Test 1 Study Guide
Test 1 Study Guide HIST 2112
Popular in American History Since 1865
Popular in History
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2112 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Rohrer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 289 views. For similar materials see American History Since 1865 in History at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Term identification: who, what, where, when, why, & significance to major themes in history Complete 5/6, one paragraph each 1. 13th Amendment: Licoln; 1865; reconstruction amendment; abolished slavery in US and all places controlled by US; many attempted to go around this amendment by implementing private slavery because it was not under state rule 2. 14 th Amendment: 1868; granted citizenship to all born in US including slaves; raised an issue because many southern states refused to ratify this amendment 3. 15 th Amendment: 1870; allowed for all American men to vote including African Americans, not women; enact poll taxes and literacy tests to disallow African American men, and even poor men, from voting 4. Radical Republicans: Radical Republicans were led by Thaddeus Stevens, Benjamin Wade and Charles Sumner. They wanted more power to be given to congress rather than the president, advocating for suffrage and voting rights for African Americans and the heavy punishment of confederate leaders. These radical republicans believed that the South committed treason and they would try to rise again and did not want to give them power during the reconstruction period. They controlled congress in the post civil war period and had a great influence on reconstruction. “Get Tough” approach. 5. Reconstruction Fatigue: 1870’s; northerners were losing interest in African American civil rights years after the end of the civil war; they were more interested in immigration and labor issues – industrialization; Other issues included the economic depression, the decline in radical republicans, racial political issues, and problems that arose with industrialization such as strikes 6. Compromise of 1877: compromise was the result of an initially unresolved election of 1876 with republic Hayes and democrat Tilden; democrats and republicans hammered out a compromise to resolve the election impasse; democrats agreed to acknowledge Hayes as president in exchange for the republicans agreeing to 1. Withdraw federal soldiers from remaining position in the south from military districts and 2. Support federal legislation that would spur industrialization in the south 7. Freedmen’s Bureau: meant to help Southern whites and African Americans; introduce free labor in south with no slaves, over saw 3000 schools for freed people, contracts between white landowners and black laborers, justice for blacks in state courts, budget cut in 1869 ended it by 1872 8. Black Codes: instituted by south state legislature to go back to economic, social and political subordination of black; supremacy groups enforced these codes; 1860’s; could not serve on jury, could not vote, had to show annual labor contracts, no firearm without license, etc.; other segregating behaviors th 9. Sharecropping: dominated agriculture in deep south in later 1800’s through the 20 century; African American families, and poor white families, were allotted a small plot of land, worked on it without supervision, bought tools to harvest crops and sell; split profit with landowner but often did not make a profit after paying off loans for tools; legal contracts they often could not read 10. Homestead Act (1862): marks a time in history that the federal government plans an important role; provided any adult citizen the ability to claim 160 acres of government land; encourages movement; after 5 years of cultivating land, you owned it by paying a small fee; American dream; major diversity in the west; became self-sufficient and independent farmers 11. “Corporate West”: homesteaders needed tools and supplies, western business rose; hardware, lumber, general stores, wire, plows, clothes, hammers, etc.; store owners were often the only ones in the area and could charge high prices with high interest rates; saloons and whore houses; real estate speculation and mining 12. Exoduster: tens of thousands of African Americans moved to plains in the late 19 th century, thinking they were filling their biblical prophecy moving west; exodus year; but plains did not have good conditions for farming nor a good climate and many of them returned to the southern states; others learned how to farm and fertilize land 13. Carlisle School: “Kill the Indian, Save the Man”; late 1800’s, early 1900’s; located Native Americans and attempted to convert them to Christianity; discard and shed sociocultural identities; cultural genocide; cut hair, new clothes, gain new beliefs; learn English 14. Ghost Dances: hopeful means to appease spirits and regain land; wanted to bring back dead Indians and buffalo hers; disaster to all white people in West; their last act of resistance; end of wild west; lost all good land to whites 15. Frederick Jackson Turner: Harvard history professor, believed frontier was a defining concept of America because it celebrated individualism and masculinity, opportunity and democracy; physical spaces meant men were less likely to fight for resources; “The Turner Thesis”; early 189’s frontier had closed; how would American history continue? 16. Eli Whitney: inventor of the cotton gin in 1793; efficiently separates seed from cotton; jump starts first major industry: textiles; huge in the southern cotton belt; easily clean cotton, ship to north east, produce textile in factories, ship around the country 17. Bessemer Process: removes impurities from iron by oxidation by blowing air through the molten iron which removes gases and carbon; first relatively inexpensive method for mass production of liquefied iron to make steel; revolutionized steel manufacturing; low cost and high speed; steel is the building block of America – railroads, skyscrapers, bridges, navy ships 18. Monopoly: when a single company, or mostly one powerful company, runs the market for a specific product or service; concentrated wealth in robber barons and heads of large companies with low wages and terrible conditions for their workers; government turned a blind eye; laissez-faire style of government with no regulation of business 19. Robber Baron: criticized because of their treatment of employees; ruthless tactics with competition; highly ambitious and competitively savvy; Andrew Carnegie (steel), John Rockefeller (Oil), Cornelius Vanderbilt (railroads), James Duke (tobacco), William Clark (copper); monopolies; incredibly rich heads giving ridiculously low wages to their workers 20. Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific R.R.: Supreme Court decided a corporation was considered a person due to the 14 amendment; laissez-faire government; 1886; gave corporations the same rights as a person, disallowing government to regulate wages, conditions, hours, etc. 21. Push vs. Pull Factors (Immigration): PUSH – escape religious persecution, landless peasants hoping to get out of poverty, victims of overpopulation and famine; PULL – illusion of job opportunities, illusion of religious and political tolerance 22. Ellis Island: federal immigration station open from 1892 to 1954; immigrants were inspected to see if they were fit for entry (social, physical, mental, economic, moral); 98% were admitted; processed millions of 3 wave immigrants 23. Third Wave Immigration: immigration from 1880-1920; economy is growing after civil war with new jobs; we want to increase our population; economic opportunity in west; business opportunity in east; transportation was much cheaper and faster; many settled in urban areas meeting family and friends 24. Lower East Side (New York): majority of immigrants entered through Ellis Island and settled here; ethic neighborhoods where people came to live with their family and friends from their own countries; poor living conditions in tenement houses; had some cheap attractions 25. Jacob Riis: photographer and journalist – muckraker – wrote “How the Other Half Lives” representing the poor immigrants and their terrible living conditions; housing reform; show big business leaders who their workers are and how they live; published in early 20 century; first major publication with pictures 26. Tenement House: narrow, low rise apartments with no plumbing and poor ventilation; in 1900, 2/3 of NYC population lived here, mostly immigrants; single, overcrowded tenements; slept in shifts; disease, violence and poor sanitation 27. International Workers of the World: radical/extreme/liberal, anti federal group; founded in 1905 in Chicago; industrial union – all sorts of industries; skilled and unskilled workers; democratic union; communist/socialist advocate for distribution of wealth; “Wobblies”; protest singing, radicalism, violent, striking; support worker ownership of factories; fought for 40 hour week and sanitary reform; declined after WWI 28. Eugene V. Debs: boycott of train cars organized in summer of 1894; nation wide railway worker refused to travel on trains, striking against Pullman cars (where they controlled your personal and work life); government becomes involved and takes side of big business; arrested Ugene Debs – media attention – but stops boycott 29. Pullman Strike (1894): Pullman, Illinois; American railway union vs Pullman company and federal government; workers lived in company town – all stores, housing, and amenities are owned by company; no freedom from employer; monopoly; 1890’s – depression causes lower wages but rents remain the same 30. Patrons of Husbandry (The Grange): Want political change; goals were to regulate railroad rates, regulate grain houses for storage, create a farmer’s credit for loans, rural free delivery, direct election of senators, silver standard, women’s suffrage and prohibition; wide scale national, social, agricultural organization founded in 1867 for farmers when depression hit farms – products are cheap, shipping is expensive, interest rates are high; feel like they were losing political power to industrial business; dead by 1900 31. William Jennings Bryan: populist candidate in election of 1896; nominated by democratic and populist parties (most populist ideas); although he had a majority of electoral votes throughout the west, the population centers in the northeast voted republican 32. Populist Party: “populists” political view began with people in the Midwest who thought federal government should favor, promote, and protect people like them; one of the most successful 3 parties in US history; wanted: public ownership of railroads, direct election of senators, graduated income tax, no protective tariffs, sub-treasury system for low interest government loans, and free coinage of silver/silver standard 33. Social Darwinism: the theory that Charles Darwin suggested that only the most adaptable will be able to survive; few will be super successful/powerful/influential and huge bottom population who have “not evolved” as much as the elites; confining and unfair; rejected by progressives 34. Muckraker: type of progressive reformer wanting to bring conditions of society to everybody’s attention; Ida M Tarbell (History on Standard Oil), Upton Sinclair (The Jungle), Jacob Riis (How the Other Half Lives) 35. Upton Sinclair: American muckraker who wrote “The Jungle” exposing the Chicago meatpacking industry specifically for disgusting/unsanitary conditions; caused an uproar in society – 1904 Pure Food and Drug Act & Meat Inspection Act 36. Social Gospel: led by moderate/liberal protestant progressives to deal with rising problems of industrialization and immigration; laissez-faire capitalism is un-Christian; the laboring man became a disposable machine; relied on supply and demand to determine wages; big businesses have no heart, supported labor movement wanting an active federal government 37. Hull House: 1880’s first settlement house in Chicago brought up by Jane Adams in progressive network; large houses, mostly female, for people in poverty; live cooperatively sharing knowledge and culture; mostly in urban areas; few speak English; many were religious; day care, kindergarten, mother clubs, arts and crafts, music, drama, gymnasiums, auditoriums, dining facilities, meeting halls, classrooms, waste collection, parks, unions 38. Theodore Roosevelt: president from 1901-1909; Republican party – first modern president of the United States, being much more active than previous presidents; against laissez-faire government; trust-buster; later served as presidential candidate for progressive party; led conservationist movement which was the first step to the environmental movement 39. “Trust Busting”: progressive era (1890-1920); Teddy Roosevelt; this is the action of government and government officials to breakup monopolies and trusts (when a bunch of like companies meet to reduce competition and put prices around the same range – back room deal) 40. American Imperialism: policy of extending a countries power and influence through diplomacy or military force; influence but not legally binding authority; been a reality singe the beginning of time; movement in the late 1800’s, early 1900’s in America when we found out we no longer had a frontier or wild west; wanted to match up to other great industrial powers in the world 41. White Man’s Burden: want to exert masculinity but there is no longer a frontier to do so in the later 1800’s; by colonizing or imperializing other land, we can gain this masculinity back; many had never fought in a war; wanted to discover primitive frontier – American Imperialism 42. Spanish-Amer. & Philippine-Amer. War Essays: Complete 2/3 – 2 paragraphs each Ex. race relations, reconstruction, value of the West as a region of American development, industrialization, laissez-faire capitalism, class tensions, urbanization, third-wave immigration, unions as a means for working-class Americans to demand rights/reject current conditions, comparing populism and progressivism, etc.
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