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exam 3 study guide

by: Alyssa Sullivan

exam 3 study guide Sociology 201

Alyssa Sullivan
GPA 3.0

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exam 3
Intro to Sociology
Jennifer Triplett
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Sullivan on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 201 at Clemson University taught by Jennifer Triplett in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
Review Sheet  o Prostitution­ selling of sexual services SOC 2100 ­ Introduction to Sociology o Rape/Date Rape Section 08  Exam #3 Chapter 9:  Deviance and Crime  Difference between deviance vs. crime  It is recommended that you study Quiz 3  as well as read the chapters and  Deviance­ recognized violation of cultural  norms supplemental readings the exam will  Crime­ violation of society’s formally enacted  cover. criminal law rd  The 3  Exam will cover chapters 8­10, 13,  What is social control­ attempts by society to  14, and 18. regulate people’s thoughts & behavior  The test will consist of the following:    what is its purpose­  Matching, Multiple Choice, and   Is deviance biological, sociological, or  True/False. psychological? ­A little bit of all of those. (bio­ genetic  disposition towards deviant behavior, psych­  You should know the following things from each  personality patterns have some connection to  of the lectures: deviance, soc­ deviance is socially defined ^  varies from culture to culture/can be learned)  Stigma­ powerfully negative label that greatly  Chapter 8:  Sexuality and Society changes a person’s self­concept & social identity  Definition sex­ biological distinction bw females problems with stigmatizing­ operates as master  & males status, based on behavior, can remain after  Gender­ element of culture & refers to personal  behavior has disappeared traits & patterns of behavior.  Durkheim’s perspective on deviance  What aspect of sexuality does not vary  ­It is NECESSARY in society, affirms cultural  culturally? Incest taboo (norm forbidding sexual values & norms & clarifies moral boundaries,  ect. relations/marriage bw relatives)   How has sexuality in American culture changed   Labeling Theory­ idea that deviance &  over time? Sexual Revolution, Sexual  conformity result not so much from what people  Counterrevolution, Premarital Sex,  do as from how others respond to those actions.  What is primary deviation­ individual violates   Definitions of: sexual orientation­ a person’s romantic &  a norm but doesn’t internalize the deviant label emotional attraction to another person secondary deviance­ internalization of a deviant Heterosexuality­ being attracted to the same sex label & assumption of a deviant role  Homosexuality­ being attracted to the opposite   What is White Collar Crime­ crime committed  sex  by people of high social position in the course of Homophobia­ discomfort over close personal  their occupations o what characteristics do those who  interaction w/ people thought to be gay, lesbo, bi  Biological versus cultural origins of  commit it tend to possess:  homosexuality  How does the US compare to the world with  ­no studies found link bw social/environmental  regards to crime? ­Rated high crime rate by global standards,  & homosexuality  Know basic facts and definitions concerning   What are the justifications for punishment? sexual problems in the United States 1. Retribution­ society’s revenge for moral  o Teen Pregnancy wrong 2. Deterrence­ pain of punishment greater than  o Pornography­ sexually explicit material  intended to cause sexual arousal pleasure of the crime 3. Rehabilitation­ reform the offender instead   Half the world lives on less than how much $ per of just punishing, crime result of  day?  social/personal problems  How many people die each year globally from  4. Societal Protection­ keep people off streets  hunger related diseases? 40 million if reformation is impossible  How much of the world’s population do the  richest countries in the world have? 15%  What tends to happen to fertility levels as  countries get richer? DECREASE  What is the relationship between gender and  Chapter 10:  Social and Global Stratification stratification globally? Women feel poverty   What is Social Stratification­ system by which  more,  society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy   What aspects of health and well­being are  What are some common stratification system? affected by global stratification?  What are the differences between  class system­ social stratification based on birth  Chapter 13:  Gender Stratification & individual achievement   Definitions:   caste system­ social stratification based on birth Gender­ personal traits & social positions that   What is Cultural Capital (long lasting  members of society attach to being female/male dispositions of the mind & body) who coined the Gender Stratification­ unequal distribution of  term (Bourdieu) and how does it impact  wealth, power & privilege bw men & women  stratification? The more CC one has, the more  legitimacy one holds among those in culture  What a Gender Role (attitudes/activities that a  society links to each sex) is and which gender is   What is Socioeconomic Status­ composite  punished more for breaches of them (more boys  ranking based on various dimensions of social  than girls) inequality  What Patriarchy (form of social organization  ­what are it’s components: income, wealth,  which males dominate females) means and what  power, prestige. is a Matriarchy? (social organization which   How is the federal poverty line calculated?  females dominate males)  Some examples? ­based on what is considered to be the min   What is sexism­ Belief that one sex is innately  amount of $ required for living @ substantial  superior to the other level.  Areas of social life where sexism is found    What is the difference between  (family, religion, education, etc.) absolute (poverty exists when there is  ­classroom/curriculum deprivation of resources that is life­threatening)  institutional sexism­ women concentrated in  and relative poverty (poverty exists when  low paying jobs people can afford basic necessities but unable to   Pink Collar Occupations­ about 75% are filled  maintain an avg standard of living) by women (what are they?)  How do regions of the United States compare  regarding median income? ­Clerical work: secretaries, typists, childcare..  Glass Ceiling­ advancement of qualified person   What % of Americans are living in some state of is stopped @ a lower level bc of some form of  poverty? discrimination  What is the association between race and income Sexual Harassment­ comments, gestures,  in the US? physical contacts of sexual nature that are   What is Global Stratification­ patterns of social deliberate/repeated/unwelcome (what are they?) inequality in the world as a whole)  Numerical minority (virtually everywhere,  what are the World Bank Classifications? (llow:  redheads/African­amercians/wealthy) versus  GNI < 765, med: 766 < GNI < 9385, High 9385  common­use of word ‘minority’ (any category  < GNI) of people distinguished by physical, cultural  difference that a society sets apart &   Areas of social life that discrimination is  subordinates) found in (housing: (fair housing act 1968,   Feminists—what do they believe? education: the bell curve, miliken v Bradley,  ­ opposition to all forms of stratification based  white flight) on gender, belief that biology doesn’t consign  women to inferior status, sense of common  Chapter 18:  Families experience & purpose among women.   Definitions:  Family­ social institution found in all societies Chapter 14:  Race and Ethnicity  Race (biological)­ socially constructed  that unites people in cooperative groups to  care for one another category of people who share biologically  Kinship­ social bond based on common  transmitted traits that members of a society  ancestry, marriage, or adoption consider important. (social)­ members of society decide that some  Marriage­ legal relationship, usually  involving economic cooperation as well as  physical trait actually matters sexual activity & childbearing  What percent of human genetic material is  Extended Family: parents & kids/other kin;  identical and how much is different among  people­ 6% is different common in preindustrial Nuclear Families: 1 or 2 parents & kids;   Definition of ethnicity­ shared cultural  common in industrialized society, stereotype  heritage of US family  Definitions of prejudice (rigid/unfair  generalization about an entire category of   What’s the difference between monogamy  (marriage that unites 2 people; allowed in  people)  higher income countries) and polygamy  stereotypes­ exaggerated description applied  to every person in some category (marriage that unites someone w/ 2 or more  discrimination – unequal treatment of various spouses; lower income countries?)  What is unique about the Toda people?  categories of people ­Historically practiced fraternal polyandry  Know the theories of prejudice Scapegoat­ prejudice springs from frustration   What is the difference between endogamy and  exogamy, and what cultures are characterized  among people who are themselves  by these terms? disadvantaged  Theoretical perspectives on family Conflict: basic source of prejudice &  1. Structural­functionalism “backbone of  discrimination is competition among racial &  society” ethnic groups for scarce resources 2. Social­Conflict­ family perpetuates social  Authoritarian Personality: people w/ strong  inequality prejudice of 1 minority usually have some  3. Symbolic­Interactionism­ family builds  prejudice w/ all minorities  emotional bonds culture Theory­ although extreme prejudice   What are the stages of family life? is found in some people, some prejudice is  ­Courtship, marriage, child­rearing, empty  found in everyone nest  Types of discrimination and what they consist   What is our divorce rate and why is it high? of (personal: attacks on minority group  ­we have the highest divorce rate,  members, from social slights to insults to  individualism is on the rise, romantic love  murder, legal: minorities are denied lawful  fades, women less dependent on men, today’s  access to public institutions, jobs, housing, &  marriages are stressful, divorce = socially  socal rewards, and institutional: bias built  acceptable, easier to get into the operation of society’s institutions)  What are some of the consequences of divorce for families? Tears apart families, cost a lot of  money, can ruin kids make them unstable  emotionally/psychologically, blame  themselves, distance them from love..  What is the definition of family violence­  emotional, physical, sexual abuse of one  family member by another What counts as abuse?  What kind of people  are more likely to be abusers? Abused children  What are some examples of common  alternative family structures in the US? ­single­parent households, adoptive families,  cohabitation, biracial families, gay/lesbo  couples


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