Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide 23032
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jamie Higgins on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 23032 at Tulsa Community College taught by Dr. Bruce MacQueen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Humanities II in Arts and Humanities at Tulsa Community College.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Lecture 1 01.12.16 Course Introduction • Class Participation - Must have class discussions - However, if not comfortable: post on BlackBoard - Graded for class participation for discussion on BlackBoard - Attendance is mandatory ✴ ✴ Lectures are included in both midterm and final Missed class reflects upon class participation ✴ Readings are also included in midterm and final ★ Look at primary sources in readings • Term Paper Topic (Start thinking about topics now) - Your choice - Must be related to Humanities II - Check your topic with professor before starting - No min/max page count ✴ As long as you prove your thesis throughly, don't need to reach requested page count - Get topic and thesis statement by midterm time Concepts of Zeitgeist and genius loci Two main concepts addressed throughout course: • Zeitgeist : spirit of time : things as we know it are changing in the world - German - The “spirit” that is in the air when someone presents something that is completely different and breaks all of the rules • genius loci : spirit of the place : the feeling, the sensation of a place - Latin - The characteristics that come together to make a place, what it is: climate, history, geography, buildings, landmarks, religion, people, etc. Breakdown of Medieval Synthesis Part 1 • They held a holistic view on life • The church at the time was holding everyone together, hierarchy of power: God Pope Kings (Bishops) Lecture 1 01.12.16 • People are born into their own classes - People stayed in their own position because it was God’s Will • Lifespans were extremely short - Hygiene was terrible in Europe - Unlike the Romans who were very clean • Art andArchitecture was beautiful unlike the streets which were filled with human waste • No one would question the order because it was God’s Will ZEITGEIST: • Fall of Constantinople in 1453 - Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire’s capital - Ottoman Empire defeated it and ended the empire - Greek monks began to run away (mainly west) away from the Islamic Ottoman Empire, t✴king all of their scrolls with them. Left behind all their personal items They headed mainly towards Italy, where they had most trade contacts Lecture 2 01.14.16 What is History? • Facts about the past: - Dates, names of important people, wars, battles, treaties, laws, revolutions, etc. • Astory about the past: - In many European languages, “story” and “history” are the same word - Even in English the resemblance between the two words are not accidental ✴ “History” is derived from the Latin word “historia” ✴ “Story” is derives from theAnglo-Norman French word “estorie” • When we talk about, for example “the history of the United States,” are we talking about: - What actually happened in the past? - The knowledge we have assembled about what happened here in the past? The History of History Historians did not record facts before Herodotus, they • The first historian inAncient Greece aimed to create entertaining and - Herodotus good stories ✴ “History” in Greek means “inquiry” ✴ Known as the Father of History/Lies - His main innovations were: ✴ Writing in prose, not poetry ★ AKAit was not rhythmic ✴ Wrote about things that happened in living memory ★ Ex: Got information from actual veterans when he wrote about the Persain war • In ancient times, “history” was not a subject of study (science or discipline), but instead a way of writing, like a genre. - More like novels - Main purpose was to teach lessons, primarily about mistakes - Wrote about relating events from distant past that had been passed down through word of mouth for generations (especially myths) History “as it actually happened” • Agroup of German Historians in the period between the two world wars tried to write truly “scientific” history: just facts, not opinions or judgements, no bias - Their motto (borrowed from Leopold von Ranke) was “as it actually happened” ✴ In German : wie es eigentlich gewesen ist - Their goal was to mention all available facts Lecture 2 01.14.16 History and Memory • The problems involved with history are mainly involved with the problems with memory - Two aspects of memory: Facts (“semantic” memory) and stories (“episodic” memory) - Human memory is high selective, therefore we forget more than we remember ✴ 20-30 minutes after something happens the hippocampus flushed out the needed but collected information - Things we remember have been filtered - Emotions play a key role in determining memory, how its remembered and what meaning is attached to it ✴ Every memory you have is because it caused an emotional impact Identity Uses Episodic Memory • How do we know who we are? - Our names? But those are seldom unique - Our faces? Faces are often changing - Our bodies? By the end of seven years, all of the cells in your body have replaced - Fingerprints? Most people would not their recognize their own fingerprints if they saw it - DNA? Very scientific, but how many have actually gotten their genome analyzed? - Driver’s License? Birth certificates? Passwords? SSN? PINs? History, Memory, Identity • The best answer is memory - We know the stories, we know who we are. We know more or less where we came from, where we’re going, how we got where we are - Loss of memory leads to fundamental, usually terrible destructive, changes in personality • What is true of us as individuals is also true of us as societies (nations, communities, tribes, families, etc.) - History is a kind of collective memory for a society and determine its identity genius loci!!! Lecture 4 01.19.16 Human Identity • What makes humans human? - According to evolutionary theory, about 6 million years ago, humans and chimpanzees diverge from a common beginning - There are traces of larger members of the monkey family (Apes) that gradually changed into the creatures we now call “human beings” At what point in this process does the creature become “human”? • The mastery of fire, the making of tools (technology)? • The appearance of clothing? • The appearance of language? - How much of language is innate? • The appearance of religion? - Especially a belief in life after death aka, • The appearance of art? to produce and consume beautiful • The building of buildings? objects Creativity • The production of perceptible objects and their appreciation by others, apart from their usefulness, seems to be a characteristically human behavior - Even in nature, we seem to be able to derive pleasure from beauty in a way that animals apparently do not • The drawing of animals on the walls of caves would seem to be among the earliest examples • Both the ability and the desire to create such objects would seem to be a defining characteristic of the human Creativity and Survival • What defines “success” in nature? - The survival of species - The survival of individuals long enough to propagate (reproduce) • What does intelligence do four the species to help it survive? - Adaptability: when the environment changes, behavior changes - Planning: changes in the environment can be anticipated Lecture 4 01.19.16 • What does creativity do for the species to help it survive? - Assists in adaptability by allowing new behaviors to appear for new situations - But what about artistic creativity? Creativity and Culture • What makes it possible for some people to devote their time and energy to creating things? - An economic system that produces a surplus - Aperceived need for aesthetic experiences • What makes this happen? - Cities: centers of economic activity large enough to allow for specialization, a medium of trade (money), etc. - Churches: places and times when the people of a given doing one thing extremely well ✴ulture gather to experience the transcendent Religion and aesthetics go hand in hand Culture and Religion • Religious activity - Not inherently productive in the basic economic sense: i.e. it doesn't provide food, clothing, shelter - Yet it seems to be specifically human • Religious experience and aesthetic experience - Religion as a venue for the creation of beautiful objects - The feeling of transcendence: there is something out there more important than just food, clothing, and shelter Humanities 1 in a nutshell • Animism - That is, rather than identify and worship a god or gods as transcendent being that created the universe and now governs it, people felt the world to be populated by spirits • Polytheism - Many spirits reduced to a “central committee” of gods with particular powers over particular parts of life • Monotheism Many argue that Christianity is NOT monotheistic - Divinity isAll One because they worship the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit Lecture 4 01.19.16 The Medieval Synthesis (Look back at Lecture 1) • Life is centered on the manor (the Lord) or the monastery (theAbbott) - Self-sufficient, patriarchal units larger than a single family but small enough the everyone knows everyone and everyone has an allowed space • Feudalism - Everyone is born to a particular station in life and that is God’s Will - Society is pyramidal • The complication of the MedievalAges: there are two pyramids - ✴ne sacred It was possible to climb up this pyramid - One secular ✴ You were stuck in the class you were born in Lecture 4 01.21.16 MedievalArchitecture • Europe often goes back and forth with historic architecture - America DOES NOT • Cathedrals are designed to draw the eyes up and forward - Cathedrals: homer church of a bishop - Most medieval cathedrals have wall murals that often tell a story • Largest and most famous Gothic cathedral is in Milan, Italy Monks were the only ones who had time to be St. ThomasAquinas philosophers and scholars • Completes the synthesis of Greek philosophy (Plato and especiallyAristotle) with Christianity - Aristotle believed everything was cause -> effect -> cause and that God was the 1st cause • Very systematic First makes a statement and gives some reasons why it seems plausible, often quoting - scripture - Then presents counter arguments - Then answers the counter arguments - Then provides more complete proof of his original statement • Thomistic theology is still deeply imbedded in the doctrine of the Catholic Church - Mainstream Roman Catholic theology - Believed God was all powerful and untouchable, therefore Jesus was the middle man The 14th Century • The “High MiddleAges” - ThomasAquinas and scholastic philosophy (Anselm, Duns Scotus, Occam[Occam’s Razor]) - Giotto[used shading and depth] and other medieval painters - Gothic architecture - Chauncer, Canterbury Tales, Le Chanson de Roland and the chivalric romance (fairy tales) • On the other hand… - Plague (first major outbreak of the bubonic plague) and other natural disasters (many people actually believed it was the end of times because of all the natural disasters - First signs that the Medieval (Catholic) synthesis may be breaking down Lecture 4 01.21.16 Copernicus Galileo From Poland From Italy Both believed that the sun was the center and not the Earth Lived far from Rome Lived near the empire and got imprisoned Waited until his death bed to publish his claims Forced to take back his claim Official Start of Humanities 2 The 15th Century • Urbanization - About the same time, the feudal system of manors and the masteries begins to break down ✴ Some of this seems to be connected with the Crusades and the conflict with the Moors in Spain, when Europeans came in contact with more advanced civilizations (Muslims) - Cities begin to develop as trade expands ✴ Some people in cities manage to become very wealthy without having titles or owning land ★ Middle class has started to develop, with people being rich but not aristocrats • Political tensions associated with urbanization - Fundamental changes in the role of the king ✴ Sacred side was losing control over everyone to the secular side, the kings saying “we are the law of the land” - Tensions between wealthy merchants and bankers in the cities and old aristocracy • The beginnings of a religious revolt - Foreshadowed by St. Francis (could have been a “Martin Luther”) in the 13th century - The Hussites, Luddites, Jansenites, etc. were all violently suppressed Lecture 6 1.26.16 Intellectual Ferment • As the Ottoman Turks slowly but surely closed in on Constantinople (Istanbul); which fell in 1453 - Free monks began to flee to West, taking books with them - Trade routes to Venice and Genoa were already established • Thanks to these monks scholars in Western Europe recovered the knowledge of ancient Greek Unﬁnished Two Important Dates slide • January 2, 1492 - Grenada, the last Muslim stronghold in Spain falls to the Spanish • October 12, 1492 - Christopher Columbus (an Italian) lands in New World • These events are connected: - Especially in the history of Spain, which started its career as a world power - Also in history of Europe, which began to feel its economic and military power as a sign of God’s favor - Also in the history of the world, as Europeans began to expand their trade, followed by colonization What is the Renaissance? • Many people disliked the Renaissance because they didn’t enjoy how everything was changing and nothing was the same anymore • The “rebirth” of the Greco-Roman heritage (started in Italy) - Setting aside the Medieval synthesis but without rejecting Christianity - Rereading the classical authors differently: that is, not always through lens of Catholic Christianity - Re-learning Greek and reforming the wayLatin was taught and written ✴ Was much less complicated than the Latin used by Cicero ✴ Purifying Latin caused it to be less conversational and it became extremely difficult to use on a day-to-day basis ✴ Latin was a language of the church and it was once used on a daily basis in the monasteries for the monks who came from different countries and couldn’t understand each other in their mother tongues - ✴pplying classical principals in art, architecture, and music Created opera based on the rediscovered Greek tragedies Lecture 6 1.26.16 - Education aside the church (that is, it becomes possible to get an education without being a priest, monk, or nun) • The formation of nation states - When they began to draw maps with actual borders between the countries - Secular authority becomes more assertive but without outright rebellion! - France, England, Spain form strong monarchies; kings become more important than both bishops and nobles RenaissanceArchitecture • Rounded arches and triangular pediments instead of the pointed arches of the Gothic - Used Greek and Roman architecture as an inspiration • Emphases on harmony, symmetry, geometry • Medieval cathedrals have a “sky” ceiling • Byzantine cathedrals have ceiling mosaics, usually including the 12 apostles RenaissanceArt • Perspective - The “vanishing point” makes 2D object seem to have depth • Painting from models Renaissance Literature • Much still in Latin - But its much more “classical” Latin • The appearance of literature in the “vernacular” (that is, languages actually spoken) - Dante’s Inferno - Machiavelli’s II Principe - Cervantes’Don Quixote Lecture 7 1.28.16 • The reformation and the renaissanceARE NOT the same The Protestant Reformation • Aconsequence of: - The breakdown of the medieval synthesis (both cause and effect) - The intellectual ferment of the Renaissance (critical thinking: the meaning of the word protestant) - The “northward shift” of the center of gravity in Europe, away from Italy to France and Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands • Luther’s challenge to Rome - Was not the first to rebel, but was the first one not to be burned at the stake, his movement actually started something - Rejection of both Thomistic theology and traditional Catholicism - Radicalized by the harsh response of the Church (overreaction to a small dispute) - Almost immediately followed by splits within the Protestant Movement What were the problems? • The “institutional” church - Bishops and cardinals had started to become more like lords and the aristocrats; they were WEALTHY - The pope’s claim to be the successor of St. Peter - The Church’s involvement in “secular’matters especially politics and economics • The selling of indulgences (now banned) - The doctrine of Purgatory ✴ Place between heaven and hell where you go when you’re not forgiven for your sins and are required to work them off in purgatory before being allowed into heaven (as long as you don't commit any of the mortal sins) - The apple authority (based on scripture) to “bind” or “loose,” delegated to agents • Renaissance and Reformation - Dissatisfaction with Medieval reality - The urge to go back to the beginning and start over Lecture 7 1.28.16 Luther’s 95 Theses ~ Martin Luther (1453 - 1546) • The practice of posting “theses” on the church door, now understood as a mark of protest, was common practice at the time - October of 1517, Matin Luther, anAugustinian monk, was preparing to deliver some lectures in Wittenberg and the “95 Theses” were hiss “syllabus” • Only 4 of the 95 theses (none of which are now objectionable in modern Catholicism) raised some objections, as they challenged the ideas behind the selling of indulgences - Luther was asked to retract them, but refused — at first, very politely - Within 3 years, he had been excommunicated and was calling the Pope “theAnti-Christ” • Lutherism was embraced by some German princes, especially in northern Germany, at least partly for political reasons - German at this point was NOT all under one leader, but instead ruled by several different princes and lords Basic teachings of Martin Luther • Salvation by Faith - You can’t “earn” a place in Heaven • “Sola scriptura” = scripture alone - The only authentic source of Christian doctrine is the Bible (not tradition, not the bishops or the pope) • Rejection of sacerdotalism - All baptized Christians belong to a “holy priesthood” which is why Lutheran clergy are not (usually) called “priests,” but “pastors” (latin word for Shepard) • Translation of the Bible into German - Latin is no longer the “priestly” language - Translations are always inexact Lecture 7 2.2.16 The Reformation Explodes • Luther never wanted to be the “head” of the Church, disliked the name “Lutheran” (preferred “Evangelical”) • There were disputes within his movement almost from the beginning, especially concerning the doctrine of the Eucharist, which entailed different views of sacramentalism and the role of the clergy • Once the monolith of the Catholic Christianity had cracked (again), the cracking continued Calvin and Swingli : Protestantism in Geneva • Calvinism differs from lUtheranism is several basic respects - Salvation by faith is rejected in favor of salvation by predestination - Christ is only present in the Eucharist, believed it was only symbolic • Geneva came to be controlled and even basically governed by Calvin and Swingli in a way that Luther never even wanted - There is a direct line of transmission from Geneva to colonial Massachusetts (Puritans) Calvinism • Salvation by predestination - God has already selected those whom he intends to save - These are “the elect” who constitute the real Church of Christ on Earth - They can be recognized by their spiritual strength • Rejection of the episcopate - The apostolic authority died with the 12 apostles Jesus chose - Scripture gives authority for there to be “elders” (Greek presbytery) in every congregation, and these men overn the whole church • The Eucharist is a symbolic reenactment of the Last Supper, not a sacrament (Baptism is the only sacrament) The Reformation in England • Henry VIII asks for an annulment - His wife Catherine daughter of the King of Spain has had only one child a daughter Lecture 7 2.2.16 - She had been married to Henry’s older brotherArthur who died after 20 weeks of marriage (at age 15) before his father died (so he was never a king). This raised some technical questions about the validity of the marriage to Henry • When the Pope refuses, Henry breaks with Rome - The king became the head of the Church in England - All the monasteries in England and Wales were disbanded and their property was confiscated “High Church” and “Low Church” in England • Although Henry broke with Rome and confiscated the monasteries he was reluctant to change the theology of the Church of England (other than the primacy of the Pope) • They used English more in the Mass rather Latin came later (producing the Book of Common Prayer) • Henry abhorred Lutherism and did what he could to prevent it from coming to England • It was a groundswell of popular support for Protestantism, causing a division into “High Church” (Anglo-Catholic) and “Low Church” (More like Evangelical) • Calvinism took root in Scotland (Presbyterian Church) Where does Shakespeare fit in? • The reign of Elizabeth I (daughter of Henry VIII byAnne Boleyn) began in 1558 and ended in 1603 - Shakespeare lived from 1564 and 1616 “Elizabethan” England produced many great poets and dramatists besides Shakespeare : - Ben Johnson, Christopher Marlowe, and others • Elizabeth was followed by James I (who was already James VI of Scotland and was the “King James” of the KJV) who was followed by his son Charles I, who was overthrown in the English Civil War and be headed by the Puritans, led by Oliver Cromwell • The “Elizabethan” period is a window of power, prosperity, brilliance, preceded by the chaos of Henry VIII and followed by Civil War Lecture 7 2.2.16 The Zeitgeist and Genuis Loci of Elizabethan London • Reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603) - Conflict with Spain - Problem of succession - Simmering religions conflict • Concentration of geniuses - Shakespeare - Christopher Marlowe Ben Johnson - - Francis Bacon Lecture 8 2.4.16 Macbeth (Act 5, Scene 5, lines 17-28) “Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow, Creeps in this petty pace from day to day, To the last syllable of recorded time And all our yesterdays have lighted tools The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle! Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player That struts and frets his hour upon the stage And then is heard no more. It is a tale Told b y an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing.” The Bourbon Kings of France • Henri IV (1589-1610) Ended religious wars in France by conventing to Catholicism - • Louis XIII (1610-1643) - Left much of the decision-making to Cardinal Richelieu • Louis XIV (1643-1715) - The “Sun King” - Built the palace of Versailles - Best known quote : “L’etat c’est moi” which means “the state, that’s me” Absolutism • The king is the living embodiment of the state, ordained by God and thus ruling by “divine right” • Within the boundaries of his kingdom, his decisions cannot be challenged, even by the church • The power of the landed aristocracy cannot be allowed to limit the king’s authority in any way • At the same time, and by the same token, the king has the same responsibility for the state as a father has towards his family. - When Louis sad, “I am the state,” he was not bragging, he was complaining “I have no private life” Lecture 8 2.4.16 The Counter-Reformation • The Catholic reaction to the Protestant Reformation occurred in two different ways: - Arejection of Protestant theology and ecclesiology, with a reassertion of Catholic teaching - Reforms addressing the problems raised by Luther (ending selling of indulgences) • The Counter Reformation was implemented by: - The Catholic kings, especially the Kings of Spain and France (after Henri IV) - The Jesuit order, founded by a Spanish solider Ignatius Loyola, who experience a conversion after being wounded in battle ✴ ✴ Il Gesu - Home church of Jesuit in Rome Sant’Ignazio Church in Rome (completed 1650) Lecture 9 2.9.16 The Baroque • There is a “Protestant” Baroque (to the North) and a “Catholic” Baroque - Many of Rome’s churches belong to the Baroque period • Baroque art (painting and sculpture), architecture (churches, but not just churches, also they don’t want complete symmetry any more), and music seem to have some features in common: - Ornamentation: a delight in what is intricate, exceptional, literally and figuratively rich Sudden changes: not frequent, but not rare, either, such as arches that seem incomplete, - changes of musical key - “Redecorating” - gutting older churches and replacing the decoration with “modern” (i.e. Baroque) elements ATimeline for Gdansk • 985 (?) - City founded by Mieszko I, first king of Poland in the region known as Pomerania, on the Baltic coast • 999 - Inhabitants of “Gydolannyzc” converted to Christianty by St.Adalbert (“Wojciech” in Polish) • 1215-1271 - Gdansk is the capital of an autonomous Duchy of Pomerelia • 1308-1454 - Gdansk ruled by Tentonic Knights (renames “Danzig”) • 1454-1793 - Gdansk is again Polish • 1793-1919 - Gdansk (again “Danzig”) is part of the kingdom of Prussia, which after 1870 expands into modern Germany • 1919-1939 - Danzig/Gdansk is a “free city” jointly administered by Germany and Poland • 1945 - present - After WWII, German inhabitants are expelled and the city returns to Poland Absolutism in England • Elizabeth I was succeeded by the son of Mary, Queen of Scotland, whose name was James - He was already King James VI of Scotland and became James I of England. This created the “personal union” of England and Scotland. Lecture 9 2.9.16 • James I was succeeded by his son, Charles I, who was inspired by the ideology ofAbsolutism and the example of Louis XIV, and reigned from 1645 until his execution in 1649 - Was married to a Catholic, Henrietta Maria of France, sister of Louis XIV • Charles’behavior fully brought about the English Civil War (1642-1643), when the predominately, Calvinist “Low Church” faction (called “Roundheads” because they cut their hair quite short) defeated the High Church faction that supported Charles The Puritans • The Puritans were Calvinists: they believed in salvation by predestination, that they were the “elect” They were not Separatists: that is, they intended to stay in the Church of England but they - wanted to “purify” it al all traces of Catholicism (hence the name) - They were not Presbyterians: that is, they were not followers of John Knox, like the Scots. Relations with Scotland under Puritan Rule were difficult • The Puritans closed theaters and banned all public “amusements” - But Puritan poets often wrote love poetry that, thought “lame” by our standards, can be surprisingly intimate, even erotic “To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time” — Robert Herrick, Puritan Poet, 1648 John Donne (1572-1631) • Born to a Catholic family • Educated in Oxford • Wrote love poems and philosophical poetry • Served two terms in Parliament • Ordered by James I to become anAnglican priest • In 1624, suffered a serious illness from which he did not expect to recover, during which he wrote the Meditations Lecture 10 2.11.16 No notes, only a dissection of Meditations XVII
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