Study Guide 4
Study Guide 4 PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna Alvarado on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Whelburg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Exam 4 – General Psychology - Wehlburg Personality An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristics behavior The idiographic view assumes that each person has a unique psychological structure and that some traits are possessed by only one person The nomothetic view, on the other hand, emphasizes comparability among individuals. This viewpoint sees traits as having the same psychological meaning in everyone. Free Association say whatever came to their minds (free association) in order to tap the unconscious Freud believed we had a reservoir (unconscious mind) of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories Freud Freud’s clinical experience led him to develop the first comprehensive theory of personality, which included the unconscious mind, psychosexual stages, and defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms: o 1. Repression banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. o 2. Regression leads an individual faced with anxiety to retreat to a more infantile psychosexual stage. o 3. Reaction Formation causes the ego to unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites. People may express feelings of purity when they may be suffering anxiety from unconscious feelings about sex. o 4. Projection leads people to disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. o 5. Rationalization offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions. o 6. Displacement shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, redirecting anger toward a safer outlet. Unconscious Hidden thoughts and feelings Freud believed we needed to release them in order to discover the root of issues Id, ego, superego Id unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, operating on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification (little kid) The ego functions as the “executive” and mediates the demands of the id and superego (adult) The superego provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations (medium) Oedipus Complex/Electra Complex A boy’s sexual desire for his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father is Oedipus A girl’s desire for her father is called the Electra complex The little boy then sets out to resolve this problem by imitating, copying and joining in masculine dad-type behaviors. This is called identification, and is how the three-to-five year old boy resolves his Oedipus complex. Identification means internally adopting the values, attitudes and behaviors of another person. The girl resolves this by repressing her desire for her father and substituting the wish for a penis with the wish for a baby. The girl blames her mother for her 'castrated state' and this creates great tension. The girl then represses her feelings (to remove the tension) and identifies with the mother to take on the female gender role. Repression Freud's psychoanalytic theory rests on the repression of painful experiences into the unconscious mind. employed by the ego to keep disturbing or threatening thoughts from becoming conscious Carl Jung Jung believed in the collective unconscious, which contained a common reservoir of images derived from our species’ past. This is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother being a symbol of nurturance. Projection psychological instrument (projective tests) that would reveal the hidden unconscious mind For instance, you might hate someone, but your superego tells you that such hatred is unacceptable. You can 'solve' the problem by believing that they hate you. This involves individuals attributing their own thoughts, feeling and motives to another person. Reaction formation when a person feels an urge to do or say something and then actually does or says something that is effectively the opposite of what they really want. It also appears as a defense against a feared social punishment. If I fear that I will be criticized for something, I very visibly act in a way that shows I am personally a long way from the feared position. By using the reaction formation the id is satisfied while keeping the ego in ignorance of the true motives Displacement Displacement is the redirection of an impulse (usually aggression) onto a powerless substitute target Someone who is frustrated by his or her superiors may go home and kick the dog, beat up a family member, or engage in cross-burnings. Regression This is a movement back in psychological time when one is faced with stress. When we are troubled or frightened, our behaviors often become more childish or primitive Sucking thumb Maslow Maslow proposed that we as individuals are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. Beginning with physiological needs, we try to reach the state of self- actualization—fulfilling our potential. Self-actualization Fulfilling potential self-actualizing individuals are able to resolve dichotomies such as that reflected in the ultimate contrary of free-will and determinism. He also contends that self-actualizers are highly creative, psychologically robust individuals Carl Rogers Carl Rogers also believed in an individual's self-actualization tendencies. He said that Unconditional Positive Regard is an attitude of acceptance of others despite their failings. unconditional positive regard means accepting and respecting others as they are without judgment or evaluation What it means is that you respect the person as a human being with agency to choose how to respond to their situation and that no matter how dangerous or dysfunctional they seem to be they are doing their best MMPI The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. It was originally developed to identify emotional disorders. The MMPI was developed by empirically testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminated between diagnostic groups. Measured in scales; 65< is clinically significant Spotlight Effect The "Spotlight Effect" refers to the tendency to think that more people notice something about you than they do They then had them estimate how many people in the class they thought had noticed. They greatly overestimated Basically, it is the result of egocentrism. We all are the center of our own universes. This is not to say we are arrogant, or value ourselves more than others, but rather, that our entire existence is from our own experiences and perspective Internal and External Locus of Control Internal: the perception that we can control our own fate External: the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate Unconditional Positive Regard unconditional positive regard means accepting and respecting others as they are without judgment or evaluation Psychological Disorders – historical understanding (demon possession, etc.) Attempts to treat mental illness date back as early as 5000 BCE as evidenced by the discovery of trephined skulls in regions that were home to ancient world cultures (Porter 10). Early man widely believed that mental illness was the result of supernatural phenomena such as spiritual or demonic possession, sorcery, the evil eye, or an angry deity and so responded with equally mystical, and sometimes brutal, treatments. Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) from France, insisted that madness was not due to demonic possession, but an ailment of the mind. Projective tests Developed by Henry Murray, the TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes The most widely used projective test uses a set of 10 inkblots and was designed by Hermann Rorschach. It seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots. When evaluating the same patient, even trained raters come up with different interpretations (reliability). Projective tests may misdiagnose a normal individual as pathological (validity). Fixation when a person is "stuck" in one stage of psychosexual development a person does not get through the oral stage of development properly, then Freud would say that the person is fixated in the oral stage and will continue to seek oral pleasures, and will not be able to progress to the next stage Fixation refers to a persistent focus of the id’s pleasure-seeking energies on an earlier stage of psychosexual development. Individuals with an oral fixation may have problems with drinking, smoking, eating or nail biting. Bipolar Disorder Formerly called manic-depressive disorder. An alternation between depression and mania signals bipolar disorder. Panic Attack Panic disorder is characterized by uncontrollable episodes of fear and its physical manifestations, such as heart palpitations, sweating, and dizziness. Physical symptoms involve increased heart rate, trembling, and adrenaline rushes. Often these people seem to feel that they are going to lose control of themselves. These attacks generally are not attached to a specific event or object but instead seem to come from nowhere. Freud suggested that we repress our painful and intolerable ideas, feelings, and thoughts, resulting in anxiety. Phobia Marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that disrupts behavior. In some cases, these symptoms can escalate into a full-scale anxiety attack. In exposure treatments, the patient is exposed to the fear object in order to help them overcome their fear. counter-conditioning. In this method, the patient is taught a new response to the fear object. Generalized Anxiety Disorder Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by persistent, excessive, and unrealistic worry about everyday things People with the disorder, which is also referred to as GAD, experience excessive anxiety and worry, often expecting the worst even when there is no apparent reason for concern. Generalized anxiety, panic attacks, and even OCD are linked with brain circuits like the anterior cingulate cortex Obsessions Persistence of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions) that cause distress. Repetitive thoughts (concerns) Dissociative Disorder and DID A disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities, formerly called multiple personality disorder. Critics argue that the diagnosis of DID increased in the late 20th century. DID has not been found in other countries. Role playing, learned responses that reduce anxiety Dissociative disorder PTSD Four or more weeks of the following symptoms constitute post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, sleep problems can occur following the experience or witnessing of a life-threatening events such as military combat, natural disasters, terrorist incidents, serious accidents, or physical or sexual assault in adult or childhood. Anxiety disorder Major Depressive Disorder Emotional disorder Major depressive disorder occurs when signs of depression last two weeks or more and are not caused by drugs or medical conditions. Lethargy, lack of interest in things Antisocial Personality Disorder A disorder in which the person (usually men) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. Formerly, this person was called a sociopath or psychopath. Agoraphobia Phobia of open places Mania Hyperactive, desire for action, euphoria Schizophrenia The literal translation is “split mind” which refers to a split from reality. A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perception, and inappropriate emotions/actions Dopamine overactivity Positive and Negative symptoms of Schizophrenia Positive: the presence of inappropriate behavior such as delusional talking and hallucinations Negative: the absence of appropriate behavior (rigid, expressionless) Distorted belied (I am Mary Poppins) = delusions Things that are not there = hallucinations, voices Flat affect is not showing any emotion rather than inappropriate (laughing at death) Acute vs. Chronic Schizophrenia Chronic/process: slow to develop, display negative symptoms, recovery is doubtful Acute/reactive: rapidly develops, recovery is better, show positive symptoms Catatonia Catatonia is a disturbance of motor behavior that can have either a psychological or neurological cause. Its most well-known form involves a rigid, immobile position that is held by a person for a considerable length of time— often days, weeks, or longer. They may stay in the same position for hours, days, weeks, or longer. The position they assume may be unusual and appear uncomfortable to the observer. If another person moves part of the catatonic individual's body, such as a limb, he or she may maintain the position into which they are placed, a condition known as "waxy flexibility." Psychodynamic Therapies Influenced by Freud, in a face-to-face setting, psychodynamic therapists understand symptoms and themes across important relationships in a patient’s life. Interpersonal psychotherapy, a variation of psychodynamic therapy, is effective in treating depression. It focuses on symptom relief here and now, not an overall personality change. reveal the unconscious content of a client's psyche in an effort to alleviate psychic tension Behavior Therapies Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors. To treat phobias or sexual disorders, behavior therapists do not investigate deeply below the surface looking for inner causes focused on helping an individual understand how changing their behavior can lead to changes in how they are feeling. Biomedical Therapies uses drugs or other procedures that act on the patient’s nervous system, treating his or her psychological disorders. Drug Therapies, Brain Stimulation, Psychosurgery Eclectic approach to therapy uses various forms of healing techniques depending upon the client’s unique problems Psychoanalysis first developed by Freud; aims at bringing repressed feelings into conscious awareness free association: unravel the unconscious mind and its conflicts (couch) Resistance editing thoughts, resisting expression of emotions Resistance is at the core of psychotherapy. It determines the course of treatment and is largely why psychotherapy can take so long. resistance is what we do to protect ourselves from awareness of that which we fear will overwhelm us. It does not happen consciously. Transference reveals innermost thoughts and develops positive or negative feelings (love vs. hostility) Transference is a phenomenon where patients undergoing clinical therapy begin to transfer their feelings of a particular person in their lives to the therapist. Humanistic approach to therapy Humanistic therapists aim to boost self-fulfillment by helping people grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance. Carl Rogers, Client-Centered Therapy; The therapist listens to the needs of the patient in an accepting and non-judgmental way, addressing problems in a productive way and building his or her self-esteem. The therapist engages in active listening and echoes, restates, and clarifies the patient’s thinking, acknowledging expressed feelings. Active Listening Active listening is a particular form of listening and is communication technique used in counselling, training and conflict resolution, which requires the listener to feed back what they hear to the speaker, by way of re-stating or paraphrasing what they have heard in their own words, to confirm what they have heard and moreover, to confirm the understanding of both parties. Carl Rogers' person-centered-therapy; demonstrates empathy and creates trust Systematic Desensitization Associates pleasant, relaxed state with anxiety-triggering stimuli Used to treat phobias This therapy aims to remove the fear response of a phobia, and substitute a relaxation response to the conditional stimulus gradually using counter conditioning. Introduces relaxation techniques. Token Economy A token is earned for exhibiting a desired behavior; reinforcers; behavioral Counterconditioning Conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behavior if Watson attempted to "uncondition" the fear response to the rats, he would be engaging in counterconditioning - attempting to replace the unpleasant response (fear) to the rats with a more pleasant response (happiness). Aversive Conditioning Type of counterconditioning that associates an unwanted state with an unwanted behavior Ex. Alcohol and nausea Aversive Conditioning is the use of something unpleasant, or a punishment, to stop an unwanted behavior. If a dog is learning to walk on a leash alongside his owner, an undesired behavior would be when the dog pulls on the leash. Cognitive Therapies Teaches people adaptive ways of thinking in order to control emotional reactions CBT aims to help people become aware of when they make negative interpretations, and of behavioral patterns which reinforce the distorted thinking. Cognitive therapy helps people to develop alternative ways of thinking and behaving which aims to reduce their psychological distress. Aaron Beck suggests that depressed patients believe that they can never be happy (thinking) and thus associate minor failings (e.g. failing a test [event]) in life as major causes for their depression. believes that cognitions such as “I can never be happy” need to change in order for depressed patients to recover. This change is brought about by gently questioning patients. Psychiatrist They are physicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders. Not all psychiatrists have extensive training in psychotherapy, but as MDs they can prescribe medications. ECT Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) ECT is used for severely depressed patients who do not respond to drugs. The patient is anesthetized and given a muscle relaxant. Patients usually get a 100 volt shock that relieves them of depression. In rTMS, a pulsating magnetic coil is placed over prefrontal regions of the brain to treat depression with minimal side effects (alternative) Psychosurgery Psychosurgery was popular even in Neolithic times. Although used sparingly today, about 200 such operations do take place in the US alone. Psychosurgery is used as a last resort in alleviating psychological disturbances. Psychosurgery is irreversible. Removal of brain tissue changes the mind. Attribution Theory Fritz Heider (1958) suggested that we have a tendency to give causal explanations for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors of others leads to the fundamental attribution error. Shy to extroverted; I assume you have not done much today because you are lazy, rather than perhaps tired or lack the right resources. We then tend to explain behavior in terms of internal disposition, such as personality traits, abilities, motives, etc. as opposed to external situational factors. Foot-in-the-door phenomenon The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request Zimbardo’s Prison Study Zimbardo (1972) assigned the roles of guards and prisoners to random students and found that guards and prisoners developed role- appropriate attitudes. Guards became more hostile while prisoners became meek Actions can affect attitudes Social Loafing the tendency of individuals to put forth less effort when they are part of a group Because all members of the group are pooling their effort to achieve a common goal, each member of the group contributes less than they would if they were individually responsible Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive dissonance refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors. This produces a feeling of discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance etc. when our attitudes and actions are opposed, we experience tension. This is called cognitive dissonance. This is why attitudes agree with actions Prejudice “prejudgment,” a prejudice is an unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice is often directed towards different cultural, ethnic, or gender groups. More unconscious; due to social inequalities, division, and emotional scapegoating Stanley Milgram’s Experiment The teacher is told to administer an electric shock every time the learner makes a mistake, increasing the level of shock each time. There were 30 switches on the shock generator marked from 15 volts (slight shock) to 450 (danger – severe shock). 65% (two-thirds) of participants (i.e. teachers) continued to the highest level of 450 volts. All the participants continued to 300 volts. Ordinary people are likely to follow orders given by an authority figure, even to the extent of killing an innocent human being. Obedience to authority is ingrained in us all from the way we are brought up. People tend to obey orders from other people if they recognize their authority as morally right and / or legally based. This response to legitimate authority is learned in a variety of situations, for example in the family, school and workplace. *no responsibility Ingroup Bias People with whom one shares a common identity vs outgroup (different) Social-responsibility norm a social standard that says we will help people in need. an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them. Is helping up to me? Diffusion of responsibility: general "somebody help" nobody will call for help; must say "YOU" Group Polarization Group Polarization enhances a group’s prevailing attitudes through a discussion. If a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions and attitudes. Opinions become more extreme Before the group decision making occurs, most individuals approach the process feeling that their opinions are better than the other members. someone you disagree with, by the end you are further into your own side because you are not going to change your mind Similar thoughts = strengthen viewpoint; everyone is in agreement Group Think A mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision- making group overrides the realistic appraisal of alternatives. when a group makes faulty decisions because group pressures lead to a deterioration of “mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment” watergate, pearl harbor, Cuban missile crisis no matter what, you agree; you actually convince yourself that that is true Social Facilitation This observation was the basis for social facilitation, which states that people perform certain tasks better when they are in the presence of other people. This is true for simple tasks, tasks people are good at already, or already learned tasks, but not for difficult or novel tasks. Social facilitation is the idea that you will likely do better on a simple task when other people are watching you. However, you would tend to do less well on complex tasks where you were being watched or evaluated. (do better with others) Ex. Race, people watching, competing, photographer, against the clock
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