Developmental Psych 256 Exam 2 Studyguide
Developmental Psych 256 Exam 2 Studyguide PSY 256-70
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bobbi Ellias on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 256-70 at California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Linda Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology 256 in Psychlogy at California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Chapter 5: Early Childhood- Body and Mind 1. Children’s Thinking: a. Piaget’s Pre-operational Period: (Preschool aged: 2-7 years) use of symbols to represent objects internally; especially use language b. Concept of Conservation (children of this age LACK CONSERVATION): concept that quantity or amount of something stays same, regardless of changes in shape. Ex: break cookie up, child thinks he has more c. why can’t children solve conservation problems? i. they center or ﬁxate on one attribute at a time ii. they pay more attention to states, not transformations iii. do not recognize that operations are reversible d. egocentrism: lack of ability to see other’s perspectives Ex: Kid in back seat asks what color something he is holding is. Does not understand why mom (driver of car) cannot see it Ex: collective monologues: conversation between 2 kids- each having single monologues instead of engaging in mutual conversation e. animism: belief that everything in the world is alive Ex: kids believe dolls have feelings- “don’t be mean to the stuffed animal” f. transductive reasoning: if two things happen at one time, one must cause other Ex: Young boy sees that his Asian friend eats rice. He thinks if he eats rice too, he will become Asian (because Rice causes Asian-ness in his eyes) 2. Children’s Theories: a. Theory of Mind: ability to understand that other’s have different beliefs, intents, desires, etc. b. Understanding false beliefs: (age 4) i. (before age 4) if they see box game, like in class example: what is in the box should be jellybeans. when they see that inside the box there is actually crayons, they then believe that everyone else knows that crayons are in the box. ii. (after age 4) understand that if someone else walked in the room, they would also think that jellybeans are in the box before seeing that there are really crayons in the box. Chapter 6: Early Childhood-Psychosocial Development 1. Developmental Changes: ** 2. Development:** 3. Parenting styles: **Demandingness: (control): degree which parents set rules and expectations and require children to align **Responsiveness: (warmth): degree which parents are sensitive to children’s needs and extent to which they show love, warmth, and concern a. Authoritarian: low responsiveness, high demand level. common in minority families. Associated with negative outcomes in white middle class, but in lower class, it could be good. b. Authoritative: High responsiveness, high demand level. Common in White middle class. c. Neglectful/Indifferent: Low responsiveness. Low Demandingness. Most common in US. d. Permissive/Indulgent: High Responsiveness. Low Demanding level. Ex: Mom from Mean Girl’s- wants to be kid’s friends without any rules/discipline 4. a. empathy: understanding another person’s condition from their perspective b. apathy: lack of concern or interest in emotion and feeling; condition of indifference and lack of interest about the world or other’s conditions c. maltreatment:(includes abuse and neglect) all intentional harm/avoidable endangerment of someone under 18 d. attachment: close emotional bond between infant and caregiver that endures across time i. secure attachment: child derives comfort and conﬁdence from caregiver ii. insecure attachment: infants exhibit fear/indifference to caregiver iii. disorganized (about 15% of kids)- infants act oddly- many scream, hit self, throw things when left by caregiver. Tend to be abused kids. 5. Forms of Aggression: a. instrumental aggression: used to obtain or retain toy/object b. reactive aggression: angry retaliation for intentional or accidental act c. relational aggression: inﬂicting psychological pain (gossip) d. bullying: unprovoked, repeat attack; unequal status; involves repeated and systematic efforts to inﬂict harm. 6. Gender Role Development: ** (KNOW FOR TEST FOR SURE) a. Gender identity: (2 years) personal conception of oneself as male or female (or both/ neither) b. gender stability: (4 years) idea that our sex stays the same c. gender constancy: (5-7 years) despite appearances, gender stays same (girl can have short hair) d. Gender roles: belief that men and women are supposed to act certain ways due to gender alone e. Gender role stereotypes: people’s beliefs about the differences between males and females f. Gender differences: actual (“research says”) differences between boys/girls g. Androgyny: scoring high on both masculine and feminine personality characteristics 7. Theories of Gender Difference: a. biological theory: hormones and brain structure matter and are the primary reason for differences in gender. evidence is that in your utero, males are exposed to higher levels of testosterone and this “masculines the brain” b. psychoanalytic theory: Oedipus complex (boys want to kill dad and marry mom) and electra complex (girls want to kill mom and marry dad). children feel guilty about these urges and end up taking on same sex parent’s behavior and attitudes. immaturity allows them to exaggerate the behaviors and differ c. social cognitive theory: roles are result of nurture and reinforcement. Punishment and imitation: girls/boys are treated differently and therefore take on different roles Chapter 7: Middle Childhood: Body and Mind 1. Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage: a. (7-11 years/elementary school aged)- mastery of logic and development of “rational thinking”. b. abilities: i. conserve- child understands that if glass is narrower and taller, it doesn’t mean it has more in it than in a short, fat glass ii. class inclusion- teacher can be someone’s mom, mom was a kid once too iii. seriation- line up smallest to tallest. ability to sort things iv. transitivity- combine relations, give sticks and they can line up smallest and middle and longest. multiplication/shapes v. metacognition: think about their thinking a. can you memorize 100 words- no can you memorize 5 words- yes : understand limitations on own thinking Chapter 8: Middle Childhood: Psychosocial Development 1. Peers during childhood: a. signiﬁcance: provide for unique learning experiences (mom won’t argue/negotiate for toy, but other peers will); inﬂuences on conformity/ﬁtting in 2. Perception of friends at a. preschool: (2-6) less reciprocal support and less shared intimacy. deﬁned as “someone I like to play with” b. middle childhood: (6-11 years) mutual understanding and shared outlook c. adolescence (11+) mutual self disclosure and understanding. desire for trust, loyalty, commitment 3. Social awareness: knowing what is socially acceptable and acting accordingly social cognition: person’s awareness and understanding of human personality, motives, emotions, interconnections, interactions and intentions of others 4. Peer relationships: a. friendship: stable, dynamic, relationships marked by reciprocity/intimacy b. peer acceptance: how much one is liked by peers (this is more based on popularity, but it doesn’t assume you have friendship) c. bullying: involved repeated and systematic efforts to inﬂict harm 5. Bullies and Victims: Bullies: high self esteem; narcissism combined with a negative view of peer; lack empathy; socially competent: choose “right” victim; manipulate other peers to join; using prosocial means to achieve status; select exact target who will be easy to bully Reduce bullying: mobilize bystanders, witnessing bullying increases anxiety in bystanders; many encourage and maintain bullying; having “high status children as friends” could be a good solution if child is being bullied 6. Stages of Moral Reasoning Chapter 9: Adolescence: Body and Mind 1. Early notions about adolescence: a. “time of rebellion! b. untrue! according to today’s research 2. Pubertal Changes: a. Biological: Sex Hormones: i. Boys: testosterone increases, estradiol steady ii. Girls: estradiol increases; testosterone steady Hormones lead to physical changes Hypothalamus—> GNRH—> FH & LH FH & LH: primary characteristics: ovaries/testies Secondary: height, hair, muscles, body fat b. Physical Growth: Girls: about 12 years= height spurt Boys: about 14 years= height spurt 3. Adolescence Egocentrism: a. Imaginary audience: ex: girl in hallway hears 2 boys whisper. Girl thinks it has to be about her b. Personal fable: You think you are unique and no one can relate Ex: Teen gets bad grade, parent tries to calm them down, but teen gets mad, saying “no one understands!” c. Invincibility Fable: nothing bad will happen to me Ex: Teen Mom 4. Piaget’s formal operations stage and cognitive changes: a. Structure: i. Overproduction (10-12 years) thickening of synaptic connections especially in frontal lobe ii. Synaptic pruning (12-20 years) synapses that aren’t used are “cut” out. **growth of IQ during adolescence b. changes: adolescence process emotional info using amygdala (gut feeling) rather than frontal lobe, like adults. “risk taking” is higher in adolescents when around peers sleep patterns shift because of delay in sleep inducing hormone (melatonin) Chapter 10: Adolescence: Psychosocial Development 1. Identity: A person’s sense of placement in the world “who am I?” “who do I want to be?” a. achieved: i. explored and highly committed ii. ex: you know what job options they're are in ﬁeld of math and you choose to major in math b. moratorium: i. start to explore, but not commitment ii. Indian girl starts to explore Indian clubs and culture clubs at school c. Foreclosed: i. not explored, but told to accept ii. Indian girl doesn’t know anything about culture but is in Indian classes because parents told her to d. diffuse: i. hasn't really explored concept of identity ii. African girl does not think about being African or celebrate any African heritage 2. Relationships between adolescence and parents a. remain close but naturally break off 3. Problems with sexual activity in adolescence: Sexual scripts: cognitive frameworks for understandings of how a sexual experience is supposed to proceed and what it means (sexually active young girls=sluts; boys= good for you!)
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