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BU / Communications / CM 101 / Who is kenneth burke?

Who is kenneth burke?

Who is kenneth burke?

Description

School: Boston University
Department: Communications
Course: The World of Communication
Professor: Tammy vigil
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: communication, midterm, and Vigil
Cost: 50
Name: CO101MidtermStudyGuide.pdf
Description: A review of all of chapters 1-5 for the Midterm Exam
Uploaded: 02/16/2016
8 Pages 19 Views 24 Unlocks
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CO 101 Vigil


Who is kenneth burke?



Midterm Study Guide

(February 19, 2016)

Highlight = Important Principle Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term

What is Communication (many different definitions)

● Exchange

● Ideas/Symbols

● Process

● Behavior

Chapter 1:Human Communication

Communication Defined

● Human Communication:Creating meaning through a symbolic interaction ● Communication is Process “A thing we do and that can be done to us” 


What makes a good communicator?



If you want to learn more check out Where are the major population clusters?

○ Process ­ a continuous & ongoing

■ A Motion Picture

○ Individuals have fields of experience that aid in this process

● Communication is Human

Think About it ​Debate: Can Human’s Communicate with Animals

● Field of experience overlap is minimal

● It’s our own interpretation, there is no response if it is right or wrong

○ Setting the limitation makes things

■ Easier

■ Reliable

■ provide Boundaries

■ Professionally practical

○ Kenneth Burke states if we can not communicate we are not human 

○ Criteria met in order to be

● Symbol users/misusers/creators ● Rotten with Perfection

● Goaded by spiritual hierarchy

● Inventors of the negative ● Separated from nature


What is the difference between appropriation and bricolage?



If you want to learn more check out In ancient times, sumerian taverns and inns on the roadside became popular due to what?
If you want to learn more check out What are the three characteristics of telecommunications?

● Communications is shared

○ Words have etymological roots

○ Common roots create a shared meaning

● Communications is Symbolic

○ symbol:anything that represents something else thought, idea, concept

■ verbal & nonverbal

○ Words by nature symbols

○ Key Characteristics 

■ Flexible

■ Arbitrary

■ Useful

■ Powerful

Types of Communication

● Intrapersonal: Communicating with Oneself

○ The way we mentally process things, influences, interactions

Ex. Little voice in your head

● Dyadic­Interpersonal:Communication between two people

○ Most common form of communication Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three captivity narratives?

Ex. A Date

● Small Group: every person can participate actively with the other members (3­15 people) ○ Members put pressure on each other in various ways

○ Conformity pressures can be comforting

■ leading to taking a risk

■ becoming more creative

Ex. Group project, Athletic team

● Public: A group is too large for all members to contribute, usually with one main speaker ○ unequal amount of speaking

Ex. State of the Union (Presidential Speech)

● Mass: messages that are transmitted to a large, widespread audience via electronic or print media ○ No personal contact between sender and receiver

○ controlled by “gatekeepers” ­ editors, sponsors, reporters

Ex. Advertisements, News Article

Function of Communication

● 4 main functions to communication

a. Physical ­ lack of close relationships can lead to poor health

b. Identity ­ cause no sense of identity if lacking

c. Social ­ satisfies needs ie. pleasure, affection, inclusion, relaxation, etc.

d. Practical ­ we are able to direct and give information to people

Modeling Communication

● Linear Model: A “sender” encodes an idea and feelings into some sort of message and then conveys them to a “receiver” who decodes If you want to learn more check out What is dendrochronology?

○ the method to which the message is conveyed is important face­to­face, writing, meditated ○ Noise: any forces that interfere with effective communication

○ Fields of experience help us understand one another

■ what you have in common in a way

■ cultural background, environment, experiences

● Transactional Model: we send and receive messages simultaneously

○ some say we can while decoding we are also encoding

● Communication competence: effective communication involves achieving one’s goals to maintain or enhance the relationship in which it occurs

● What makes a good communicator 

○ Wide range of behaviors

○ Ability to choose the most Appropriate

○ Performing behavior

○ Empathy/Perspective Taking

○ Cognitive complexity

○ Self­monitoring

○ Commitment to a Relationship

● No “Ideal” way to communicate

○ Fluid not Static Don't forget about the age old question of What affects motivation?

○ Relational not Individual

○ Can be learned

Clarifying Misconception About Communication

● Meanings rest in people NOT words 

○ differing interpretations of symbols (12 meanings to 12 different people) ○ the way people make sense of a word helps define a physical symbol

■ ex. word Niggardly stated by

● defintion is “miserly”

● Many african americans find it offensive

Chapter 2: Language

Nature of Language

Language is 

1. Flexible 

2. Arbitrary 

3. Useful 

4. Powerful 

● Language is symbolic

○ Language: a collection of symbols governed by rules and used to convey messages between individuals

■ Arbitrary constructions that represent someone’s thoughts

○ Not all linguistics symbols are spoken

■ Sign language with a variety of dialects

○ Symbols are a way we experience the world

■ ie gay/straight or catholic/atheist

● Rule Governed

○ 4 major rules to language

1. phonological ­ govern how words sound when pronounced

(Both are pronounced differently)

English 

Champagne

double

French 

Champagne

double

2. Synatic ­ govern structure of language the way symbols are arranged

● English every word contains at least one vowel

● abbreviation for text

3. Semantic ­ deal with the meaning

● what makes it possible for us to agree on meanings

4. pragmatic ­ govern how people use language in everyday interaction “speech acts” (how they are understood and used)

● self­concept

● cultural background

● episode in which it occurs

Power of Language

● Shaping Attitudes 

○ Naming

■ shape the way others think of use

■ the way we view ourselves

■ the way we act

Ex. Research has proven that many people are attracted to the phonetics in candiates names

Sanders vs. Pekelis (Sanders Won!)

■ Shape and reinforce identity

○ Status

■ power of speech influence

● Accent

● Speech rate

● choice of words

● age of speaker

○ Credibility

■ impressive sounding words can make you sound professional

■ Fancy words = Competent (apparently)

● What is the Terministic Screens? 

○ Developed by Kenneth Burke

○ Reflection and permeability of info

○ Word we choose reflect and shape our attitudes

■ impact how we approach activities and events

“I HAVE to go to class” ­ negative view

“I GET to go to class” ­ positive view

● Reflecting Attitudes

○ 4 major ways

1. Power

● people with power are considered more competent, attractive,

dynamic ( lacks stutter, concise, self­awareness)

2. Affiliation

● building and demonstrating solidarity from others

● Convergence: using the same vocabulary sets people apart from

others

● Divergence: speaking in a way that emphasizes their differences

Ex. “Babe” between couples

3. Attraction

● suggest a degree of attraction and interest

4. Responsibility

● willingness to accept responsibility for a message

● question vs. statement

Troublesome Language

● Equivocal: words/statement more than one correct definition

● Slang/Jargon: language used by a group of people whose members belong to a similar coculture Ex. “Bro” = friend, “Yo” =hello, “Bling” =jewlery

● Abstract language: speech that refers to events or objects only vaguely

○ Behavioral Description

1. Who is involved?

2. What circumstances does the behavior occur?

3. What behaviors are involved?

Disruptive Language

❖ understood but still causes conflict ➢ facts, opinions, inference

Evasive Language

❖ Euphemisms (Restrooms vs.

Toilet

➢ Deliberately misleading

Ch 3: Nonverbal Communication

Help Create & Alter Reality 

Nonverbal Codes

● Come in many different forms 

1. Kinesics­ body movements/ gestures

■ Emblems

● gestures with direct translation/ verbal interpretation

■ Illustrators

● Enhance a verbal message/ nonverbal interpretation

■ Regulators

● helping keep flow of conversation

■ Adaptors

● signals of physical/ psychological state

● usually interpreted symbolically

■ Affect Displays

● display emotions

2. Haptics­ any kind of touch

3. Proxemics­ use of space

■ What are the right distances

■ They establish the parameters of relationship

● Public zone (12+ ft away)

● Social zone (4­12 ft)

● Personal zone (1.5­4 ft)

● Intimate zone (0­1.5 ft)

4. Physical/ Visual­ things you see

5. Vocalics­ anything with mouth that is not words

6. Artifacts­ anything that exist

Types of Meaning

● Denotative: our attempt to be objective

Cat is a feline

● Connotative: more emotionally charged meaning, subjective

Cat is a fluffy kitten, cat woman, allergies

Complexity of Meaning

● Arbitrary & flexible nature of symbols

● complex cognitive structure of humans

○ humans are rational and emotional

● Ability to create symbols

● Heavy reliance

● Causing problems for understanding meaning, but allows for complex conversation Ch 4: Viewers Make Meaning

Producer’s Intended Message

● Producer’s create images with the intent that we read them in a certain way

○ people have different experiences with images

○ include cultural experiences

○ different media forms

Aesthetics & Taste

● Aesthetic: value of work resides in the pleasure it bring through beauty, style, creative, that went into production

● Taste: informed by experiences relating to one’s class, cultural background, education, and other aspects of identity

○ Usually cultural specific and class­ based can be learned

Ideally what is good taste?

educated in the middle/ upper class

● Our taste in art is related to our taste in music, food, fashion, etc.

Cultural Norms

High 

● Fine arts

● Opera

● Ballet

Low 

● Comic strips

● Television

● Cinema

Encoding & Decoding

● Stuart Hall states there are 3 positions viewers take

1. Dominant­Hegemonic: only receiving the dominant message (unquestioning manner); very passive

2. Negotiated: deciding between a interpretation and the dominant message

3. Oppositional: completely disagreeing with ideological position in message

American Idol

Dominant: 

Ordinary people with talent can rise to fame

Negotiated: 

Entertainment of success that is merely a fantasy

Oppositional: 

Myth that everyone has equal opportunity to succeed

(capitalism)

● We alter meanings to suit our purposes

Appropriation & Bricolage 

● Appropriation: taking a symbol and using it in a new way

○ CHANGE MEANING

Parodies are a prime example ( “Blurred Lines” vs “Defined Lines” music videos)

● Bricolage: taking an object, altering its meaning and changing the way it’s used ○ CHANGE USE

■ Counter­Bricolage ­ when the new use is mass produced and commercialized EX. street performs use buckets as drums

“Stomp” broadway show uses buckets as drums

Making Meaning

● All the different forms 

● Discursive ­ linear, chronological, order (word, math equation, sheet of music) ○ means it is rule based and you have to follow them

○ Easier for building arguments; levels of precision

● Presentational ­ whole message is presented at one time (photograph, painting) ○ mostly a visual concept

○ more readily elicits emotion

○ Prone to various interpretation

● Blended ­ both concepts come together to make a meaning

○ Memorable and effective

○ simultaneously rational/ Emotional appeal

○ Appeals to broader audience

Ch 5: On Writing Well

● What are the Be’s of good writing

○ Be Brief

○ Be Precise

○ Be Active

○ Be Imaginative

○ Be Direct

○ Be Consistent

○ Be Aware

○ Be Concise

● When making a message you should always have considerations

○ Purpose

■ Are you informing, entertaining, persuading

■ all are often used during purpose, one being more dominant than others ○ Audience ­ who are they specifically

○ Context

○ Expectations ­ what is it about & how do we do it?

○ Constraints ­ budgets or time limits

6 C’s 

● Clear 

○ Don’t assume audience knows meaning

○ euphemisms can be confusing

○ Say what you actually mean 

● Concise 

○ never use more words or idea than needed

○ “Occam’s Razor” ­ Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily

● Creative 

○ use language tools in effective ways

○ Unique is more memorable 

● Culturally sensitive 

○ based on context messages is set in

○ Avoid ­ sexist, racist, homophobic

● Correct 

○ You only have right to demonstrate breaking rules once

○ grammar and punctuation matter

● Concrete 

○ Make your message powerful

○ unbreakable argument

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