CO101MidtermStudyGuide.pdf 101- Communications
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ameyna Jackson on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101- Communications at Boston University taught by Tammy vigil in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 551 views. For similar materials see The World of Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at Boston University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
CO 101 Vigil Midterm Study Guide (February 19, 2016) Highlight Important Principle Highligh= Important Concept Highligh= Key Term What is Communication (many different definitions) ● Exchange ● Ideas/Symbols ● Process ● Behavior Chapter 1:Human Communication Communication Defined ● Human Communication :Creating meaning through a symbolic interaction ● Communication is Proces“A thing we do and that can be done to us” ○ Process a continuous & ongoing ■ A Motion Picture ○ Individuals hafields of experiethat aid in this process ● Communication is Human Think About iebate: Can Human’s Communicate with Animals ● Field of experience overlap is minimal ● It’s our own interpretation, there is no response if it is right or wrong ○ Setting the limitation makes things ■ Easier ■ Reliable ■ provide Boundaries ■ Professionally practical ○ Kenneth Burke states if we can not communicate we are not human ○ Criteria met in order to be ● Symbol users/misusers/creators ● Inventors of the negative ● Rotten with Perfection ● Separated from nature ● Goaded by spiritual hierarchy ● Communications is shared ○ Words have etymological roots ○ Common roots create a shared meaning ● Communications is Symbolic ○ symbol:anything that represents something else thought, idea, concept ■ verbal & nonverbal ○ Words by nature symbols ○ Key Characteristics ■ Flexible ■ Arbitrary ■ Useful ■ Powerful Types of Communication ● Intrapersonal: Communicating with Oneself ○ The way we mentally process things, influences, interactions Ex. Little voice in your head ● DyadicInterpersonaCommunication between two people ○ Most common form of communication Ex. A Date ● Small Group: every person can participate actively with the other members (315 people) ○ Members put pressure on each other in various ways ○ Conformity pressures can be comforting ■ leading to taking a risk ■ becoming more creative Ex. Group project, Athletic team ● Public: A group is too large for all members to contribute, usually with one main speaker ○ unequal amount of speaking Ex. State of the Union (Presidential Speech) ● Mass: messages that are transmitted to a large, widespread audience via electronic or print media ○ No personal contact between sender and receiver ○ controlled by “gatekeepers” editors, sponsors, reporters Ex. Advertisements, News Article Function of Communication ● 4 main functions to communication a. Physical lack of close relationships can lead to poor health b. Identity cause no sense of identity if lacking c. Social satisfies needs ie. pleasure, affection, inclusion, relaxation, etc. d. Practical we are able to direct and give information to people Modeling Communication ● Linear Model A “sender” encodes an idea and feelings into some sort of message and then conveys them to a “receiver” who decodes ○ the method to which the message is conveyed is important facetoface, writing, meditated ○ Noise: any forces that interfere with effective communication ○ Fields of experience help us understand one another ■ what you have in common in a way ■ cultural background, environment, experiences ● Transactiona Model: we send and receive messages simultaneously ○ some say we can while decoding we are also encoding ● Communication competence: effective communication involves achieving one’s goals to maintain or enhance the relationship in which it occurs ● What makes a good communicator ○ Wide range of behaviors ○ Ability to choose the most Appropriate ○ Performing behavior ○ Empathy/Perspective Taking ○ Cognitive complexity ○ Selfmonitoring ○ Commitment to a Relationship ● No “Ideal” way to communicate ○ Fluid not Static ○ Relational not Individual ○ Can be learned Clarifying Misconception About Communication ● Meanings rest in people NOT words ○ differing interpretations of symbols (12 meanings to 12 different people) ○ the way people make sense of a word helps define a physical symbol ■ ex. word Niggardly stated by ● defintion is “miserly” ● Many african americans find it offensive Chapter 2: Language Nature of Language Language is 1. Flexible 2. Arbitrary 3. Useful 4. Powerful ● Language is symbolic ○ Language: a collection of symbols governed by rules and used to convey messages between individuals ■ Arbitrary constructions that represent someone’s thoughts ○ Not all linguistics symbols are spoken ■ Sign language with a variety of dialects ○ Symbols are a way we experience the world ■ ie gay/straight or catholic/atheist ● Rule Governed ○ 4 major rules to language 1. phonological govern how words sound when pronounced (Both are pronounced differently) English French Champagne Champagne double double 2. Synatic govern structure of language the way symbols are arranged ● English every word contains at least one vowel ● abbreviation for text 3. Semantic deal with the meaning ● what makes it possible for us to agree on meanings 4. pragmatic govern how people use language in everyday interaction “speech acts” (how they are understood and used) ● selfconcept ● cultural background ● episode in which it occu s Power of Language ● Shaping Attitudes ○ Naming ■ shape the way others think of use ■ the way we view ourselves ■ the way we act Ex. Research has proven that many people are attracted to the phonetics in candiates names Sanders vs. Pekelis (Sanders Won!) ■ Shape and reinforce identity ○ Status ■ power of speech influence ● Accent ● choice of words ● Speech rate ● age of speaker ○ Credibility ■ impressive sounding words can make you sound professional ■ Fancy words = Competent (apparently) ● What is the Terministic Screens? ○ Developed by Kenneth Burke ○ Reflection and permeability of info ○ Word we choose reflect and shape our attitudes ■ impact how we approach activities and events “HAVE to go to class” negative view “GET to go to class” positive view ● Reflecting Attitudes ○ 4 major ways 1. Power ● people with power are considered more competent, attractive, dynamic ( lacks stutter, concise, selfawareness) 2. Affiliation ● building and demonstrating solidarity from others ● Convergence: using the same vocabulary sets people apart from others ● Divergence: speaking in a way that emphasizes their differences Ex. “Babe” between couples 3. Attraction ● suggest a degree of attraction and interest 4. Responsibility ● willingness to accept responsibility for a message ● question vs. statement Troublesome Language ● Equivocal: words/statement more than one correct definition ● Slang/Jargon: language used by a group of people whose members belong to a similar coculture Ex. “Bro” = friend, “Yo” =hello, “Bling” =jewlery ● Abstract language:speech that refers to events or objects only vaguely ○ Behavioral Description 1. Who is involved? 2. What circumstances does the behavior occur? 3. What behaviors are involved? Disruptive Language Evasive Language ❖ understood but still causes conflict ❖ Euphemisms (Restrooms vs. ➢ facts, opinions, inference Toilet ➢ Deliberately misleading Ch 3: Nonverbal Communication Help Create & Alter Reality Nonverbal Codes ● Come in many different forms 1. Kinesics body movements/ gestures ■ Emblems ● gestures with direct translation/ verbal interpretation ■ Illustrators ● Enhance a verbal message/ nonverbal interpretation ■ Regulators ● helping keep flow of conversation ■ Adaptors ● signals of physical/ psychological state ● usually interpreted symbolically ■ Affect Displays ● display emotions 2. Haptics any kind of touch 3. Proxemics use of space ■ What are the right distances ■ They establish the parameters of relationship ● Public zone (12+ ft away) ● Social zone (412 ft) ● Personal zone (1.54 ft) ● Intimate zone (01.5 ft) 4. Physical/ Visual things you see 5. Vocalics anything with mouth that is not words 6. Artifacts anything that exist Types of Meaning ● Denotative:ur attempt to be objective Cat is a feline ● Connotative: more emotionally charged meaning, subjective Cat is a fluffy kitten, cat woman, alle gies Complexity of Meaning ● Arbitrary & flexible nature of symbols ● complex cognitive structure of humans ○ humans are rational and emotional ● Ability to create symbols ● Heavy reliance ● Causing problems for understanding meaning, but allows for complex conversation Ch 4: Viewers Make Meaning Producer’s Intended Message ● Producer’s create images with the intent that we read them in a certain way ○ people have different experiences with images ○ include cultural experiences ○ different media form Aesthetics & Taste ● Aesthetic: value of work resides in the pleasure it bring through beauty, style, creative, that went into production ● Taste: informed by experiences relating to one’s class, cultural background, education, and other aspects of identity ○ Usually cultural specific and class based can be learned Ideally what is good taste? educated in the middle/ upper class ● Our taste in art is related to our taste in music, food, fashion, etc. Cultural Norms High Low ● Fine arts ● Comic strips ● Opera ● Television ● Ballet ● Cinema Encoding & Decoding ● Stuart Hall states there are 3 positions viewers take 1. DominantHegemonic : only receiving the dominant message (unquestioning manner); very passive 2. Negotiated: deciding between a interpretation and the dominant message 3. Oppositional: completely disagreeing with ideological position in message American Idol Dominant: Oppositional: Negotiated: Ordinary people with talent Entertainment of success that Myth that everyone has equal can rise to fame opportunity to succeed is merely a fantasy (capitalism) ● We alter meanings to suit our purpos s Appropriation & Bricolage ● Appropriationtaking a symbol and using it in a new way ○ CHANGE MEANING Parodies are a prime example ( “Blurred Lines” vs “Defined Lines” music videos) ● Bricolage taking an object, altering its meaning and changing the way it’s used ○ CHANGE USE ■ CounterBricolage when the new use is mass produced and commercialized X. street performs use buckets as drums “Stomp” broadway show uses buckets as drums Making Meaning ● All the different forms ● Discursive linear, chronological, order (word, math equation, sheet of music) ○ means it is rule based and you have to follow them ○ Easier for building arguments; levels of precision ● Presentational whole message is presented at one time (photograph, painting) ○ mostly a visual concept ○ more readily elicits emotion ○ Prone to various interpretation ● Blended both concepts come together to make a meaning ○ Memorable and effective ○ simultaneously rational/ Emotional appeal ○ Appeals to broader audience Ch 5: On Writing Well ● What are the Be’s of good writing ○ Be Brief ○ Be Direct ○ Be Precise ○ Be Consistent ○ Be Active ○ Be Aware ○ Be Imaginative ○ Be Concise ● When making a message you should always have considerations ○ Purpose ■ Are you informing, entertaining, persuading ■ all are often used during purpose, one being more dominant than others ○ Audience who are they specifically ○ Context ○ Expectations what is it about & how do we do it? ○ Constraints budgets or time li its 6 C’s ● Clear ○ Don’t assume audience knows meaning ○ euphemisms can be confusing ○ Say what you actually mean ● Concise ○ never use more words or idea than needed ○ “Occam’s Razor” Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily ● Creative ○ use language tools in effective ways ○ Unique is more memorable ● Culturally sensitive ○ based on context messages is set in ○ Avoid sexist, racist, homophobic ● Correct ○ You only have right to demonstrate breaking rules once ○ grammar and punctuation matter ○ ● Concrete ○ Make your message powerful ○ unbreakable argument
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