” pg 28 “What is most disturbing about them is  their living our lives for us” pg 29 “perhaps what we desire is to live (an  active verb) ourselves in contact with  reality” pg 29 6. Heathwood  a. What is Heathwood’s definition of Welfare? Is it subjective or objective? b. Describe the relationship between welfare and morality Copyright ©: Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 8 c. Describe the differences between the objective and subjective theories of  welfare  d. Define the desire theory of welfare e. List the qualifications of the desire theory of welfare that Heathwood offers f. Describe objections to a subjectivist theory of welfare g. Describe Heathwood’s response to the objections h. Put the following quotes into your own words and describe what they are  saying  Quote Translated Meaning/Description “our questions is rather the question of  what things make us better off in  themselves, independent of any other  changes that these things might cause in  our lives…what things are intrinsically  good for us rather than what things are  merely instrumentally good for us” pg 33 “human welfare consists in the  satisfaction of desire. Whenever what a  person want to be the case is in face the  case, this constitutes a benefit for the  person. Whenever a person’s desires are  frustrated, this constitutes a basic harm”  pg 37 7. Kazez  a. List the 5 necessities for the good life b. Is there a “sure­fire” way to determine necessities? c. How does Kazez suggest we determine necessities? d. Does it matter where happiness comes from? e. Put the following quotes into your own words and describe what they are  saying  Quote Translated Meaning/Description “we have to be prepared to say that some  views are just wrong. The idea that loss of autonomy is conducive to living the best  life is a view that has been superseded by  other ideas, and rightly so” pg 48 “ethical concern is something of a cure for  Copyright ©: Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 9 our sense of finitude. It gives you an  expanded life, one that encompasses not  just your own feelings but those of other  people” pg 51 8. Plato a. Define piety b. Define the Homeric conception of virtue c. Describe the socratic dialectic d. What does Plato believe is a definition of something? e. Define the divine command theory f. What definitions of piety does Euthyphro offer and how does Socrates  response to each of them? Definition of Piety Page # Socrates’ response prosecute the  58 wrongdoers is pious  and not prosecuting  wrongdoers is  impious What the Gods love is 59 pious and what they  hate is impious  What all the Gods  62 love is pious and  what all the Gods  hate is impious Copyright ©: Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 10   a. Put the following quotes into your own words and describe what they are  saying  Quote Translated Meaning/Description “Tell me then what this form itself is, so  that I may look upon it and, using it as a  model, say that any action of yours or  another’s that is of that kind is pious, and if it is not that it is not” pg 59 “Then the god­loved is not the same as  the pious, Euthyphro, nor the pious the  same as the god­loved, as you say it is,  but one differs from the other” pg 63


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