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Introduction to Cultural Anthropology Exam 2 Study Guide

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by: Michaela Ebert

Introduction to Cultural Anthropology Exam 2 Study Guide ANTH 108

Marketplace > SUNY College at Oneonta > anthropology, evolution, sphr > ANTH 108 > Introduction to Cultural Anthropology Exam 2 Study Guide
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These notes cover what was on our second exam.
Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
Brian Haley
Study Guide
Anthro, Anthropology, Cultural Anthro, Introduction
50 ?




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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michaela Ebert on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 108 at SUNY College at Oneonta taught by Brian Haley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at SUNY College at Oneonta.

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Date Created: 02/15/16
N&W Ch 1 and related lectures Anthropology: The comparative study of human societies and cultures. Holism: An approach that considers culture, history, language, and biology essential to a complete understanding of human society. Ethnography: The description of a society or culture. It refers to both the process of qualitative, fieldwork-based research and the written results of that research. Ethnology: The attempt to find general principles or laws that govern cultural phenomena. Focus of each subfield of anthropology: -Cultural Anthropology: Comparative study of human societies and cultures. They examine human thought, meaning, and behavior that is learned rather than genetically transmitted, and that is typical of groups of people. -Biological (or physical) Anthropology: Studies people from a biological perspective, focusing primarily on aspects of human kind that are genetically inherited. It includes osteology, nutrition, demography, and primatology. -Linguistic Anthropology: Concerned with understanding language and its relation to culture. -Archaeology: Focuses on the reconstruction of past cultures based on their material remains. -Applied Anthropology: Application of anthropology to the solution of human problems. Dangers of fieldwork: Violence, criminality, and political instability. Living through political turmoil such as war, revolution, and rioting. Ethnocentrism: Judging other cultures from the perspective of one’s own culture. The notion that your culture is better than any other. Cultural Relativism: The notion that cultures should be analyzed with reference to their own histories and values rather than according to the values of another culture. Clines: Forms of species that have genetic differences over a geographical area, typically as a result of environmental heterogeneity. Evidence against existence of biological races: No group of humans has ever been isolated long enough to make them very different from others and, as a result, our similarities are far more compelling than our differences. There are low levels of different skeletal and blood type diversity. Origin of the idea of race: Before the Age of Discovery “race” meant “lineage”. It started to mean “subspecies” during the Age of Discovery. Races were encoded in law first and then science was used to justify them. Rules in other cultural typologies of race: ? N&W Ch 2 and related lectures What Nacirema case tells you about documenting a culture: Anthropologists don’t know if their descriptions and analyses are accurate. Anthropologists are so familiar with the diversity of ways different peoples behave that they are not apt to be surprised by even the most exotic customs. Discoveries/innovations that accumulate into anthropology: ? Major figures and ideas before and after 1860: -Before: Imperialism needs to understand difference, civilized/savage classification, progressivism and primitivism, relativism and social criticism (Montaigne), race (Age of Discovery), Natural Law (Enlightenment), culture, folklore and linguistics (Romantics), folk and nation as units of culture, unity of humankind (Monogenists), professionalization (APS). Jacob and Willhelm Grimm, Michel de Montaigne, monogenists vs polygenists, Heroditus, Tacitus, Ibn Khalduh, Johann Gottfriend con Herder -After: New version of evolution in biology; theory of natural selection, Darwin, human evolution is considered. Cultural evolution is considered, makes new materials in cultural anthropology. Lewis Henry Morgan, Edward B. Tylor. Value of fieldwork: Participant observation, gathering cultural data by observing people’s behavior and participating in their lives. You get to see everything. Changing focus of ethnographics: Ethnology, the attempt to find general principles or laws that govern cultural phenomena. Think about their own societies in a new light and help change them for the better. A systematic way of organizing, tabulating and correlating information on a large number of societies- Descriptive Sociology by Herbert Spencer. Emic: Examining a society using concepts and distinctions that are meaningful to members of that culture. Etic: Examining societies using concepts, categories, and rules derived from science; an outsider’s perspective that produces analyses that members of the society being studied may not find meaningful. HRAF: An ethnographic database that includes descriptions of more than 300 cultures and is used for cross-cultural research. Biases overcome by feminist anthropology: Most men had little access to the lives of women because most anthropologists were men. Men’s activities were political and therefore important where as women’s activities were domestic and therefore less important. Men’s activities were far more public than women’s activities. Trends in native anthropology: Definition; an anthropologist who does fieldwork in his own culture. More common because the increasing total number of anthros, the rise of interest in ethnicity, and the dangers of violence and political instability in the other areas where anthros have worked. Informed consent: The requirement that participants in anthropological studies should understand the ways in which their participation and the release of the research data are likely to affect them. N&W Ch 3 and related lectures Tylor’s definition of culture: “complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities acquired (learned) by man as a member of society.” Theoretical orientations behind Nanda and Warms’ definition of culture: ? Lee’s original theoretical orientation: ? Inuit enculturation: Learn from their elders, are discouraged from asking questions. They are expected to observe a problem and find a solution independently when they are faced with a problem. They watch, practice, and are tested usually by adults asking them questions. Play is a large part of their learning. Must learn to be cooperative and emotionally restrained. Explain Ju/’haonsi AIDS infection rate: Women have no problem with saying no to having sex with someone if they won’t wear a condom. This lowers the rate of AIDS. But as the economy introduces more outsiders, the rate is increasing. Focus of symbolic and interpretive anthropology: -Symbolic: Study of cultural symbols and how those symbols can be interpreted to better understand a particular society. -Interpretive: Emphasizes culture as a system of meaning and proposes that the aim of cultural anthro is to interpret the meanings that cultural acts have their participants. Organic Analogy: Compare society to the human body. All parts of society need to work together in order for it to maintain consensus. If one part stops, it will all be affected. Herbert Spencer. Functionalism: Specific cultural institutions function to support the structure of society or serve the needs of individuals in society. Diversity and conflict within cultures: Conflicts between different elements of culture are found in all cultural systems. If culture is a system, its parts do not fit together easily or well. Culture is constantly changing. Norms: An ideal cultural pattern that influences behavior in a society. Values: A culturally defined idea of what is true, right, and beautiful. Historical Particularism: Argues that each society is a collective representation of its unique historical past. Franz Boas. Adaptation: A change in the biological structure or lifeway of an individual or population by which it becomes better fitted to survive and reproduce in its environment. Cultural Ecology: The study of human adaptations to social and physical environments. Plasticity: The ability of humans to change their behavior in response to a wide range of environmental demands. Innovation: A new variation on an existing cultural pattern that is subsequently accepted by other members of the society. Diffusion: The spread of cultural elements from one culture to another through cultural contact. Why and American house isn’t very good in Thailand: Heavy rainy season, the roof could not dry all the way bc it was under trees, branches from the trees also fell through his roof. The water came through the roof bc the slop of the lean-to over the kitchen was not steep enough. The cows tried to eat his grass, and they pooped all over. He had to sweep and wipe everything to prevent mildew because it was built low to the ground. Materialist view of 9/11: ? More concerned with material things than spiritual, intellectual, or cultural values. Lee Ch 1 What was Lee’s original research interest?: Since human institutions evolved in foraging societies, asking how modern foragers make a living or organize their communities could teach us much about the nature of humanity. Where is Dobe?: To the west, near the beacon that marked the border with South West Africa. It is a waterhole. Who are the nine that greet Lee?: Toma, Toma, N!eishi, Tin!ay //Gumin!a, Sa//gai, //Koka. Why do they accept Lee?: He gave them tobacco and they wanted a White man of their own. They expect good things from him and that he will give them everything. Lee Ch 2 Khoi and San: -Khoi: Cattle and goat-herding people. Click-filled language. -San: Nonherding people. Similar in language and appearance, but they kept no livestock. Instead, they live on wild plants, animals, and shellfish. Shy, so they live in much smaller groups than the Khoi. Bushmen is another name for them, but this term is racist and sexist. “Yellow” vs. “black” san: -“Yellow”: Short and pale-skinned, deep-chested, straight foreheads and small delicate faces and jaws. Found in southern Angola, western and central Botswana, and northern and eastern Namibia. Three different language families; Northern Kung-Ju, Central Tshu- Khwe, and Southern Xo. Full-time gatherer-hunters, mixed farmers and herders, and since the 1960s, a growing number of farm and migrant laborers. -“Black”: Tall and dark-skinned like their Bantu-speaking neighbors. Include people from southeastern Angola, western Zambia, and eastern Botswana. Economy is based on mixed herding, farming, foraging, and wage labor. Speak language of the Tshu-Khwe group. Beginnings of modern ethnographic study: Expeditions of Laurence and Lorna Marshall and their family when the visited the Ju in 1951. Differences between !Goshe and Dobe: !Goshe people were wealthier. They married among themselves. They were famous as a center of ritual and medicine. Healing dances were held frequently, sometimes daily. History of contact with whites and blacks: They were convinced that their ancestors were a distinct people who lived on their own by hunting and getherin, but when an area opened up, blacks and whites arrived within a few years of one another. They say the whites came first. Lee Ch 3 Major food resources of 4 habitats: -Dunes: Vegetation. The mongongo nut is the major plant food of the Dobe area and only found near the dunes. It is a protein-rich nut meat and a nutritious fruit. And the tree’s hollow interior traps rain water for drinking. -Flats: Provides extensive groves of Grewia berry bushes, with its tasty fruit and a number of other edible species. -Melapo: Smaller melapo have compacted soils of light gray or buff. Here, dense thickets of small trees verging on forests are found. Well-defined melapo, with gray, compacted, silty soils and occasional bed of hardpan, support many species of Acacia with their edible gums. -Hardpan: Soil here consists of patches of bare rock alternating with patches of sand or mud. The Baobab tree with its fruit and seed is the most important food around here. Water sources: Primary waterholes found in the main river bottoms where the bedrock is exposed. They are mostly natural, but have been improved or maintained by people. Second, seasonal waters that exist for 1-6 months per year-found in melapo between the dunes, where local drainage patters produce a depression. They hold water after a heavy rain. Third, small quantities of water found in the hollow interiors of mongongo and other trees. There are also several species of water- bearing food which can be dug up and used in emergencies. Major Fauna: Ungulates (hoofed mammals)-kudu, wildebeest, gemsbok. Giraffe, eland, roan antelope, hartebeest. Nonmigratory warthog, steenbok, duiker. Lion, leopard, cheetah, hyena, wild dog, smaller carnivores. Climate and seasons: Hot summers with 4-6 month rainy season and moderate to cool winders without rainfall. Oct and Feb are the hottest months of the year. June and July are the coldest. Temps are consistent, rainfall is not. -Seasons: !Huma –spring rain, Oct to Nov. Bara –main summer rains, Dec to Mar. ≠ Tobe –autumn, Apr or May. !Gum –winter, end of May to Aug. !Gaa –spring season, begins in Aug. Village types: -Dry season villages: 3-6 months, May or Jun – Sept or Oct. 8- 15 huts with 20-50 people. Located near permanent water sources. Huts are well constructed. -Rainy season villages: Near major seasonal water and food sources. 3-20 huts. 3 weeks – 3 months. Huts are put together quickly. -Spring and fall camps: No huts are built. 2-3 weeks. -Over night stops: Only a fire is built, leaves the next morning. -Cattle post villages: Carefully constructed huts. 1-20 huts. Ideal village layout: 5 circles. Center; public space (a cleared plaza). Next; most important part, ring of huts. Directly in front of that; family fire where the food is cooked and people socialize in the evening and the family sleeps at night. Next; carefully cleared of grass so people can move about without fear of snakes. Next; garbage. Third; cooking pits or earth ovens are dug, animal is cooked here. Last; toilet. Lee Ch 4 Carrying devices: Digging stick, kaross, small bag, detailed small bag, man’s bag, baby carrier, carrying yoke, man’s net, leather bags, baby sling. Primary and major foods: -Primary: 1 species; widely abundant year-round-the mongongo. -Major: 13 species; widely abundant, seasonal. Strategy for acquiring food: Hunting and gathering. Dietary contribution from hunting: Distribution is done with great care, according to a set of rules. It is made sure that everyone gets their right portion. A good distribution will be remembered for weeks while a bad one can cause harsh feelings between relatives. Hunting Tools: -Major: Bow and arrow, spear, knife, springhare hook, rope snares. -Minor: Digging stick, fire-making equipment, knife, ropes, carrying yoke. Insulting the meat: After a successful hunt, they insult the mead. This maintains egalitarianism by countering potential arrogance in a successful hunter. Quality of diet relative to labor invested: Men provide 45% of the food, women 55%. Men worked harder than women. Veggies 70% of diet, meat 30%. Lee Ch 5 Core group (k’’ausi): At the center of each camp is a core of related older people, usually siblings or cousins, who are acknowledged as the owners of the waterhole. Who else can be camp member: People visit and shift around, adjusting the numbers of people in the camp. This shows that the Ju camp is a unit of sharing. Kin term principle of alternating generations: It relates to another principle of joking and violence. You’re either joking or being violent and all of the ego’s kin fall into one or another of the two categories. Eskimo type: Kinship system used to define families. Joking and avoidance relations: -Joking relative: You at relaxed and speak on familiar terms. Could be someone you can marry. -Avoidance relative: Showrespect and reserve. Cannot marry. Name relationships: First born son; named after his father’s father. First born daughter; after father’s mother. Second born son; mother’s father. Second born daughter; mother’s mother. Then father’s brothers and then sisters, and then mother’s brothers and then sisters. Wi: Elders chose kin terms for juniors, when combined with the name relationship, make kinship appear quirky and unpredictable. Then in midlife, it turns around and you take these well-established wis and impose them on your juniors of various names in ways that have little meaning to them, just as was done to you. Lee Ch 6 Who one can/cannot marry: Pay attention to the kinship and name relationships on the prospects. Can’t marry anyone in your direct family, or a first or second cousin. A girl cannot marry someone with the same name as her brother or father’s name, same with a boy. Anyone standing in avoidance kinship relation to ego, including the tersm. Why marriages are arranged: Parents are picky about who their daughters marry. Ideal son-in-law: Unrelated or distantly related, name relation is old name (the most cordial of joking relations), good hunter, not have a rep as a fighter, come from a good family. The exchange of gifts must be kept up. Ages at marriage: -Girls: 12-16. Sometimes 8-10. -Boys: 18-25. Usually 7-15 years older than the girl. Bride Service: The groom lives with the bride’s family for a number of years and hunts for them. Attitudes toward plural marriage: It is allowed and men desire it, but women often oppose it. Divorce and remarriage: Many people find themselves without a spouse during middle age. Many do remarry and find that they are happier. A number of old women marry younger men. Attitudes toward virginity: It is best if someone is married before they have sex, but young kids experiment at an early age. Extramarital affairs: They are looked down upon in society, but do happen. Homosexuality: is not common, but it does occur. Some people have experimented, but are married to the opposite sex or bi. Lee Ch 7 Changes after 1968: Opening of a store and a school and a health clinic and air strip. Ju began to shift over to a small-scale livestock and crop production and settle into semi permanent villages. Cash became a common medium of exchange that choexisted with the traditional regional gift exchange system. Migrant labor, livestock sales, and craft production became sources of cash income. Attitudes toward elderly: constant topic of conversations and a source of humor. They have powers that permit them to eat certain foods considered to be too dangers for younger people to consume. They take leadership roles. Death is not linked with old age. Functions of complaint discourse: Not unusual for old age. They rely on words to sustain mutual responsibility for caregiving, and to punish offenders. Who cares for the elderly: Many old people complain that no one does, but their families do (children) and if they don’t then other people in the camp will. Someone is always caring for and elderly person. Michaela  Ebert   ANTH  100-­‐01:  Study  Guide  for  Exam  #2  S2014   •  Note: The glossaries in your books are useful references.   N  &  W  Ch  4  &  related  lectures   Symbolism of table settings: ? Call systems: • The form of communication among nonhuman primate composed of a limited number of sounds that are tied to specific stimuli in the environment Conventionality: • The notion that, in human language, words are only arbitrarily or conventionally connected to the things for which they stand Productivity: • The ability of humans to combine words and sounds into new meaningful utterances Displacement: • The capacity of all human languages to describe things not happening in the present Phonemes in SSAE, in Khoisan: • (Phonemes; the smallest significant unit of sound in a language. A phonemic system is the sound system of a language) • Some of the Khoisan “click” languages of southern Africa have over 140 phonemes • But anything that can be said in any language can be said in all other languages Structural features of language: • The structure of any language has 4 subscripts; -phonology – a system of sounds -morphology – a system for creating words from sounds -syntax – a system of rules for combining words into meaningful sentences -semantics – a system that relates words to meaning Apache language use: Prestige & stigmatized dialects: • Pristige; a dialect spoken by people with the most prestige in a language community. The term “language community” is used to classify groups of people who speak a single language and its closely related dialects • Stigmatized; forms spoken by those in lower socioeconomic statuses are considered incorrect and are stigmatized AAVE: • A form of English spoken by many African Americans, particularly among those of rural or urban working-class backgrounds. Also known as Ebonics Code switching: • The ability of individuals who speak multiple languages to move seamlessly between them Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: • The hypothesis that perceptions and understandings of time, space, and matter are conditioned by the structure of a language • Speakers of different languages perceive their worlds in different ways Creole: • A first language that is composed of elements of two or more different languages Pidgin: • A language of contact and trade composed of features of the original languages of two or more societites Anthropologists on English-Only initiatives: ?   N  &  W  Ch  5  &  related  lectures   Subsistence strategies: • (The way a society transforms environmental resources into food) • Each strategy uses the environment in different ways and each has a different impact on the environment -Foraging – plant and animal resources naturally available in the environment -Pastoralism – the care of domesticated herd animals whose dairy and meat are used -Horticulture – the production of plants using a simple, non-mechanized technology -Agriculture – the production of food using the plow, draft animals, and complex techniques of water and soil control so that land is permanently cultivated and needs no fallow period -Industrialism – the use of machine technology and chemical processes for the production of food and other goods Major correlated characteristics: • Foragers; population density – communities of 20-50 ppl. Social & political complexity – simple, flexible organization; egalitarian; informal leadership • Pastoralism; social & political complexity – simple to moderate organization; moderate inequality; informal to formal leadership • Horticulture; population density – villages of 100-1000 ppl. Social & political complexity – simple to moderate organization; low-moderate inequality; informal to formal leadership • Agriculture; population density – MANY. Social & political complexity – moderate to complex organization; high inequality; permanent power and authority • Industrialism; social and political complexity – very complex organization; highly stratified; high levels of power and authority Ethnographic examples of various subsistence strategies: • Foragers; Australian Foragers, Ju/’hoansi, Pintupi, Inuit • Pastoralism; The Yarahmadzai, Maasai • Horticulture; Yanomamo, Kawelka, Lua’ • Agriculture; Musha, Bolivians • Industrialization; US (beef industry) Variations in foraging: • Generalized foragers; wide range of foods consumed regulartly, Ju/’hoansi of Kalahari Desert – 95-105 plant foods, small game-reptiles/birds, 11+ larger game species   • Specialized foragers; a few resources from bulk of diet, Haida of Pacific Nortwest – fish. Plains Cree and Cheyenne of the northern Plains – bison     N  &  W  Ch  6  &  related  lectures   Anthropological approach to economics: • Understanding the relationship between the economy and the rest of a culture • Culture defines/shapes the ends sought by individuals and the means of achieving those ends Key resources & allocation by subsistence strategy: • Productive resources (material goods, natural resources, information used to create goods or information that are easy to access) are different for everyone • Foragers; weapons, tools, knowledge, land and water. Boundaries are always adjusting based on available resources – freedom of movement • Pastoralists; livestock and land. Migratory based on the climate • Horticulturalists; land, tools, knowledge, storage facilities. Land tends to be communally owned by an extended kin group • Agriculturalists; complex tools, technological knowledge and capital. Comes to dominate production Reciprocity & social distance: • (Reciprocity; mutual give and take of goods and services among people of similar status) • Generalized reciprocity; giving and receiving goods with no immediate or specific return expected • Balanced reciprocity; the giving and receiving of goods of nearly equal value with a clear obligation of a return gift within a specified time limit • Negative reciprocity; exchange conducted for the purpose of material advantage and the desire to get something for nothing Kula: • A pattern of exchange among trading partners in the South Pacific islands • Mainly shell valuables; each item has a name and a history • Obligated to return favor eventually Redistribution: • (Exchange in which goods are collected and then distributed to members of a group) • Social center to which goods are brought and from which they are distributed • Potlatch; form of redistribution involving competitive feasting practiced among Northwest Coast Native Americans. Held to honor and validate the rand of chiefs and other notables. Leader must supply food. The number of guests present and the amount of goods given away or destroyed reveals the wealth and prestige of the host chief • Moka; in highland New Guinea • Leveling mechanisms; a practice, value, or form of social organization that evens out wealth within a society (ex. Ju sharing of arrows, insulting the meat) Attributes of capitalism: • (An economic system in which people work for wages, land and capital goods are privately owned, and capital is invested for profit) • Has transformed economies worldwide and connected them in a complex, integrated international economy • In NONCAPITALIST societies ppl produce goods to consume them, to trade them for other goods, or to pay rent and taxes • In CAPITALIST societies, firms produce goods as a means to create wealth Capitalism in Turkey: • Women live in complex social networks that are characterized by social obligations and relations of reciprocity • They measure their worth by the work they do for family members • They produce garments that are sold in the US • The materials they use are supplied to them by an organizer, who also finds a buyer for their finished product. The organizer is often a relative, neighbor, or friend of the women who does the work • Many ppl don’t think women should be paid for their labor, and the women understand that the little they do get paid is a gift of labor from someone in which they have social relations • They understand that they work in terms of social obligation   Lee  Ch  8   Rights to resources in n!ore:     • Owned  by  a  group  of  related  people,  you  go  to  them  for  permission  to  camp   there  –  which  is  rarely  ever  refused   • If  food  runs  out  in  their  n!ore  there  are  several  others  they  have  claim  of  the   resources  on   • If  someone  pays  a  visit  to  your  n!ore,  you  can  go  to  theirs  in  another  season   • Everyone  has  rights  to  at  least  2  n!ores  –  the  father’s  and  the  mother’s   • Can  gain  more  through  spouses,  siblings,  children’s  marriages   Limited power of leaders: • They have considerable influence in group decisions • Never command, only suggest • When a fight breaks out, no one in the Ju society with the force of law behind him to separate the parties until they reach a settlement Sources of conflict: • Anger, jealousy, rage, greed, envy • Often members of closely related living groups • Rapid escalation that draws in more people that were not originally part of the problem Levels of conflict: • Talking – an argument that may involve threats and verbal abuse but no blows • Fighting – an exchange of blows without the use of weapons • Deadly fighting – one in which deadly weapons come out, like poisoned arrows, spears and clubs Popularity of the kgotla  court: • (When serious conflicts are brought to the headman at !Kangwa for adjudication rather than allowing them to become violent) • Very popular with Ju/’hoansi, Tswana, Herero Hxaro  exchange: • Gift giving • It circulates goods, lubricates social relations, and maintains ecological balance • Does not require and immediate return of equivalent value • Any 2 ppl regardless of age or sex can do this Ju concept of wealth: • Items of the European origin, especially clothing • Glass beads of European origin (mostly Czech) • Iron cooking pots • Enamelware and other utensils Lee  Ch  9   //Gangwasi:   • Ghosts  of  recently  deceased  Ju   • They  hover  near  the  villages  and  when  serious  illness  or  misfortune  strikes   its  almost  always  them  who  cause  it   N/um:   • The  spiritual  medicine  or  energy  given  by  gods  to  men  and  women   • Specially  trained  healers  are  able  to  enter  trances  and  heal  the  sick   !Kia:   • The  trance  state   • Achieving  this  state  is  extremely  painful   • The  first  step  in  reaching  n/um   Methods of healing: • The giraffe dance • The women’s drum dance Drum dance: • Women dance and enter trance • Men beat complex rhythms on the long drum • Dance in one place with short steps Lee  Ch  10   Herero: • Largest group of non-Ju/’hoansi in the Dobe area • Pastoralists, their cattle hers are thousands, agriculture • Double descent • Women have relatively high status • Bantu language Tswana: • Small in the Dobe area • Large cattle-holders • Live in dispersed hamlets like Herero • The court of the headman has been important in settling disputes Work relationships: • Blacks couldn’t handle all their cattle so they gave them to the Ju men • Men usually 15-25 would work with the cattle owner, take their meals with the Herero family and sleep in their hamlet. They were each given a donkey to ride, and outfit, and a blanket. If married, could bring family • Wages were small but if he did his job well he might be rewarded a female calf of his own so he could start his own herd • Distribution of milk and meat • Could result in a clientship – life long friendship Intermarriage patterns: • Ju women marrying black men lead to a question of status difference (marrying a black man was definitely a step up), question of translating between the norms of the two kinships, and the question of the children (how would they be raised, Herero or Ju/’hoansi) • Marrying a Ju woman advantages; Dobe was a frontier area and very close, don’t have to pay as much to get married, girls were attractive and good lovers • Marrying a Ju woman disadvantages; the women were considered free spirits, the Ju girls do not conform to what is expected to them of their Herero in-laws Function of use of the term swara:   • The  Herero  and  Tswana’s  special  kinship  term  to  mean  brothers-­‐in-­‐law   created  by  intermarriage • Joking  and  cordial • Secretly  means  “either  man  could  give  his  sister  in  marriage  to  the  other”,   “you  gave  me  your  sister  today,  I  may  give  you  my  sister  tomorrow”   Lee  Ch  11   Ju likes & dislikes about whites: • Likes; their technology, riding on trucks, tape recorders • Dislikes; they speak a different language and are therefore hard to understand and communicate with /Gau’s experience: • He wanted to visit some of the world that he had heard about, after he returned he took to his bed for weeks • Some figure ate people and puked them back up, and he went in – strange and fearful Roles of farming & herding: • 10 crops; gourds, marijuana, sugarcane, beans, maize, melons, sorghum and tobacco (most frequently planted) • The possession of a herd of goats or cattle puts Ju in a difficult situation; their mobility is restricted and there are daily tasks to be performed Migrant wage work: • Migrant labor was a mains source of income for many African men • About 10% of the Dobe area of the male population had made the trip to Johanneburg • To travel, the men had to get a medical examination, then wait with 150 other men for the weekly flight to the mines Slow acceptance of schools: • First school opened in !Kangwa on Jan 1973 • The fee was too high and they also had to purchase the outfit and the laundry soap to keep it clean • It was located at the village where the heaviest drinking took place – parents feared their children would be beaten or neglected if they were left in the care of those people • School children were growing up to be disrespectful to their parents • Ju children were forbidden to speak their language on school grounds • They were caught in the middle; the Ju had good reasons to be suspicious of the school but if their children didn’t get literacy skills it would be hard for them to get jobs and such • The ability to read and write was becoming and even more important skill than hunting Effects of BDO & RADO: • BDO; job was to count the Basarwa, find out what their special needs were, offer grants to local authorities for their welfare. Scholarships to attend primary school. Then became RADO • RADO; the number of cattle had increased and over 50 Ju agricultural fields had been registered with the land board • These successes lead to social problems; the breakdown of sharing, wealth differences, subordination of women   Lee  Ch  12   Major changes in the area and way of life: • Transformed from a society of foragers to a society of small-holders who eked out a living by herding, farming, and craft production, along with some hunging and gathering • First school opened in 1973 in !Kangwa • Semi permanent mud-walled houses were built during the 1970s • Mid-1970s the first borehole was drilled to serve the school • Central government provided feeding programs because of the prolonged drought • Clinics started opening • Grass to mud • Circular villages to lines • Hunting and gathering to milk and meat from their domestic stock • Worse health • More income – used for beer Prejudice in Botswana: • They don’t have • They aren’t black so people were judging them ? worse experience in Nyae Nyae: • Massive resettlement, loss of most of their land base, militarization • Home-brew parties, social problems, family violence • People ate more than they needed to when others had no food • Laws got tough and many people went to jail • Military; men joined as a way to work and get paid, but many ppl had divided feelings on the morality of the war and didn’t know which side to support Impact of anthropologists in NNDFN: • Tried to facilitate the Ju/’hoan voices directly reaching governments, donors, and the media rather than “speaking for” them • Promote literacy in their language as well as English • Tried to make it so their land wouldn’t be taken over • Drill boreholes and purchase small herds of cattle to sell • Even with their help, the road to self-reliance wasn’t easy for the Nyae Nyae Changes sought and achieved by the Ju & personal successes: • Farmers shouldn’t be allowed to overgraze their land and move to other ppl’s land to ruin it • Permission must be asked from residents looking to resettle in Namibia • Take good care of a few cattle and use proceeds to establish water points and support the health of the land • Must protect land • Some must be set aside for wild animal breeding and wild plant collecting • If we protect our land it will support many more of our people • Respect their land rights • Peaceful removal of the neighboring pastoralists • They can meet the challenges of economic and political change without losing their cultural pride Impact of HIV/AIDS: • Life expectancy has fallen • Lower number of Ju/’hoan with HIV/AIDS because women have no problem with refusing sex if a man refuses to wear a condom • But they are put in a tough situation because they face abuse or abandonment sometimes if they refuse the man – tough situation for the women • Women get drunk and this creates points of entry for HIV infection and spreads the virus   Lee  Ch  13   Sources of change at Tsumkwe: • Site was changed from a water hole to a government station • People were urged to move there where they would be under the watchful eyes of the government and they would be provided with health services and schooling • There would be missionary there as well • War of liberation, transition to independence under a Black government, cash economy and capitalist relations of production, harsh conditions of overcrowding and social dysfunction Survey results: • Subsistence; wild food and store-bought food tied for importance • Cash economy dependence; wage-labor, old-age pensions, petty commodity production. Jobs included government work. Primary source of income for women was craft production • Health; HIV and AIDS was low. Tuberculosis was extremely high. Malaria getting way better. Some home birth, but mainly still in the bush – valued cultural practices • Religious; 44% attend church only, 9% participate in traditional healing – significant shift in religious practices • Education; very low for the older people, very high for the younger people. Born after 1970 shows increasing school attendance. Completing an education tends to lead to better and higher paying jobs. But some jobs aren’t based on education but on life experience so for many jobs people didn’t need an education • The bush; 1968-69 almost half and half (old ways vs. new ways) with a slight majority on people who favored the traditional ways. 2010 96% favored the new ways • Shebeens; major concerns of long standing impacts of alcohol on nutrition, family life, childrearing, HIV, TB Overall conclusion: • Everything is leading to an optimizing future   Lee  Ch  14   Traditionalists: • Attempted to deal with the changes by ifnoring them • They liked the Ju better the way they were when they dressed in skins and foraged for a living Revisionists: • They argue that they are not hunters and gatherers Lee’s preference: • Neither traditionalists nor revisionists can do justice to the realities of their life today or in the past • He wanted to bring together the shattered perceptions and to restore coherence • They cannot simply forget their entire history • They didn’t stop being who they were, they have a strong sense of themselves Communal mode of production: Equality’s role in evolution:   Videos:  Review class handouts & points discussed in class. Ongka’s  Big  Moka  Kingdom   of  Women  (if we get to it)    


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