MKT 302 - Test 2
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie S on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MKT 3020 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Siemens in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Consumer Behavior in Marketing at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
▯ Chapter 3_Consumer Behavior_PERCEPTION ▯ ▯ Learning: a change in behavior resulting from the interaction between a person and stimulus Stimulus can be: billboard, commercial, word-of-mouth o Stimulus triggers a change ▯ ▯ Perception: consumer’s awareness and interpretation of a reality Influenced by internal/external fact The meaning we attach to the stimulus o Drawing upon common shared experiences to induce a desired reaction/perception The aim of ads Some perceptions are selective o Selective perception – not all the meanings desired are attached ▯ ▯ ▯ Elements of consumer perception: 1. Exposure – stimulus within proximity of consumer o must have some form of captivation/5 senses ▯ 2. Attention – purposeful attempt to understand stimuli ▯ 2. Comprehension – taking some meaning from the stimuli o Be aware/right place with openness/captivation and consumer must understand the “why” of the advertisement ▯ ▯ ▯ Attention = purposeful attempt to understand the stimuli Why doesn’t attention always follow exposure? We are exposed to thousands of stimuli each day, but only attention to a few. ▯ ▯ Comprehension = consumer interpertation Marketers want consumer’s interpretation to be intended meaning o But interpretations are many; each person takes away a different meaning Subtle things affect perception and comprehension o Ex: consumers prefer products that they perceive as “smiling” Labeling and associations ▯ ▯ Why is organization important? How we label (organize in our minds) info is very important o Changes our expectations for product and our perception of the benefit ▯ ▯ ▯ Categorization: ▯ Assimilation- want easy recognition of branding within all products Already have previous knowledge of a similar product, so we know what to expect ▯ Accommodation- shares some features, but still differentiation Preferred product in some cases/has novel features ▯ ▯ Contrast- nothing in common/can’t be categorized Substitution, own category Consumers don’t know/have previous attachments/knowledge IF assimilation is used WHY is our product better? IF Accommodation is used What’s new/different/special? IF contrast is used educate on product/features/demonstrations ▯ ▯ How do store atmospherics affect your perception of products? What are examples of atmospherics? Store atmosphere can greatly affect perceptions - music, lighting, employees, layouts ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ JND- Just noticeable difference Internal threshold represents how much stronger/different one stimulus needs to be relative to another so that someone can NOTICE a difference How much can I change before consumers catch on o Marketers often try to make subtle branding changes that are below consumer’s JND threshold Don’t want them to question the brand ▯ ▯ ▯ JMD- Just meaningful difference Smallest change in stimulus that would INFLUENCE consumer choice o For pricing – is about 20% difference o Small adjustments ▯ ▯ ▯ Ways to enhance attention: ▯ 1. Intensity ▯ 2. Contrast ▯ 3. Movement ▯ 4. Involvement ▯ 5. Surprise ▯ 6. Size ▯ ▯ LEARNING THROUGH CONDITIONING: ▯ Conditioning = UNINTENTIONAL Learning Just involved in daily activities o Can ENHACE consumer comprehension of your message o Encourages repeat behaviors Help promote self efficiency/navigate stimuli Two types of conditioning: o Classical o Instrumental ▯ ▯ Classical conditioning- Learning by Association Unconditional stimulus – stimulus that Naturally triggers a response Unconditional Response – natural response Conditioned stimulus – becomes associated with an Unconditional stimulus through conditioning/pairing o This will trigger the natural response via unconditioned stimulus, but over time, the conditional stimulus will also Conditional response – learned response to conditioned stimulus o Mind/body connection o Natural occurring paired/manipulated with the conditioned ▯ ▯ ▯ Instrumental conditioning- Behavior is conditioned through reinforcement or rewards – not just association Positive reinforcement – rewarding desired behavior o Ex: loyalty cards Punishment – demonstrate negative results of behavior o Fear ▯ Which reinforcement schedule is best, and why? Reinforcement schedule is important o When, how often, do they know 1. Continuous – reward after EVERY desired behavior o Every time they get a reward or a punishment Sales / reward cards 2. Fixed – reward after a known NUMBER OF desired behaviors is reached or fixed amount of time o Every 5 haircuts, the 6 is free 3. Variable – seemingly random number of desired behaviors or variable amount of time o “random” winners Extinction- behavior that previously was reinforced is no longer effective also occurs in classical loses effect ▯ Continuous reinforcement extinction – reward becomes expected Fixed reinforcement extinction – become predictable; need a high-value reward to keep motivated o is it worth the hassle ▯ Variable reinforcement extinction – most motivational because you have a “chance” of reward every time you buy/shop, but need the variable rate to be frequent ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 4: Comprehension, Memory, and Cognitive Learning ▯ ▯ Comprehension is: understanding the stimulus Care about value/perception ▯ ▯ Comprehension is affected by ▯ 1. message itself ▯ 2. receiver ▯ 3. environment ▯ ▯ Message itself ▯ Physical characteristics of the message include: Larger font/pictures = more likely to comprehend o Point of emphasis Varied meaning of colors – associations like blue/clam Letters vs. numbers in advertisement/brand Typeface chosen ▯ ▯ Simplicity and complexity of a message affect comprehension (a message characteristic) Simple phrases – often communicates more clearly than detailed info (ex: fat-free) ▯ Message source factors ▯ 1. Likeability ▯ 2. Expertise ▯ 3. Trustworthiness ▯ 4. Attractiveness selling ideas/lifestyle – i.e. employees should live out the brand generate goodwill ▯ ▯ Message receiver characteristics: Comprehension is better when ▯ a. Higher intelligence – life experience ▯ b. Higher Involvement ▯ c. Less Familiarity with message – prevents wear out/repetitive ▯ d. Brain Dominance – left = verbal / right = visual ▯ ▯ What is habituation/novelty? Novelty is like a reward – wear out Novelty only works for a while o Becomes new standard/similar to extinction ▯ ▯ Environmental effects on comprehension: ▯ a. info intensity (overload) – many distractions ▯ b. Framing how info is presented-meaning of message Climate change vs. global warming ▯ c. Timing of the message Taco Bell late night commercials ▯ ▯ Information overload examples ▯ ▯ Framing: the meaning of the message is perceived differently based on the information environment McDonald’s – nutrition framed as graphics, promote selves as “This food fuels you, you can make decisions” ▯ ▯ ▯ What is a nudge? Reframe info so people CHOOSE desired behavior, don’t need to force Change subtly ▯ ▯ ▯ Framing in promotions example Loses loom larger than gains ▯ ▯ ▯ Learning: mental processes that assist: ▯ 1. Repetition – weakest, but common wear out can come of it ▯ ▯ 2. Dual coding – consumer derives meaning from content of message AND something else associations Pairing ▯ ▯ 3. Meaningful encoding – attach info to something you already know experiences tied ▯ ▯ 4. Chunking – breaking down into smaller parts 952 843 8630 ▯ ▯ What is an associative network? Mental pathways linking knowledge within memory – random activates nodes ▯ ▯ Cognitive Schemas: ▯ What is a schema? Organized associative network about concept ▯ ▯ ▯ What is an exemplar? Concept within schema that is the single best representation of some category o Leaders of industry Ex: fast food – McDonald’s ▯ ▯ What is a prototype? Characteristic associated with a concept o When exemplar doesn’t exist ▯ ▯ Why do schemas matter? Schema is a grouping; logical network All products/brands are compared to the exemplar o Do they fit the Schema? Need a reason to purchase Are they better or worse? Characteristics outside schema may need more explanation Improve product adoption by minimizing behavior change o Influencing behavior through schema knowledge Ex: Fries – crunchy, shape, dip… apple slices with caramel dip ▯ ▯ What is a Script? Schema of an event; ordered/timeline o What is expected of that encounter o Negotiation at a car dealership, ▯ ▯ What is a social schemata? Social stereotypes – schema about type of person o Sets up expectations/lead to a snap judgment o Consumers often identify with a particular stereotype o Adapt behaviors/purchases to fit stereotype Teens compare self to exemplars o Trying to fit into schema of “cool” or Popular o Adapt purchases/behaviors Minimize product change ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 5: Motivation and Emotion ▯ ▯ Motivations are the inner reasons or driving forces behind human action. What compels an action? ▯ Our motivations are oriented toward two key groups of behavior: ▯ a. Homeostasis – maintaining balance body naturally reacts in a way to maintain a constant, normal state o Full, warm, shelter, thirst ▯ ▯ b. Self-improvement – enhancement changing as one’s current state to a more ideal state – improve condition o Style, luxury, perceptions by others ▯ ▯ ▯ Marketing slogans appeal to Maslow’s Hierarch of Needs: ▯ 1. Self-actualization “be all you can be” for the army ▯ 2. Self-esteem “send the very best” for Hallmark ▯ ▯ 3. Belongingness ex: “it’s an In thing, it’s an Up thing” for 7up ▯ ▯ 4. Safety “protect the body” for car commercial ▯ ▯ 5. Physiological ▯ ▯ Utilitarian = functional value Physiological Safety ▯ ▯ Hedonic = added value Belongingness Self-esteem Self-actualization ▯ ▯ ▯ Consumer involvement = the degree of personal relevance a consumer finds in pursuing value from a given consumption act ▯ ▯ The 5 types of consumer involvement are: ▯ 1. product product relevance/importance o Shoes are HIGH involvement o Milk is Low ▯ 2. shopping leisure vs. purpose related to time and occasion ▯ 3. Situational temporary interest or will it be a recurring need? Prom ▯ 4. Enduring ongoing interest may relate to the social schemata you identify with Clemson = orange products; Runners = special shoes and articles ▯ 5. Emotional The enthusiasts/fanatics with an emotional attachment Moves them, compels ▯ ▯ Emotions are: Psychobiological reactions to appraisals You appraise a situation and then react emotionally accordingly Involves a psychological component/processing AND a physical reaction ▯ ▯ What is “psychobiological”? Having both a psychological and physical reaction tied together Visceral response – certain feelings/states are tied to behaviors in a direct way ▯ ▯ ▯ Mood vs. Affect Mood = tied to an emotion, but is TEMPORARY o Transient/changing and general affective state; background ▯ Affect = represents feelings TOWARDS a product/action ▯ ▯ How does mood affect consumption? Good mood = faster decision, impulse buys, spend more, mood congruent judgments of product ▯ ▯ Two ways to measure emotion are: ▯ 1. Autonomic = GSR (Skin temp, heartbeat, sweat, etc.) physiological ▯ 2. Self-report = less obtrusive, but relies on recall cloudy memory, maybe current mood affects answer PANAS = Positive Affect, Negative Affect Scale o Marketers use emotion to teach/consumers learn ▯ ▯ How does emotion aid learning? ▯ Emotion Aided Learning = evoking emotions to teach 1. Evoking a mild emotion can lead to better recall than a neutral advertisement o Nostalgia, humor, sex appeal 2. Harder to translate terms tied to emotion o Link between culture and emotion/background 3. ▯ ▯ ▯ Schema-based affect- emotions are stored as part of the meaning for a category (exhibits 5.9 and 5.10) Emotions become stored as part of meaning for a category ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Emotional contagion- are emotions contagious? Consumers adopt the emotion of those surrounding them o Other shoppers, workers, etc. ▯ ▯ Emotional labor Workers have to openly manage own emotional display as a job requirement o Service industry, shopper employment, PR ▯ Chapter 6: Personality, Lifestyles, and Self-Concept ▯ ▯ Personality = The totality of thoughts, emotions, intentions, and behaviors that a person exhibits consistently as he or she adapts to his or her environment. Thoughts, feelings and the underlying foundation Is not directed towards anything (that would be affect) ▯ Personality qualities: 1. Is unique to individual 2. Combination of specific traits/characteristics 3. Traits are relatively stable and INTERACT with stimulant to influence a behavior 4. Specific behaviors can vary across time, BUT Traits stay the same ▯ ▯ OCEAN Personality traits “The Big 5”: ▯ 1. Openness to experience – intellectual curiosity ▯ ▯ 2. Conscientiousness – persevering, orderly, and Trustworthy/reliable ▯ ▯ 3. Extraversion – tendency to be social ▯ ▯ 4. Agreeableness – altruism, confidence, want everyone to get along ▯ ▯ 5. Neuroticism – Anxiousness, unstable, nervous ▯ ▯ *** Traits are very unique to the individual and vary in level ▯ ▯ ▯ Hierarchical approaches to studying personality: Begin with the assumption that personality traits exist at varying degrees of absorption Two degrees: o Broad traits= behaviors performed across many different situations OCEAN o Specific traits = tendencies to behavior in a very well- defined situation Compliant, finicky ▯ ▯ ▯ What about brand personality? What contributes to brand personality (Jennifer Aaker- see Exhibit 6.4)? Product Quality = price, advertisement, promotion/sponsorship o The perception of the actual product’s quality Packaging = brand characters/concrete o The persona of the brand ▯ ▯ Brand personality dimensions- use the 4 p’s to reinforce brand personality ▯ ▯ 1. Competence – responsible/dependable/know what you are getting Appliances ▯ ▯ 2. Excitement – daring, spirited Nike, mountain dew ▯ ▯ 3. Ruggedness – toughness Ford/Cars, ▯ ▯ 4. Sincerity – Honest, genuine Honest Tea, Levi jeans, ▯ ▯ 5. Sophistication – luxury, glamor, charm Designer brands ▯ ▯ What companies try to match consumers and products based on their personality? Companies try to target personalities based on OCEAN/5 Brand personalities o Pandora – cultivate a station unique to you o Fashion – Stich ▯ ▯ Lifestyles refer to: Ways consumers live and spend their money/time o Extrovert – like to have parties and plans – might buy a karaoke machine or solo cups in order to be “the life of the party” ▯ ▯ ▯ Psychographics- way consumer LIFESTYLES are measured What they want, how they want it, what do they do Measured in AIO statements ▯ ▯ Ways of measuring psychographics include: ▯ AIO statements ▯ a. Activities ▯ i. Interests ▯ o. Opinions ▯ ▯ ▯ VALS- Values and Lifestyles Tool used commercially for marketers to classify/evaluate AIOs/ interpret psychographics 8 Segments based on: 1. resources available And Primary motives: 2. Ideals – beliefs 3. Achievements 4. Self- expression ▯ ▯ ▯ PRIZM measures Geodemographics- Overlay psychographics with geography o Draw conclusions based on area o Lifestyle necessitates area/similar desires Predict lifestyle o Potential Ratings Index by zip code market Commercially available tool o Assumes similar people live close to one another and emulate each other’s behaviors/lifestyles o 66 segments ▯ ▯ Self-Concept- Refers to the totality of thoughts and feelings that an individual has about him or her self. How do I identify self- internal/personal ▯ People have many self-concepts, such as: ▯ 1. Actual-self = Current perception ex: student; stressed ▯ ▯ 2. Ideal- self = what you Want to be/how you want to be perceived employed; relaxed ▯ 3. Social/looking glass- self = How you think others perceive you others think I am composed ▯ 4. Ideal social self = how I want them to see me ▯ ▯ 5. Extended self = possessions/ our self concept expressed through our possessions purse – reflects lifestyle/idea of self ▯ ▯ Self-congruency theory- Proposes that much of consumer behavior can be explained by the congruence (match) between a consumer’s self-concept and the image of typical users of a focal product. Purchases that reflects a self concept That isn’t me… I want to be more… Brand personality tries to use these o Wants to understand the consumer self concept Strategize based on “who” is buying o Actual or ideal??? ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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