Finalized test 1 study guide for Geology!
Finalized test 1 study guide for Geology! GEOL 1610
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia Brooksbank on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 1610 at University of North Texas taught by Johnny Byers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geology at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Physical Geology Exam 1 1. Who is Charles Lyell? - Geologist. He was famous for writing the Principles of Geology - an attempt to explain the former changes of the earth’s surface, by references to causes now (uniformitarianism) - Uniformitarianism: The idea that Earth was shaped by the same processes still in operation today - PRESENT IS THE KEYTO THE PAST 2. The geologic time scale (two methods): Radiometric techniques based on half lives - Relative dating: Putting things in sequence, historical events in the correct order, the age of one object in comparison to another - Absolute dating: Shows how many years ago a given event took place. (1950) based on radiometric decay scale (numerical) Based on isotopes (unstable elements). Estimates how many years ago a given event took place 3. “The present is key to the past” is from what doctrine? - UNIFORMITARIANISM: The earth’s process of asteroids, earthquakes, floods and volcanoes have been happening for thousands of years, what is happening now is the same process that happened in the past to the earth - James Hutton: Originated the theory of Uniformitarianism of the earth, an example would be water flows now just as it has in the past. 4. The outcrop that James Hutton noticed changed his perspective on the Earth’s age. What exactly was this? - He noticed erosion and sedimentation and that understanding these processes will help determine the history of the earth. Like the water example in question three, water flows and erodes rock into cobble stones, shapes the bed of the water by the way it erodes the sediment underneath, with this change caused by water one can see how it has changed over time.As well as sedimentation, sediment will settle at the bottom of a body of water, layers will form and show the age of the particular area when observed. - Angular unconformity led him to the concept of uniformitatrism (DEVELOPED CONCEPT) 5. The two major groups of rock forming minerals are silicates and non silicates. - The silicates are the most important part of the crust which makes up 75% of the crust 6. The changing of one type or rock into another through certain steps is called what? - The Rock Cycle 7. Catastrophism: Theory that changes in the earths crust resulted mainly from catastrophic events like volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, earthquakes, etc. 8. The process of observing and gathering data, and testing formulating hypothesisis, testing, theories, and laws is called what? - The Scientific Method 9. Contributes to Plate Techtonics: - Dr. Seuss: (1831) Geologist; Hypothesized maybe sometime in the past there was a super continent Physical Geology Exam 1 - Alfred Wegner: (1880-1930) Geologist; Hypothesized that S.America andAfrica were part of a super continent called Pangea (Super continent, continental drift) Discovered fossil evidence on more than one continent with the same species. - Sir Edward Bullard: (1907-1980) Used Seismology to study the ocean floor, he discovered new theory of continental drift, heat flow through the Ocean crust. - Harry Hess: (1906-1969) Located submarines with sonar during the war, accidentally mapped the ocean floor with this sonar. Discovered elevation in the sea floor and how it is spreading the rock in symmetrical stripes, away from the active ridge crest. 10. Paleomagnetism: The study of the record of the Earth’s magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials. Certain minerals in rocks lock-in a record of the direction and intensity of the magnetic field when they form.All major primary landforms are explained by PLATE TECTONICS 11. Three types of plate boundaries: (When continents collide they destroy everything in-between them and create new rock) - Divergent: Pulled apart (DIVERGING) - Transform Boundary: Splitting past each other in opposite directions - Convergent Boundary: They destroy/construct older oceanic rock subjecting into newer oceanic rock 12. What is the driving mechanism for Plate Tectonics? - The earth is covered by crustal plates - Convection currents under the plates move the crustal plates different directions. - The heat from radioactivity deep in the earth drives the convection 13. Elements and minerals of Earth: - 8 elements, 7 minetals EIGHT ELEMENTS MAKE UP 98% OF EARTHS CRUST BIGGEST: Oxygen = 46.6%, Silicon = 27.7% 14. Hardest naturally occurring mineral on Moh’s scale (Hardness scale mineral property): - Diamond 15. Amineral is all of the following except? - Arock: which does not have a chemical composition 16. Which mineral is composed of entirely of Silicon and Oxygen? - QUARTZ 17. The dense, positively charged particles that compose atoms are called: - Protons and Neutrons in anAtom make up small, dense and (+) charged core = Nucleus 18. Type of chemical bonding in which a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms is called___ - Covalent bond Physical Geology Exam 1 19.All silicate mineral contain these elements: Silicon and Oxygen 20.Atype of chemical bonding in which electrons flow freely is called ___bonding? - METALLIC BONDING 21. What are three thingsAlfred Wegner discovered? 1. Continents fit together like a jigsaw puzzle 2. Matching fossils on separate continents 3. Glacial deposits near equator 22. What are three examples of chemical weathering? 1. Oxidation 2. Dissolution 3. Hydrolysis 23. What are examples of mechanical weathering? 1. Frost wedging 2. Root wedging 24. Three basic types of volcanoes: 1. Shield 2. Cinder Cones 3. Composite Cones 25. Intrusive Rocks are… Igneous rocks, rocks that form underground from cooled magma 26. WHAT COLOR IS POTASSIUM PINK! 27. Common properties used to identify minerals: - Crystal form, color, streak, luster, reaction to acid, magnetic, take, feel, sirloin lines, hardness, optical properties such as double refraction, cleavage planes, cleavage angles 28. What are Dikes? - Tabular, sheet like igneous body that is often vertically oriented or steeply inclined to the bedding of Pre-existing rocks 29. The matching up of strata from different outcrops in different regions is called. - 30. In the Silicon-Oxygen tetrahedron, there are more silicon atoms than oxygen atoms. - FALSE 31. _____ Implies that each successive later deposited is younger than the one deposited below, therefore the oldest rocks would be at the bottom of an outcrop and the youngest rock would be at the top of an outcrop, provided the outcrop has not been overturned. - Law of Superposition 32. This mineral will readily react with hydrochloric acid (HCL). - Carbonate materials such as calcite Physical Geology Exam 1 33. What are the two most abundant elements of the silicate mineral group? - Silicon and Oxygen 34. To test for topaz using Moh’s hardness scale, you would expect topaz to scratch quartz and be scratched by: - Corundum or Diamond 35. Is basaltic magma less likely to form pyroclasts than andesitic magma. - TRUE because they have a high silica content but basalts have a low silica content because it can flow 36. Olivine and quartz are commonly found together in the same rock? - Rare cases….BUT NO because they are on opposite ends of Bowen’s reaction series 37. Igneous rocks with high silica content are classified as - Felsic rock 38. Rocks that contain crystals that are roughly equal in size can be identified with the unaided eye are said to exhibit this texture - Phaneritic (Roce Crispy) 39. Pioneering investigations into the crystallization of magma were carried out by: - Bowen’s Reaction series 41.Alarge plutonic mass encompasses an area of over 40,000 square kilometers is… - Batholith 42. If a rock, which contained all of the minerals in Bowen’s reaction series, were to be heated which would be last to melt: - Olivine (Bowen’s Reaction Series) 43. Igneous rocks with high silica content are classified as: - Felsic Rock 44. Granite and Gabbro: Granite: Intrusive rock, phaneritic, slow cooling Gabbro: Intrusive rock, phaneritic, slow cooling, mafic, dark, oceanic rock 45.Arock composed primarily of quartz, feldspar, and muscovite could be… - Granite and Rhyolite (Felsic Rock) 46. Isostacy,Asthenosphere, Lithosphere relationship to plate tectonics: - Liquid, solid, the asthenosphere is dragging the lithosphere reason for plate tectonics movement 47.All silicate materials contain what? - SILICONAND OXYGEN 48. The Hawaiian Islands are primarily composed of this rock: - Basalt 49.Avolcanoes viscosity is related to its… - Silica content 50: Compaction and Cementation are sedimentary lithification process: TRUE Physical Geology Exam 1 51. Rock resulting in consolidation of loose sediment is what? Sedimentary ROCK KEYTERMS: 1. Mechanical weathering: Breaking Down physically 2. Differential weathering: Some earth materials weather faster than others 3. Lithosphere: The outermost layer of the earth, Earth’s crust and upper mantle or entire solid planet to include the soil layer or edaphosphere (soil beneath feet) 4. Andesite: Intermediate composition of igneous, volcanic Rock (Grayish), Extrusive (Lava) 5. Chemical weathering: Decomposition or chemical alteration 6. Asthenosphere: Weak and ductile surface below the lithosphere 7. Dissolution: Dissolving in Water 8. Rock:An aggregate of one or more minerals (Granite, marble, or shale); or solid organic matter (coal). 9. Mineral: Naturally occurring inorganic substance THAT HAS INTERNAL MOLECULAR STRUCTURE, CRYSTAL FORM 10. Strata: layer of sedimentary rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. 11. Isostacy: Equilibrium, earths rocks are floating on top of mantle 12. Phylogeny: The evolutionary development of any plant or animal 13. Ontogeny: Life cycle of single organism 14. Cleavage: The tendency of minerals to break, forming smooth, planar surfaces 15. Frost wedging: Water squeezes within the cracks of stone and freezes, expanding to break the rock 16. Root wedging: Roots from trees grow and break the rock around them in search for water 17. Outcrop: a rock formation that is visible on the surface 18. Sedimentary rock: Accumulation, compaction and cementation of sediment (solid particles) or dissolved matter that precipitates from water 19. Lacolith: sheet intrusion that has been injected between two layers of sedimentary rock. The pressure of the magma is high enough that the overlying strata are forced upward, giving the laccolith a dome or mushroom-like form with a generally planar base. 20. Batholith: large emplacement of igneous intrusive rock that forms from cooled magma deep in the Earth's crust. Batholiths are almost always made mostly of felsic or intermediate rock- types, such as granite, quartz monzonite 21. Enchanted Rock: an enormous pink granite pluton batholith 22. Covalent Bonds: These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs, and the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forced between atoms, when they share electrons, is known as covalent bonding. KNOW THE TEXTURESAND COMPOSITIONS Physical Geology Exam 1 Moh’s Hardness Scale: Talc Gypsum Calcite Fluorite Apetite Feldspar Quartz Topaz Corundum Diamond
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