Exam 1 study guide.
Exam 1 study guide. HNR 247
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Dang on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HNR 247 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr Debra Burg in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Molecules of Life in Perspective in OTHER at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Winter 2014 HNR247 Review Worksheet for Exam 1 Chapter 1 Name 3 differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. o Prokaryotes reproduce/divide quicker. o Eukaryotes have more compartments. o Prokaryotes don’t have a nucleus. o Prokaryotes are always single celled; Eu singular OR multicelled. o P Smaller; Eu 10x larger Make a diagram showing how table salt (NaCl) would be arranged in the crystal form and when dissolved in water. Na and Cl are broken apart into the water. Something like that. Once its broken up: Hydrogen has slight positive O has slight negative. Hydrogen attracts to Cl. Winter 2014 What is the advantage of having multistep chemical reactions in cells instead of singlestep reactions? o Multiple products o More storage of energy o Every step is a possible control point. What is the key characteristic for a monomer? o They’re building blocks to the polymers o Same chemical structure so they can link together like puzzle pieces Explain why lipids in the cell membrane form a bilayer instead of a single layer. o There’s water inside and outside of the cell. o Need to have the hydrophilic heads on both sides and the hydrophobic tails on the inside. Winter 2014 Explain how covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds are used in the formation of a DNA double helix. o Hydrogen bonds are between strands to be able to pull them together o The sides are covalent because if they got pulled apart, they’d change the genetic code0 it’s like a recipe… you wouldn’t end up with the same product. You need to maintain that structure in the proper places. o o Winter 2014 Chapter 2 List 3 differences between DNA and mRNA. o Base U is used instead of T o Ribose is used as the sugar o RNA molecules are generally single stranded. If you had the following sequence on the template strand of DNA, what would the mRNA sequence be? T T C T A C G G A T T A C C T C A G T G C C A T T A C C G T A C T C G G What is the amino acid sequence coded for by this mRNA? (Use the table on p. 43) What would be the effect on the amino acid sequence if the C (underlined) was mutated to an A? What would happen to the amino acid sequence if the C were deleted? Suppose there was a mutation in the gene coding for a transcription factor and the result was that one amino acid was changed in the protein. List as many possible outcomes as you can for how this might impact the function of the transcription factor in the cell. o It would either stop workingdo nothing at all—it wont start. If the mutation happens before the start codon, it just wouldn’t work. o It’ll have a different effect –wont work for its intended purpose. o Or it won’t change at all o Explain how a cell responds to its environment by producing the correct proteins from the DNA. o If there’s a change in environment it’ll have to adjust by producing another protein. Winter 2014 What determines how much of a particular protein is produced? o the stability of the mRNA. Once the mRNA is read, the chain takes a toll and gets weak and mRNA will be broken. In the translation process, which “participant” would be considered the translator? Why? tRNA- Read codons present on mRNA, bind to them and bring to the ribosome the amino acid specified by that particular codon. Chapter 3 Be able to describe or diagram the basic steps in mitosis and meiosis. o Mitosis 2 o Winter 2014 o o Meiosis 4 Winter 2014 o Winter 2014 Describe the basic activities going on in each phase of the cell cycle. o G1 first growth stage—cells synthesize materials and grow o S replication of DNA or DNA synthesis o G2 second growth stage—allows further growth and function following replication o M actual act of cell division o Where are the checkpoints in the cell cycle and what are they checking? g1 protein enzymes made regulatory stuff—DNA polymerase and ribosomes are ready to go. g2 check if DNA is okay to start mitosis—proof read and fix if necessary. What is the difference between translocation and recombination? o Recombination: crossing over and recombining chromosomes. o Translocation is swapping parts. Suppose mitotic nondisjunction were to happen at the second cell division during meiosis and the chromosomes affected were the sex chromosomes (XX or XY). Diagram what the gametes would look like and what the sex chromosome makeup of potential offspring would be. o Why is nondisjunction a bigger deal when it occurs in meiosis than it is for mitosis? o In mitosis it’s in your cell and there’s trillions of things happening and trillions of cells.. we already have a completed body. If you have one cell screw up when there’s just a few cells, you don’t want it to screw up. There’s only a few cells in meiosis. What do we mean by natural selection and how does it happen? Recommended Questions: Chapter 1 – 2: What are the most important differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes ^^ 4: Explain how an almost infinite number of different proteins can be made using only twenty different amino acids: Winter 2014 8: Explain why the statement “enzymes are organic catalysts” is accurate: • Enzymes: Biological catalysts. • Almost always proteins. • They catalyze almost every chemical reaction that occurs inside cells. • Join reactants so the reaction between them is more favorable. • Cells control enzymes by adjusting the amount of it that is present or by changing the ability of enzymes to bind or transform reactants. Provide means for cells to create and modify many biomolecules. 9: Give two reasons why enzyme uniqueness is important: • They must be unique because each step of a reaction has a unique enzyme that functions to catalyze that specific reaction o It assures that only the proper reactants will come together—prevents mistakes that could result in improper chemical products. o They’re controlled by the cell and the rate of the reaction can be controlled by the activity of the catalyst. If cell needs more of product it can speed up reactions leading to that product. If cell has too much product, it can slow down or stop the reactions leading to product. Chapter 2 – 3: Explain how hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces together cause the formation of a DNA double helix: the hydrophobic forces keep everything together—the backbone is hydrophobic so it pushes everything together. The only way to get them closer together without disconnecting is twisting. 8: Explain how tRNA acts as a decoder in translation: Winter 2014 11,Why is it significant that some of the bonds holding the individual building blocks of DNA together are very strong, while others are rather weak: So you can take it apart for DNA replication. 12 DNA replication is a very accurate process, generally producing errors in only one of 10^9 bases replicated. Transcription is not nearly as accurate, producing errors once in every 10^4 bases. Why does DNA replication need to be so accurate? It needs to be an exact replica so the info can be passed to the next organism or cell. - Why can transcription be less accurate? Because if the nitrogen bases change in a specific codon, it doesn’t mean the amino acid will change. For example is AUU changes to AUC it’s still a lle. Chapter 3 – 2 Explain why the condensation of DNA is important during cell divisions: -it needs to be condensed because theres no guarantee that it won’t get ripped off and you wont have all the DNA you need. 3 What do haploid and diploid states have to do with sexual reproduction: 4 Describe the eukaryotic cell cycle: Two major stages: o Interphase o M phase (mitotic) Interphase: the normal state of a cell where primary metabolic events such as protein synthesis, energy conversion and DNA replication occur. o Occupy the typical cell throughout most of its cycle o During interphase, DNA is in the form of chromatin (beads on a string) Only in preparation for cell division does the DNA condense into chromosomes M phase: o when cell division occurs o Made up of two processes: Mitosis Cytokinesis o Steps that must occur before cell can reproduce: Mitosis: Replicated DNA must be distributed in such a way that each daughter cell will obtain the proper set of chromosomes. Cytokinesis: new cell membranes must be produced to physically separate the two new cells Winter 2014 7 What factors ensure that the daughter cells produced by cell division contain all of the required genetic material: the two checkmarks—mainly the second. Chapter 4 – 2 What did Mendel initiate his work with pure-breeding peas: 3 Distinguish between genotype and phenotype using several of Mendel’s pea characteristics. Why can’t we determine an individual’s genotype based on its phenotype? 6 Describe what is meant by (a) incomplete dominance and (b) genetic linkage. Why are these complexities not considered part of Mendelian genetics? Winter 2014 Exam 1 Vocabulary List amino acids nucleotides carbohydrates ions catabolic DNA polymerase catalyst anabolic chromatin antiparallel strands chromosome karyotype codon promoter covalent bonds hydrogen bonds cytoplasm eukaryote DNA mRNA gene transcription factors genome diploid haploid meiosis homologous mitosis hydrophobic proteins ionic bonds polar covalent bonds lipids nucleic acids mitotic nondisjunction RNA polymerase nucleus polymers prokaryote enzymes reading frame mutations recombination primer replication molecules ribosomes anti-codon sister chromatids gametes transcription genetic code translation tRNA
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