Ento 2010 Exam 1 Study Guide
Ento 2010 Exam 1 Study Guide ENTO 2010
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Popular in Entomology
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 179 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Ento 2010 Exam 1 Study Guide Malaria is the most important insect vectored disease in the world. Entomology : study of insects Entomologist : one who studies insects Insect cells are very similar to human cells Kingdom-Animalia o Phylum-Arthropoda o Class-Insecta Phylum Arthropoda o Arthro=jointed o Poda=foot Exoskeleton made of chitin Body composed of segments Jointed appendages Open circulatory system Bilateral symmetry Sexual reproduction Class Chilopoda o Chilo=lip o Poda=foot o Centipedes o 3,000 species one pair of legs per segment predators: eat small arthropods live in soil and humus Class Diplopoda o Diplo=two o Poda=feet o Millipedes o 8,000 species two pairs of legs per body segment feed on decaying organic matter Class Crustacea o Crust=hard; shell-like o Lobsters, crabs, shrimp o 26,000 species branched appendages aquatic marine equivalent of insects Class Arachnida o Arachne=spider o 57,000 species no antennae two body segments terrestrial carnivorous Class Insecta o In=into o Sect=cut o 1,000,000 (named) species 3 body segments head, thorax, abdomen 6 legs most adults have wings 2 antennae breathe through openings in body terrestrial or aquatic only invertebrates that can fly … “we must have agricultural chemicals. Without them the world population will starve.” –Norman Borlaug (1970) Nobel Peace Prize Insect Enemies- “The majority of insects cause destruction.” DDT use in the 1940s & 1950s: o A new way to collect insects o Add DDT to gin----happiness o A miracle chemical o Led to an “Era of Optimism” o Farmers- “when the chemical came along…you had your crop.” Pesticide : a chemical used to kill pests Pesticide : a substance used to kill pests Insecticide : substance that kills insects DDT= chlorinated hydrocarbon o Othmar Zeidler Synthesized DDT in Germany PhD 1874 Paul Muller “discovered” DDT in 1938 1942: DDT was sent by Swiss to U.S. o secret army lab was set up in Orlando, Fl o tested DDT against lice (which spread typhus) st o U.S. army 1 used DDT in North Africa & Italy Frank Mayo o Atlanta chemist during World War Two o DDT production was a military secret o Process was published in Germany o Where could he find the publication? Athens Video: o New technology right after WWII: pesticides, plastics, fertilizers o DDT saved millions of lives in WWII First war where enemy killed more than disease (spread by lice) o Massive growth of chemical industry Silent Spring was dedicated to Albert Schweitzer : “Man has lost the capacity to foresee and forestall. He will end by destroying the Earth.” Entomologists: o Before 1950, were “figures of fun” o After 1950, worked for chemical companies o started to see “side effects” o evaluated “degrees of badness” o UGA & Velsicol made Goodbye Mrs. Ant o “without DDT, insects would inherit the Earth” Ethical issues for entomologists: o Should UGA entomologists work for chemical companies? May not get money if s/he gets “wrong” result o Can entomologists assess pesticide damage to the environment? Silent Spring by Rachel Carson o Bill of Rights should protect us o Powerful pesticide industry fought her o Government withheld information o Frequent cover-up of wildlife damage o Most insects controlled by other insects o “you can’t eradicate an insect with a chemical” o Dieldrin (pesticide more toxic than DDT) of fire ants in Georgia Everything had died: “no effect” o Toxic chemicals available in grocery stores Rachel Carson- lived during the Great Depression o 1932- Masters in Marine Biology at John’s Hopkins- age 25 o 1936- U.S. Bureau of Fisheries -age 29 was asked to be a writer o 1962- Silent Spring published o died of cancer Silent Spring o One of the most important books ever published o Impact due to Carson’s eloquence “Those who contemplate the beauty of the Earth find reserves of strength that will endure as long as life lasts,” –Rachel Carson 1964: Ruth Harrison wrote Animal Machines o foreword by Rachel Carson Silent Spring o Carson wrote with “emotionality” o Velsicol tried to stop publication o JFK & Udall became “aware” o Becomes best seller o Industry: “Silent Spring is full of errors” o Jukes: “No pesticide residues in food” Silent Spring sales soared o Within 1 year: pesticide bills introduced in 40 states o CBS TV interview o Opposition: Dr. Robert White-Stevens o What is “The Balance of Nature”? o U.S. Senate hearing “The modern scientist believes that man is steadily controlling nature.” – Robert White-Stevens “The balance of nature is built of a series of interrelationships between living things & between living things and their environment.” –Rachel Carson Victor Yannacone of the Environmental Defense Fund led fight against DDT use. o Hearings held in Wisconsin 1968-1969: If DDT is so bad, why doesn’t it make people sick? o Turning point: DDT is present in Human Breast Milk! DDT use was banned 1962: Silent Spring was published 1970: Environmental Protection Agency established 1972: DDT banned by EPA Silent Spring o Carson did not want to ban pesticides o Carson was a revolutionary o She made us aware of the environment DDT o Very cheap and very stable o Interferes with nervous system o Fat-soluble o Causes reduced calcium in bird eggs o Was banned in U.S. in 1972 o Production in U.S. continued for many years o Is still used in many parts of the world DDT Biomagnification o DDT is trapped in animal fat o As DDT travels up the Food Chain, the concentration increases Pesticides in U.S. o Farmers use 75% o Government and industry use 10% o Homeowners use 10% o Forestry uses 1% Pesticides: o Contaminate groundwater o Persist in deep soil because low oxygen and few bacteria o Most pesticides are untested for cancer o Cancer tests are for one pesticide, but most crops get several pesticides Pesticides and cancer o Farmers are at higher risk-especially migrant workers o Does long-term exposure cause cancer? o Most pesticides have not been tested for cancer o Synergistic (2 or more pesticides may act together to be worse than one pesticide) David Pimentel, Department of Entomology, Cornell University o How much does it cost to apply pesticides? o Each year $4 billion is spent in U.S. to apply pesticides o Increased yield from this expense= $16 billion Pimentel o Less than 0.1% of pesticides applied to crops reach target pest 1994: UGA student suffers from pesticide spraying in her dorm 1996: She works in Georgia legislature, and this leads to new state law: “state buildings must post notice when pesticides are sprayed” EPA & Pesticides o We must “trust” the Pesticide Industry o “Old chemicals” protected o Many old pesticides may cause cancer Migrant workers are often exposed to very high levels of pesticides Pesticide Treadmill o Insect becomes resistant to pesticide o Must apply greater amount of chemicals to kill pest insects o Then, apply more toxic pesticides Pesticides and Children o Pesticide levels are 5X too high o Developing bodies are more susceptible o Residue levels calculated for adults o Balance health vs. profit Income spent on food: o U.S spends less Victor Yannacone: “1 part per million is significant” Human sex hormones & pesticides o “Every man in this room is half the man his grandfather was” sperm count Some pesticides mimic human sex hormones! Human sex hormones and pesticides o 2010 Sperm count ½ 1950 o exposure to DDT in girls causes 5 fold increase in breast cancer Our Stolen Future o Theo Colborn 1996 o Danger of environmental estrogens o Man-made chemicals (including pesticides) in the environment mimic estrogen hormones o In the body, estrogen hormones interact with a receptor in a lock and key fashion o Man-made chemicals fit into receptor site and act like estrogen hormones Block estrogen hormone action and affect metabolism Florida: Lake Apopka o Major DDT spill in 1980 o Decline in number of alligators o 75% alligator eggs are dead o 25% of male alligators have small penises many male turtles are “intersex” Estrogens are added to shampoo and skin creams o Girls around the world are reaching puberty at an earlier age Is there a correlation? Breasts o A Natural-and-Unnatural History o Florence Williams 2012 DES=a synthetic estrogen o From 1940-1970, DES was given to 5 million pregnant women to reduce miscarriages o DES was given to girls who were “too tall”, had acne, and to stop flow of mother’s breast milk o DES given to chickens and cows to promote growth o 1971-women whose mother’s took DES are much more likely to develop vaginal cancer o DES effect takes place 20 years later! Thalidomide was given to pregnant women to combat morning sickness o In 1962, Thalidomide was shown to cause birth defects o Placenta does not protect fetus from chemicals o Thalidomide is now used to treat leprosy Captan is probably carcinogenic o Applied to Florida strawberries o Canada has set lower tolerance levels o Are U.S. tolerance levels safe? o Captan still provides economic benefits to growers Silent Spring o Chapter 17: The Other Road (Robert Frost) “road less traveled by”=use biological control, instead of chemical pesticides IPM=Integrated Pest Management o Know the pest o Judicious use of pesticides o Host plant resistance o Biological control Know the Pest o Life cycle of insect o How does the pest reproduce? o When is the pest a problem? o Which stage of the insect is the most susceptible? o Attack the pest when it is most vulnerable! Judicious use of pesticides o Apply pesticides when pest is present and vulnerable o Use of “scouts” or pheromone traps to monitor pest o Monitor environmental conditions o Use of Ultra Low Volume Sprayers Host plant resistance o Breeding programs o Introduction of resistance by crossing with “new” varieties Chemical Physical o Introduction of resistance by recombinant DNA technology “Designer genes” ex. Monsanto: B.t. Cotton o Will resistance be a problem? Leaves of “Wild” Insect-Resistant Potato Plants from South America have 2 kinds of hairs o Sticky hairs trap aphids o Hairs make “alarm pheromone” that deters aphids o Goal: breed these traits into domestic potato plants Split-screen video o B.t. gene was put into soybean o The caterpillar on the leaf with B.t. keeps moving and does not feed For the last 50 years, seed companies did not bother to have insect resistance in their crop varieties o Because they would recommend a chemical pesticide o Now they want Host Plant Resistance Most of our crop plants are not native to U.S. o Search for resistance in native country o Breed resistance traits into high-yield varieties Ethical issue: o Seed companies take genes from plants in third world countries o Produce insect-resistant plants o Should company share profits? Biological control o Sterilization o Beneficial insects o Bacteria that attacks insects Bacillus thuringiensis B.t. ) o Viruses that attack insects Sterilization o Pest insects: Rear in lab Sterilize Release Insects mate in field No progeny o Problem: Most insects are hard to rear in the lab Beneficial insects o Parasitoids o Parasitic wasps o Parasitic flies o Predators Preying mantids Dragonflies Paper wasps Spiders Parasitoid o Insect whose larvae consume their host Predator o An animal that kills and eats animals External parasitoid o Female wasp paralyzes caterpillar with venom Lays eggs on outside of caterpillar Larvae hatch and feed on caterpillar o Female wasp determines sex of her young Fertilized egg=female Unfertilized egg=male Internal parasitoid o Female adult wasp lays eggs inside of caterpillar Larvae hatch and eat caterpillar from the inside But don’t damage internal organs Larvae ooze out of host and spin cocoon Bacillus Thuringiensis B.t. o There are several varieties o Each variety is specific for one group of insect o Bacteria produce toxic protein, which kills insect o B.t. protein is not toxic to higher animals o Current use: gypsy moth in North Georgia B.t. o Must be eaten o Toxin destroys the insect’s stomach o B.t. is NOT slow acting o New strains are being sought Bacillus o B.t. attacks insects o Anthrax is also a Bacillus bacterium Viruses that attack insects: o Are very specific, only a few insect species are attacked by each type of virus o Have no effect on higher animals o Multiply in great quantities in host insect o Act too slowly o Pest insect lives for several days after eating virus UGA & American Cyanamid: o Mite toxin is insect specific o Insert gene for mite toxin into virus DNA o Pest insect dies very quickly o Virus still has narrow host range o No effect on humans or other animals o Also use toxins from scorpions and spiders Biological classification o Arrangement of living organisms into categories Taxonomy o Classifying organisms into categories Carolus Linnaeus o Swedish naturalist o 1753 o Linnaean binomial system o Genus Species Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: Diptera Family: Muscidae Genus: Musca Species: domestica Species o Organisms that closely resemble one another and can produce fertile offspring Scientific name=Genus species o Ex. Musca domestica o Common name: house fly 10 reasons why insects are so successful: o 1. Hard exoskeleton Positives: Provides protection Muscles attach to exoskeleton Limits water loss Negative: When insect grows, it must molt o 2. Jointed appendages On head=used for feeding On thorax=used for locomotion On abdomen=used for reproduction Allow for specialization o 3. Wings Escape from predators Find food Find a mate o 4. Small size Positives: Can hide/escape from predators Light enough to be blown by wind Negatives: Large surface to volume ratio Water evaporates quickly o 5. Metamorphosis Incomplete metamorphosis 13% of insect species Egg-Nymph-Adult Complete metamorphosis 87% of insect species Egg-Larva-Pupa-Adult Positive: Nymph/larva may occupy a different habitat than adult o 6. Escape from adverse conditions Migration Diapause: A period of arrested development In Fall, is triggered by short days Caterpillar increases weight 3000X Butterfly wings=great color diversity o Bright wings warn predators o May provide camouflage Random flight of butterfly protects it from predators o 7. Methods of reproduction Sexual Positive: o Provides genetic variation Parthenogenesis Reproduction without mating Positive: o No need to find a male o 8. Short generation time 2 advantages: increased genetic variation better utilization of limited food source o 9. Specialization in lifestyle Positive: Develop special skills Negative: If host decreases o 10. Solve the water problem Extract water from host sugar Limit water evaporation Cuticular lipids o Prevent dehydration o Sex recognition o Nestmate recognition o Host recognition Limit water excretion Nitrogen excretion Aquatic animals=ammonia Mammals=urea Most insects=uric acid Uric acid is: o Water insoluble o Non-toxic Insect walking o 6 legs are used as 2 alternate tripods Insect wings o Most adult insects have wings o Primitive insects: wings do not fold o Advanced insects: wings fold Easier to escape from predators Insect cuticle o Main component is Chitin Chitin=aminosugar polymer Insect circulatory system o Is an “open system” o Hemolymph=insect blood Distributes nutrients and hormones Hormone o Chemical signal that is: Formed in specialized cells Travels in body fluids Interacts with target cells Pheromone o Chemical produced by an animal that affects another animal of the same species Insect pheromone o Sex: find mate o Alarm: warn others of danger (bees, wasps) o Aggregation: attract others to food (bark beetles) o Trail: follow leader to find food (ants) Gypsy moth: o Female releases sex pheromone o Male detects pheromone with large antennae Follows plume of pheromone upwind If wind changes, turns around to find pheromone Can find a female 5 miles away Use pheromone as biological control o Pine shoot moth: Identify sex pheromone Produce artificial pheromone Saturate forest o Males can’t find females Insect chemical ecology o The relationship between a chemical, an insect, and the insect’s environment Thomas Eisner o Department of Entomology o Cornell University A black beetle is attacked by ants o Bombardier beetle is not attacked Sprays toxic chemical from abdomen Mouse kills beetle by forcing end of its abdomen into the soil Bombardier beetle o Chemical reaction takes place in the abdomen o Reaction produces: Quinones + Heat + Oxygen + Noise o Toxic spray can be aimed Bolas spider o Spider spins a silk strand with sticky ball on end o Throws ball at prey and then reels it in o Catches moth of only 1 species o All moths are male o Spider emits smell like the female moth sex pheromone o Male moth is attracted to spider and caught Use GC/MS to identify insect chemicals o Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry Many insects produce (or sequester) toxic chemicals for defense Aposematic : bright coloration warns potential predators of the chemical defense Monarch Butterfly o Larvae feed on milkweed o Sequester toxic alkaloids o Larvae and adults are aposematic o Protected from predators Video Caterpillar eats toxic plant o Caterpillar and adult moth are aposematic o Spider rejects toxic moth Accepts “lab moth” with no toxin o Birds learn to avoid aposematic moth o Spiders do not learn to avoid aposematic moth o Male moth gives toxin to female moth o Female moth selects most toxic male moth Eisner: “We should form a global alliance to protect the environment.” Ecology: the relationship between organisms and their environment Insect ecology : the relationship between insects and their environment Grizzly Bear Habitat o Montana o Bears and people compete for space have become a danger need to find “old” food sources now feed on a tiny moth Mutualism: relationship between 2 species that benefits both parties Symbiosis: intimate relationship between 2 species, usually involving coevolution Coevolution: occurrence of genetically determined traits in 2 species selected by the mutual interactions controlled by these traits Dan Janzen in Costa Rica: o Ants live in Acacia tree Mutualistic relationship Ants protect trees from leaf-eating insects Tree provides: Ants live in the thorns Eat sugar from glands at leaf base Eat Beltian bodies (rich in fat) from leaf tip o Other interactions on the ant-Acacia: Beetle protected with thick cuticle 2 wasp species protect each other (mutualism) bird nest; ants attack for awhile in trees with no wasps : monkey attacks bird nests o spreads plant seeds Environmental concerns: Threat to Monarch Butterflies Larvae fed milkweed with pollen from B.t.-corn die (lab study) Pollen may blow from B.t.-corn to nearby plants and cause death of monarch butterflies Field studies show pollen does not go far Mistletoe Butterfly: Lay eggs on mistletoe Larvae eat leaves Mistletoe is a parasite of eucalyptus Mistletoe birds feed on mistletoe berries Birds defecate seeds onto eucalyptus branch Mistletoe seeds germinate on eucalyptus Biodiversity: o Variation in living organisms o Humans have disproportionate impact on all other species o Species loss is greater than ever before o Deforestation=27 million acres/year o Research should use biodiversity to increase food production and yield new medicines E.O Wilson o Harvard University o 1992 o The Diversity of Life Named species of plants and animals: 1.82 million Bird species in New Guinea o Museum collection says 125 o Native say 124 o Bird species are distinct Ant species in New Guinea o Museum collection says 95 o Natives say 1 o An ant is an ant There is greater biodiversity in the tropics o From 1 tree in Peru: 43 species of ants o Equal to the number of all ant species in the United Kingdom Forest Canopy o Many of the unknown species of insects are in the forest canopy o Get into forest canopy with ropes, cranes, and walkways How many insect species are there? o Terry Erwin Smithsonian Institute Washington D.C. Estimate arthropod tropical biodiversity Look at 1 tree species in Panama Fog tree with pesticide Find 1,200 beetle species 163 are host-specific there are 50,000 tropical trees there are 8,000,000 beetles beetles=40% of arthropods o total=20,000,000 Ground-dwelling=10,000,000 Total tropical arthropods=30,000,000 There are between 10,000,000 and 30,000,000 insect species on Earth E.O. Wilson o Theory of Island Biogeography Deforestation creates “islands” How many species can exist in such “islands”? How big should a protected National Park be? Loss of biodiversity due to habitat destruction Species loss: o Dinosaur age=1 species every 1000 years o Today=1 species every day Food plants have lost biodiversity ! o 1970 corn blight in U.S. o $5 billion damage Order: Isoptera o Iso=equal o Ptera=wings o Common name=termites o Species=2,230 Termites: o Incomplete metamorphosis o Highly social o Caste system (social class) o Symbiosis with protozoa or fungi to degrade the cellulose in wood o Reproductives have wings o beneficial: recycle nutrients o Pest: destroy wood structures o Social insects have guests o Are related to cockroaches o Architecture is free form Adjusted to the environment o Use saliva as cement Termite castes: o Soldiers o Workers o King o Queen Termite mound: o Royal cell contains queen, king, and workers o Termites feed each other and exchange chemical messages o Eggs are taken to nursery where nymphs are reared o Termites use fungus garden to break down cellulose o Keep mound cool by water evaporation Termites have the largest colonies of all social insects Traits of social insects: o Reproductive division of labor o Cooperative care of young o Overlap in generations Termites: o Build and tend fungus gardens o Adults: only reproductives have wings Fly off, meet a mate, and break off wings Female and male start a new colony o Have many kinds of predators Termites follow trail pheromones: o Is present in ink of some pens Termites in Kenya: o Men own the termite mounds o Kenyans collect, process, and eat winged adults o Termites are 40% fat and 40% protein o Termes=the end Flashcards: https://quizlet.com/120711605/e nto-2010-exam-1-flash-cards/
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