Chapter 3: Chemical Basis of Life (organic molecules)
Chapter 3: Chemical Basis of Life (organic molecules) 110
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Antonio Cannet on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 110 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Dr. Kreyeski in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Fund of Biology I in Biology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Ch. 3 An organic molecule is any molecule that contains _____. carbon macromolecules large, complex molecules Carbon has __ electrons in its outer shell, making it very versatile in bonding. 4 Carbon can form both ____ and ____ bonds. polar nonpolar functional groups >Groups of atoms with characteristic chemical features and properties Four main functional groups 1) Amino 2) Carboxyl 3) Hydroxyl 4) Phosphate Isomers >Two structures with an identical molecular formula but different structures and characteristics Structural isomers>Contain the same atoms but in different bonding relationships Stereoisomers Identical bonding relationships, but the spatial positioning of the atoms differs in the two isomers Geometric isomers Positioning around double bond Enantiomers >Mirror image of another molecule Monomers>single unit building blocks of larger molecules Dehydration/ Condensation Reaction > A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule. Hydrolysis> A chemical process that splits a molecule by adding water. Four major types of organic molecules and macromolecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Protein 4. Nucleic acids macromolecule> A polymer with a high molecular mass. Within organisms there are four main groups: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. carbohydrates—>composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Cn(H2O)n. 2 main functional groups associated with carbohydrates 1) hydrogen (H+) 2) hydroxyl (OH) Monosaccharides> the simplest of the sugars made up of 5 or 6 carbons Hydrolysis reaction = ________ in reverse.hydration reaction Disaccharides Ex: sucrose (=glucose +fructoce); maltose (=gluecose+glucose); lactose (=glucose+galactose) joined together by dehydration or condensation reaction that form glycosidic bonds broken apart by hydrolysis reactions Polysaccharides>Many monosaccharides linked together to form long polymers Ex: Energy storage starch, glycogen Structural role cellulose, chitin, glycosaminoglycans functions to store energy also provides structure ***READ*** Lipids>composed predominantly of hydrogen and carbon atoms nonpolar; very insoluble in water insoluble in water= hydrophobic Triglycerides>fats that function in energy storage, cushioning, and insulation made up of glycerol + 3 fatty acids joined by dehydration (condensation) reaction ester bond forms **READ** broken apart by hydrolysis reaction Are fats very water solluble? no 2 types of fatty acids 1) saturated fatty acids 2) unsaturated fatty acids Saturated Fatty Acids>All carbons are linked by single covalent bonds solid at room temperature typically from animals Unsaturated fatty Acids>Contain one or more double bonds 1 double bond monounsaturated 2 or more polyunsaturated liquid at room temperature usually oils and from plants Monounsaturated fatonly one double bond Polyunsaturated fatmore than one double bond Phospholipids amphipathic molecules ***READ*** Peptide Bond>The chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid Polypeptide> When multiple amino acids are joined by peptide bonds Amphipathic Molecule >a molecule with both polar (hydrophilic) and nonpolar (hydrophobic) regions. (head) Phosphate region> polar, hydrophilic (tail) Fatty acid chains> non polar, hydrophobic Steroids>Made up of four interconnected rings of carbon atoms Usually not very water soluble cholesterol hormones (estrogen and testostorone) hormones are derivatives of steroids ***READ*** Proteins> Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and small amounts of other elements, notably sulfur Amino acids are the monomers ( 20 amino acids) Joined by dehydration or condensation reaction peptide bond forms polypeptides proteins are made up of 1 or more polypeptides Broken apart by hydrolysis ***READ*** The amino acid sequence determines the _________ which is very important! folding pattern ***READ*** 4 Levels of Protein Structure 1) Primary 2) Secondary 3) Tertiary 4) Quaternary Primary Structure of Protein>The linear sequence of amino acids forms polypeptides primary structure is determined by genes Secondary Structure of Protein> Certain sequence of amino acids form hydrogen bonds that cause the region to fold into a spiral (be flexible) chemical and physical interactions between R groups causing folding Alpha helices Beta pleated sheet Protein structure is formed by folding and twisting of amino acid chain ***READ*** Tertiary Structure of Protein>Secondary structures and random coiled regions fold into 3 dimensional shape Takes on a 3D structure This is sometimes the final level (if proteins only have one polypeptide) Held in place by disulfide bonds, which are a type of covalent bond Quantinary Structure of Protein>Two or more polypeptides may bind to each other to form a functional protein Protein subunits Multimeric proteins: meaning multiple parts (ex: hemoglobin) ***READ*** Nucleic Acids>Responsible for the stroage, expression, and transmission of genetic information 2 types of Nucleic Acids 1) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 2) Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)>Store genetic information coded in the sequence of their monomer building blocks Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)>Involved in decoding this information into instructions for linking together a specific sequence of amino acids to form a polypeptide chain Nucleotides>Linear sequences of repeating monomers made up of: 1. Phosphate group 2. Pentose (a fivecarbon) sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose) 3. A single or double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms known as a base Sugar Phosphate Backbone covalent bonds form between sugars and phosphates held together by a phosphoester bond ***READ*** DNA vs RNA DNA sugar = deoxyribose nucleotides = adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine 2 strands= double helix 1 type of DNA RNA sugar = ribose nucleotides = adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine Single strand several types: MRNA, TRNA, RRNA
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