GEOL 1330 (Hauptvogel Spring 16) TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE
GEOL 1330 (Hauptvogel Spring 16) TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE GEOL 1330
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julian Quesada on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 1330 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Daniel Hauptvogel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 170 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
GEOL 1330 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Smalltextismaterialthat Dr.Hauptvogelsaidwe wouldneedtoknow for thetest. How layers of the earth formed, iron, nickel sank and lighter things stayed on the top. Differentiation -chemical differentiation -Definition: the process by which heavier, molten elements like iron and nickel sank to the center of the Earth and lighter elements like silicon, oxygen and aluminum populated the surface of the planet 4.5 billion years ago Valence electrons, cations, who donates what electron -don’t need to know what bonds form (eg: don’t need to know that an ionic bond forms) -Electrons (- charge) surround the nucleus -Located in energy levels called shells -Outermost shell: Valence Electrons -Model atom has no net charge -# of protons = # of electrons -Ions - charged atoms due to loss or gain of an electron -Cations = +charged atoms -Anions = -charged atoms -Octet Rule - atoms gain, lose, or share electrons in order to obtain stable electron configuration of the noble gasses (8 valence electrons) -Know all the ions - cations and anions - potassium, aluminum, silicon, oxygen -know theyre tendency, do they want to donate or receive electrons Common Cations: Name Formula Other name(s) Aluminum Al3 Ammonium NH + 4 Barium Ba+2 +2 Calcium Ca Chromium(II) Cr2 Chromous +3 Chromium(III) Cr Chromic Copper(I) Cu+ Cuprous +2 Copper(II) Cu Cupric Iron(II) Fe+2 Ferrous Iron(III) Fe+3 Ferric Hydrogen H+ Hydronium H 3 + Lead(II) Pb +2 Lithium Li+ Magnesium Mg +2 +2 Manganese(II) Mn Manganous +3 Manganese(III) Mn Manganic +2 Mercury(I) Hg 2 Mercurous +2 Mercury(II) Hg Mercuric + Nitronium NO 2 Potassium K + Silver Ag + Sodium Na + Strontium Sr+2 Tin(II) Sn +2 Stannous Tin(IV) Sn +4 Stannic Zinc Zn+2 Common Anions: Simple ions: - 2- Hydride H Oxide O Fluoride F- Sulfide S2- Chloride Cl- Nitride N3- Bromide Br- Iodide I Oxoanions: Arsenate AsO 3- Phosphate PO 3- 4 4 Arsenite AsO 33- Hydrogen phosphate HPO 42- Dihydrogen phosphate H2PO 4- Sulfate SO42- Nitrate NO 3- Hydrogen sulfate HSO 4- Nitrite NO 2- Thiosulfate S2O32- 2- Sulfite SO3 - - Perchlorate ClO4 Iodate IO3 - - Chlorate ClO3 Bromate BrO 3 - Chlorite ClO2 - - Hypochlorite OCl Hypobromite OBr Carbonate CO 3- Chromate CrO 4- - 2- Hydrogen carbonate HCO 3 Dichromate Cr2O7 or Bicarbonate Anions from Organic Acids: Acetate CH3COO - formate HCOO - Others: - - Cyanide CN Amide NH 2 Cyanate OCN - Peroxide O 2- 2 Thiocyanate SCN - Oxalate C2O42- - - Hydroxide OH Permanganate MnO 4 -plate tectonics, harry hess, alfred wegener Alfred Wegener: Continental Drift -Alfred Wegener - The Father of Continental Drift -First proposed his continental drift hypothesis in 1915 -Continents are drifting together or apart -Published in his book -Continents "drifted" to present positions -200 million years ago, all continents were together in one supercontinent -Called Pangaea -How did Wegener fit the continents together? -Geometric Fit of the continents -Matching Fossils on different continents that are oceans apart -Matching Geology: Rock types found in one area (exact chemistry of the rocks and ages of the rocks) match exactly with rocks found in other continents separated by oceans -Paleoclimatic Evidence: Evidence of glaciers are found on one continent and their matching missing part are found on a different continent Harry Hess: Seafloor Spreading -Harry Hess: The father of sea-floor spreading, 1962 -Built on what Wegener discovered -Noticed a topography to the ocean floor -There were mountains and trenches on the ocean floor -Using continental drift hypothesis, Harry Hess developed an idea for the production and destruction of oceanic crust -Top Hat Question -Where on the map (world map) do you think new crust is being created -Answer: Pacific Ocean off the west coast of N. and S. America Atlantic Ocean between the Americans and Europe/Africa In the Indian Ocean -Seafloor formed at mid-ocean ridges -Seafloor consumed at trenches -Process driven by convection in the mantle -Convection definition: The slow motion of Earth's solid silicate mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the surface. -know the plate boundaries -Divergent - plates move away from each other -Mid Ocean Ridges -Characterized by the creation of new oceanic crust -Convergent - plates move toward each other -Characterized by the consumption of old oceanic crust by the process of subduction -Subduction: When one plate sinks below another plate -Oceanic crust is destroyed (recycled back into earth) -Transform - When plates slide past each other -Oceanic crust is neither created nor consumed -San Andreas Fault -partial melting -Minerals with the most Si will be the first ones to start melting -Called partial melting -Know which elements are abundant at the different lays of the earth, lots of silica and oxygen at surface, core has lots of iron and nickel Elements in the Earth's Crust -Top Hat Question -Which two elements are the most abundant in the Earth's crust -Answer: Oxygen and Silicon -Distribution of the elements in the Earth's crust -Oxygen -Silicon -Iron -Potassium -Magnesium -Sodium -Calcium -Aluminum -Other -Core is primarily Iron and Nickel. -know solar system formation, accretionary formation -asteroid belt is whats leftover from creation Universe Formation -Big Bang Theory - 13.7 Ga (billion years old) -The universe was initially concentrated in an extremely hot, dense, ball smaller than an atom -An explosion of immense proportions caused intense temperatures and rapid expansion -Temperatures more than 1000x greater than the sun -Still expanding today -Hydrogen formed first, then Helium Solar System Formation - The Nebular Hypothesis A. Dust and gasses (nebula) started to gravitationally collapse (~5 Ga) B. Nebula contracts into a rotating disk, heated by conversion of gravitational to thermal energy; formation of protosun C. Nebula cloud cools, causing condensation of tiny rocky and metallic particles D. Repeated collisions caused dust particles to coalesce into asteroid-sized bodies (protoplanets) E. Bodies accreted into planets within a few million years i. Asteroid belt is what's left over from the creation of the universe 1. Can get pieces of meteorites and look at their chemistry to see when they formed. 2. Oldest 4.68 billion years old (age of the solar system) F. Top Hat Question i. When our solar system was being created, how were the elements distributed? 1. A & B: Lighter elements are distributed inside our solar system and heavier elements are on the outer side of our solar system Formation of the Planets -Outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus, were the first to form -They are gaseous planets made of methane and ammonia ices -The planets closest to the sun are made of metals and rocky minerals -The accretion lasted anywhere from 30 - 50 million years -Earth is 4.56 billion (Ga) years old -How do minerals form -precipitation from solution, accumulation from fossils, crystallization from cooling of magma Formation and Structure of Minerals -Minerals form in 3 primary ways -Crystallization from cooling magma/lava -Most common -Types of Minerals that form are dependent on temperature and chemistry of the magma -Precipitation out of a solution -Water that is saturated in a substance will precipitate these ions in a solid form (ex: salt) -Biologic processes -Usually accumulation of fossils -Minerals consist of an orderly array of atoms (crystalline structure) -Chemically bonded to form a particular crystalline structure -Crystalline structure in ionic compounds determined by -Ion size -Charge of ions -Polymorphs - minerals with the same composition but different crystalline structure -Ex: Diamonds and graphite are both made of carbon -Minerals -Know silicate structure and the different structures -Single chain and double chain - know the differences Silicon-Oxygen Tetrahedron -The fundamental building block of the silicate group -One silicon atom bonded with 4 oxygen atoms (SiO4)^4- -Each O^2- atom gets 1 electron from Si^4+, leaving each oxygen with a -1 charge -Because the charge is overall negative, tetrahedra bond with positive ions to form a stable compound -Usually with Fe, Mg, K, Na, Al, and Ca -Isolated Silicate Tetrahedra: Olivine -Tetrahedra can link together to form chains and sheets -Framework Silicates: Shape is in random direction, chaotic -Quartz -Feldspar -Top Hat Question -How many planes of cleavage will a single chain silicate form? -2 planes at 90 degrees -All single chains have 2 cleavages at 90 degrees and double chains have 2 cleavages at 60 and 120 -Common substitutions AL and Si, Fe and Mg, Na, Ca, and K -Know the cleavages -Single chain have 2 90 cleavages -double chain has 2 at 60 and 120 cleavages -Common Cleavages -Cleavage Direction 1 - Shape = Flat Sheets -Cleavage Direction 2 @ 90* - Shape = Elongated form w/ rectangle cross section -Cleavage Direction 2 not @ 90* - Shape = Elongated form with parallelogram cross section -Cleavage Direction 3 @ 90* - Shape = Cube -Cleavage Direction 3 not @ 90* - Shape = Rhombohedron -Cleavage Direction 4 - Shape = Octahedron -Know the charts, mafic, felsic etc -Which rock has the highest silica content? -Felsic -silica rich things melt first -felsic melts before mafic. Granite melts before a basalt -Know definition of mineral -5 key points, naturally occurring, solid, inorganic, definite chemical composition, crystalline structure What are Minerals -5 key points to the definition -Naturally Occurring - Not artificial -Inorganic - Not living -Solid -Definite chemical composition -Specific crystal structure -Top Hat Question -Is glass a mineral? -No, glass is not a mineral, it does not have a specific crystalline structure that minerals typically take on -Is table salt a mineral? -Yes, it fits each of the five characteristics -Mineral: Natural (Iron Ore), Solid (Sand - Quartz), Inorganic (Rock Salt), Ordered Atomic Structure (Emerald) -Non-mineral: Artificial (Cast Iron), Liquid (Sea water), Gas (Air), Organic (Vegetation), Disordered Atomic Structure (Beer bottles, windows - glass) -Most rocks are Aggregates of different minerals -Ex: Granite is a rock composed of Quartz, Hornblende, and Feldspar -Minerals are composed of elements -A substance that cannot be decomposed into a simpler substance -Basic building blocks of minerals -Over 100 elements are known (92 naturally occurring) -Elements are composed of atoms -Smallest particles of matter -Protons, neutrons, electrons -Know what causes minerals to melt within the earth -temp, lower pressure, increase in volatiles Origin of Magmas -Magmas are created when rocks in the mantle or crust melt -Different rocks melt at different temperatures -Basalt at 1100 degrees Celsius -Granite at 700 degrees Celsius -Silica rich minerals are the first to begin to melt -The rise in temperature with depth is the geothermal gradient -Crust 20-30 degrees Celsius for every kilometer -By 100 km, Temperature at 1200-1400 degrees Celsius -Factors contributing to the melting of rocks: -Increase in temperature -Decrease in Pressure -If a rock moves from high pressure to low pressure -Can happen with tectonic uplift -Increase in volatiles -Compounds/elements with low boiling points (water) -Wet melting: if volatiles are introduced to rock, it can induce melting -Water lowers the melting point of a rock and melting can occur at lower temperatures -know the 3 different rock types -sedimentary, metamorphic, igneous -physical properties of minerals -how to test for physical properties Physical Properties of Minerals -Several physical properties are used to identify minerals -Involves simple tests or observations -Common physical properties include: -Color -Luster -Streak -Hardness -Breakage -Crystal Habit -Color -Generally not diagnostic property for mineral identification -Often high variable due to slight changes in mineral chemistry -Exotic colorations of certain minerals produce gemstones -Luster -Appearance of a mineral in reflected light -Metallic -Nonmetallic -Other descriptive terms exist -Streak -Color of a mineral in powdered form -Generally only good for identifying metallic minerals -Hardness -Resistance of a mineral to abrasion or scratching -Moh's scale of hardness -Breakage -Cleavage -Tendency to break along planes of weak bonding -Produces flat, shiny surfaces -Described by resulting geometric shapes -Number of planes -Angles between adjacent planes -Fracture -Uneven or curved breakage across strong bonds -difference between cleavage and fracture -cleavage is mineral breaks along weak bonds, fracture is a break where there are strong bonds - irregular -igneous rock - textures Igneous Rock Textures -Igneous textures are controlled by: -Rate at which magma cools -Amount of silica present -Amount of dissolved gasses present -Cooling rates can be either slow or fast -Slow cooling: Thousands to millions of years -Few areas of crystal generation -Large crystals -The slower the cooling, the larger the crystals -Intrusive igneous rocks -Fast cooling: days to years -Many areas of crystal generation -Smaller crystals -The faster the cooling, the smaller the crystals -Extrusive(volcanic) igneous rocks -Textures -Aphanitic: When the minerals that form in the rock are too small to be seen without magnification (Fine grain texture, fast cooling: extrusive) -Vesicular: Has abundant elliptical cavities formed from gas bubbles trapped in the rock (gives porous look, fast cooling, found with lava) -Phaneritic: Individual crystals can be seen by the unaided eye (Course grain textures, slow cooling, intrusive) -Porphyritic: Large crystals (called phenocrysts) in a finer-grained matrix (Slow cooling at first, then cooling speeds up) -Glassy: Cooled too quickly for crystalline structures to form (lava cooled to quickly for any crystals to form, eg: eruption, lava falls
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