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Study Guide 1 for Intro to Swahili 3020

by: Bethany

Study Guide 1 for Intro to Swahili 3020 swah/cmlt/afst 3020

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These notes cover everything we have discussed so far in the course.
The Swahili and the World II
Dr. Maganda
Study Guide
Swahili; UGA; Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bethany on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to swah/cmlt/afst 3020 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Maganda in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see The Swahili and the World II in African Studies at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
Intro  to  Swahili   Study  Guide  ONE   February  15,  2016   What  is  LANGUAGE?   Linguistic  skill  or  expression   A  communication  tool   Nuance  of  identity     Gauge  of  global  influence   Undisputable  social  and  political  sorting  machine   Authoritative  force  of  control   Great  power  that  shapes  and  reflects  the  human  mind   Ever  changing  phenomena  that  defines  human  reality     *  Language  is  not  a  mere  communication  tool,  language  embodies  history,  beholds  the   present  while  predicting,  propelling  and  controlling  the  future.       Background   When  you  think  of  Africa,  if  nothing  else  comes  to  your  mind,  at  least  one  does:   POVERTY.     The  definition  of  LANGUAGE  allows  us  to  Recognize  why  language  issues  within  any   society  shape  and  disclose  what  lies  within  people’s  minds  and  what  transpires  in  their   societies.  We  therefore  need  to  examine  Language  attitudes  and  ideology.       Language  Attitudes   Language  attitudes  are     1. Specific,  low  level  ‘states’  (mentalist)  or  ‘responses’  (behaviorist)  or  opinions.   2. Complex  and  various  reactions  towards  language     3. Occur  on  multiple  dimensions  to  an  aspect  of  language     4. Can  be  contradictory,  in  that  people  may  hold  attitudes  that  seem  to  contradict   each  other  and  even  themselves.   5. THEY  ARE  NOT  SYSTEMATIC     Language  Ideologies  involve  some  kind  of  rationalization  that  builds  up  and  sustains  a   framework  of  ideas  and  facts  about  social  relations.   Definition:  Language  ideology  is  the  belief  systems  related  to  and  informing  linguistic   behavior  as  well  as  the  framework  that  shapes  decisions  about  language  acquisition   and  use  (Kroskrity,  2004).       Four  key  aspects  of  Language  Ideology   Intro  to  Swahili   Study  Guide  ONE   February  15,  2016     According  to  the  Political  philosopher  Robert  Higgs:   1.  Cognitive:     It  structures  a  person'ʹs  perceptions  and  predetermines  his  understandings  of  the   social  world,  expressing  these  cognitions  in  characteristic  symbols;   2.  Affective:    it  tells  a  person  whether  what  he/she  "ʺsees"ʺ  is  good  or  bad  or  morally   neutral;  and   3.  Programmatic   it  propels  a  person  to  act  in  accordance  with  his  cognitions  and  evaluations   4.  Solidary:  as  a  committed  member  of  a  political  group,  in             pursuit  of  definite  social  objectives.”  (Higgs  1987)     Main  foundations  of  Language  Ideologies     1.  How  a  language  furthers  individual  and  group  interests.       2.  Social  status  associated  with  language  knowledge  and  use   3.  Local  and  Global  economic  trends         *  Language  Ideologies  permeate  schooling  and  contributes  to  language  shifts  and   maintenance  around  the  world  (Woolard  &  Schieffelin,  1994;  Maganda,  2014).     The  significance  of  Language  Ideology     Language  ideologies  help  us  understand:   1. How  language  helps  to  construct  and  maintain  forms  of  power   2. How  social  and  political  symbols  are  created  to  form  individual,  group  and   national  identity.   3. How  words  are  associated  with  positive  or  negative  aspects  of  people’s  identity   that  result  in  stereotypes.     Issues  of  Language  &  Governance     *  Global  Africa:   Europeans  identify  Africans  through  language:   -­‐‑ If  you  speak  Hausa,  you  are  Hausa.   -­‐‑ Africans  relate  to  each  other  based  on  their  shared  colonizer.   Intro  to  Swahili   Study  Guide  ONE   February  15,  2016   “1/5  black  people  on  Earth  have  a  European  language  for  a  mother  tongue”     English,  French,  Portuguese,  Spanish,  Dutch   1. French  depends  on  the  global  status  more  than  English  for  African  countries.   2. Link  between  languages  and  white  domination  over  the  black  population  should   never  be  undermined.   *  Language  policy  and  racial  attitudes  often  stem  from  the  4  forces  responsible  for  spread   and  evolution  of  language:  religion,  economics,  politics  and  war.   What  is  Culture?   • Culture  refers  to  the  cumulative  deposit  of:   Knowledge;  experience;  beliefs;  values;  attitudes;  meanings;  hierarchies;  religion;   notions  of  time;  roles;  spatial  relations;  concepts  of  the  universe;  material  objects   and  possessions:  acquired  by  a  group  of  people  in  the  course  of  generations   through  individual  and  group  striving.       Expansion  of  the  Definition:   1. Culture  is  the  systems  of  knowledge  shared  by  a  relatively  large  group  of  people.     2. Culture  is  communication,  and  communication  is  culture.   3. Culture  in  its  broadest  sense  is  cultivated  behavior;  that  is  the  totality  of  a  person'ʹs   learned,  accumulated  experience  that  is  socially  transmitted,  or  more  briefly,   behavior  through  social  learning.     4. A  culture  is  a  way  of  life  of  a  group  of  people-­‐‑-­‐‑the  behaviors,  beliefs,  values,  and   symbols  that  they  accept,  generally  without  thinking  about  them,  and  that  are   passed  along  by  communication  and  imitation  from  one  generation  to  the  next.     5. Culture  is  symbolic  communication.  Some  of  its  symbols  include  a  group'ʹs  skills,   knowledge,  attitudes,  values,  and  motives.  The  meanings  of  the  symbols  are   learned  and  deliberately  perpetuated  in  a  society  through  its  institutions.     6. Culture  consists  of  patterns,  explicit  and  implicit,  of  and  for  behavior  acquired  and   transmitted  by  symbols,  constituting  the  distinctive  achievement  of  human   groups,  including  their  embodiments  in  artifacts;  the  essential  core  of  culture   consists  of  traditional  ideas  and  especially  their  attached  values;  culture  systems   may,  on  the  one  hand,  be  considered  as  products  of  action,  on  the  other  hand,  as   conditioning  influences  upon  further  action.       Intro  to  Swahili   Study  Guide  ONE   February  15,  2016   7. Culture  is  the  sum  of  total  of  the  learned  behavior  of  a  group  of  people  that  are   generally  considered  to  be  the  tradition  of  that  people  and  are  transmitted  from   generation  to  generation.   8. Culture  is  a  collective  programming  of  the  mind  that  distinguishes  the  members  of   one  group  or  category  of  people  from  another.   So  Whose  Culture  is  It?   1. Ideas,  meanings,  beliefs  and  values  people  learn  as  members  of  society  determines   human  nature.     2. People  are  what  they  learn.     3. There  are  no  limits  on  the  abilities  of  human  beings  to  do  or  to  be  whatever  they   want.   4. There  is  no  universal  "ʺright  way"ʺ  of  being  human.  "ʺRight  way"ʺ  is  almost  always   "ʺour  way"ʺ;  that  "ʺour  way"ʺ  in  one  society  almost  never  corresponds  to  "ʺour  way"ʺ  in   any  other  society.     5. Different  cultural  groups  think,  feel,  and  act  differently.     Can  One  Culture  be  Considered  Superior?   1. There  are  no  scientific  standards  for  considering  one  group  as  intrinsically   superior  or  inferior  to  another.     2. There  are  issues  that  may  influence  one'ʹs  own  culture  to  seem  superior  to  that  of   others—“US  versus  THEM.”   3. The  reduction  of  the  "ʺother  way"ʺ  of  life  to  a  distorted  version  of  one'ʹs  own.       a. Consider:     § the    case  of  global  dealings  when  a  company  or  an  individual     § important  factors  in  business  that  could  be  overlooked  because  of  the   obsession  with  certain  cause-­‐‑effect  relationships  in  one'ʹs  own   country.   § the  need  to  recognize  the  environmental  differences  and  problems   associated  with  change.   § the  differences  recognized  (the  assumption  that  changes  are  so  basic   that  they  can  be  achieved  effortlessly.     Manifestations  of  Culture:   Intro  to  Swahili   Study  Guide  ONE   February  15,  2016   4. Cultural  differences  manifest  themselves  in  different  ways  and  differing  levels  of   depth.   5. Symbols  represent  the  most  superficial  values  the  deepest  manifestations  of   culture,  with  heroes  and  rituals  in  between.     6. Symbols  are  words,  gestures,  pictures,  or  objects  that  carry  a  particular  meaning   which  is  only  recognized  by  those  who  share  a  particular  culture.     7. New  symbols  easily  develop,  old  ones  disappear.  Symbols  from  one  particular   group  are  regularly  copied  by  others.     8. As  such,  symbols  represent  the  outermost  layer  of  a  culture.   9. Culture  is  also  manifested  in  the  concept  of  HEROS,  RITUALS,  and  VALUES   a. Heroes  are  persons,  past  or  present,  real  or  fictitious,  who  possess   characteristics  that  are  highly  prized  in  a  culture.  They  also  serve  as  models   for  behavior.   b. Rituals  are  collective  activities,  sometimes  superfluous  in  reaching  desired   objectives,  but  are  considered  as  socially  essential.  They  are  therefore   carried  out  most  of  the  times  for  their  own  sake  (ways  of  greetings,  paying   respect  to  others,  religious  and  social  ceremonies,  etc.).   c. Values  are  broad  tendencies  for  preferences  of  certain  state  of  affairs  to   others  (good-­‐‑evil,  right-­‐‑wrong,  natural-­‐‑unnatural).  Many  values  remain   unconscious  to  those  who  hold  them.  Therefore  they  often  cannot  be   discussed,  nor  can  they  be  directly  observed  by  others.  Values  can  only  be   inferred  from  the  way  people  act  under  different  circumstances.   10.  Symbols,  heroes,  and  rituals  are  the  tangible  or  visual  aspects  of  the  practices  of  a   culture.  The  true  cultural  meaning  of  the  practices  is  intangible;  this  is  revealed   only  when  the  practices  are  interpreted  by  the  insiders.   Layers  of  Culture:     People  even  within  the  same  culture  carry  several  layers  of  mental  programming  within   themselves.  Different  layers  of  culture  exist  at  the  following  levels:     1. The  national  level:  associated  with  the  nation  as  a  whole.   2. The  regional  level:  associated  with  ethnic,  linguistic,  or  religious  differences  that   exist  within  a  nation.   3. The  gender  level:  associated  with  gender  differences  (female  vs.  male)   4. The  generation  level:  associated  with  the  differences  between  grandparents  and   parents,  parents  and  children.   Intro  to  Swahili   Study  Guide  ONE   February  15,  2016   5. The  social  class  level:  associated  with  educational  opportunities  and  differences  in   occupation.   6. The  corporate  level:  associated  with  the  particular  culture  of  an  organization.   Applicable  to  those  who  are  employed.     Language  Ideology  &  Governance-­‐‑  Global,  Continental,  Regional  &  Gender  Issues     Africa  is  a  microcosm  of  the  linguistic  world.  Because   1.  Africa  has  a  wide  range  of  languages  than  any  other  continent  in  the  world.   2 Africa  can  be  credited  with  inventing  human  language,  Asia  sacralized  language   and     a. Europe  universalized  it.     Background     When  you  think  of  Africa,  you  need  to  understand  its:   Triple  linguistic  heritage:   1. Indigenous  Africa-­‐‑  languages  stemming  from  native  African  ethnic  groups  before   external  contact  or  influence     2. Islamic  traditions-­‐‑  languages  that  Africa  inherited  and  adopted  mainly  as  part  of   Arab  domination.   3. Western  Contribution-­‐‑  languages  that  Africa     uses  based  on  historical,  social,   political,  economical,  and  educational  reasons.     FOUR  categories  of  languages  in  Africa:   11. Afro-­‐‑ethnic:  Languages  not  heavily  influenced  by  Arab-­‐‑Islamic  and  Euro-­‐‑ Christian  impact:     a. Examples:  Kalabari,  Yoruba,  and  Ewe  (West  Africa);  Lingala  (Central   Africa);  Pokot,  Luganda  and  Orominya  (East  Africa);  Ndebele,  Nyanja,   Zulu  (South  Africa)   12. Afro-­‐‑Islamic:  Languages  that  are  native  to  Africa  but  have  been  heavily   influenced  by  Islam.   a. Examples:  Swahili,  Somali,  Nubi  (East  Africa);  Hausa,  Fulfude,  Mandika   (West  Africa).   b. These  languages  have  “absorbed”  many  Arabic  words.     Intro  to  Swahili   Study  Guide  ONE   February  15,  2016   13. Western:  Languages  whose  native  speakers  are  located  in  the  Americas  and   Europe.   a. These  Languages  are  directly  linked  to  the  transatlantic  slave  trade  and   colonization.   b. Examples:  English,  French,  Portuguese,  Italian,  Spanish,  and  German  =   these  languages  are  predominantly  spoken  as  additional  languages.   14. Afro-­‐‑Western:  Languages  with  a  mixture  of  African  and  western  that  developed   from  pidgin  languages  and  are  being  spoken  as  primary  languages:  Examples:   Kriyol,  Pidgin,  Kiro  &  West  African  Pidgin  (English).       Writing     • Afro-­‐‑ethnic  languages  were  last  to  be  written  down   • European  colonialism  caused  a  need  for  the  preservation  of  Afro-­‐‑ethnic   languages  leading  to  these  languages  being  written  down   • Poetry:  There  is  very  little  Afro-­‐‑ethnic  influence  on  poetry   -­‐‑  Exception:  Amharic  is  one  of  the  few  Afro-­‐‑ethnic  languages  with  a  rich  tradition  of  both   oral  and  written  literature   - Many  other  Afro-­‐‑ethnic  languages  were  almost  exclusively  oral     Gender  Issues  in  Africa     What  is  Gender?   - A  natural  phenomenon  referring  to  human  physiology     - A  social  construct  based  on  traditional,  cultural,  historical  and  political  issues   - A  spiritual  aspect  evolving  without  anyone’s  control   - A  complicated  manifestation  of  the  evolving  facets  of  human  development   What  is  Gender?  -­‐‑  A  Working  Definition     • It  is  a  natural  concept  regarding  human  physiology  and  how  it  permeates   different  contexts  shaped  by  traditional,  cultural,  historical  and  political  issues   that  are  constantly  evolving  in  light  of  local  and  global  social  development.   • Gender  issues  are  intertwined  with  culture  and  need  to  be  understood  in  light  of   specific  societal  and  historical  circumstances.     Gender  and  Literature:   Writers  often  discuss  gender  issues  in  the  following  perspectives   1. Social  and  Communal   Intro  to  Swahili   Study  Guide  ONE   February  15,  2016   - Almost  all  the  time  a  female  is  described  in  relationship  to  what  she  means  not  to   herself  but  to  the  entire  society  beginning  with  her  immediate  family  (daughter,   sister,  wife,  mother,  grandmother…)     - Male  are  almost  described  independent  of  their  community  (name,  position…)   2.  Presentational:  For  females,  it  is  looks,  but  males  are  described  in  relationship  to   women  and  how  the  female  affect  their  image.     Gender  and  Literature  in  light  of  the  African  culture     1. Gender  roles:  Division  of  labor  (Equal  or  Unequal)   2. Discrimination  based  on  gender   3. Beauty:  Natural  vs.  Artificial  beauty   4. Dowry:  A  man  pays/gives  dowry  to  the     bride’s  family  (based  on  color,     education  etc..)   a. This  is  a  legal  transaction  leading  to  her  treatment  as  her  husband’s   property.   5. Dances  and  clothing   a. Although  man  also  dance,  often  female  are  described  in  terms  of  how  well   they  dance     b. Dances  are  not  just  for  entertainment,  traditional  dances  had  varied   meanings  and  purposes   Common  myths  about  African  Women     • African  women  have  no  Voice.   • African  women  have  no  power.   • African  women  are  weak.   • African  women  are  oppressed.   • African  women  are  in  the  kitchen  all  the  time.   • African  women  are  too  dependent  on  Men.     Introduction:  Song  of  Lawino  and  Song  of  Ocol,  the  book     Summary:   - Together  Song  of  Lawino  and  Song  Ocol  contributes  a  heated  debate  over  the  future   of  Africa.     Intro  to  Swahili   Study  Guide  ONE   February  15,  2016   - In  graphic  metaphor  and  with  grammatical  intensity,  the  author  presents  the   conflict  between  modern  civilization  and  old  traditions.     Structure  &  content:   It  is  an  epic  poem  written  by  Ugandan  poet  Okot  p'ʹ  Bitek.   - First  published  in  1966  in  Luo  then  translated  into  other  languages,  including   English.     - Song  of  Lawino  addresses  the  issues  facing  a  liberated  Africa.     - The  poem  poses  a  question:  what  kind  of  liberation  should  Africa  take  on?   Should  it  honor  its  traditions,  or  should  it  adapt  the  European  values  that  were   already  set  in  place  during  colonialism?     Point  of  clarity:   In  the  book,  Okot  p'ʹBitek  addresses  this  question  by:   - Telling  the  story  of  Lawino,  a  woman  whose  husband,  Ocol,  throws  her  out  of   their  home  and  brings  home  a  more  Europeanized  woman  as  a  wife.     - Telling  the  story  as  a  dialogue  between  Lawino  and  Ocol.     - Exposing  social  problems  facing  Lawino  and  Ocol  in  their  marriage  due  to  their   differences  and  value  systems.     Issues  to  Consider:   1. The  book  is  written  as  a  dialogue  because  for  once,  that  is  how  most  of  the  songs   in  Acholi  are  done-­‐‑  just  like  a  choral  reading.   2. Global  languages  allow  us  to  share  what  we  could  not  have  understood  before  but   how  much  of  it  is  lost  in  translation?    


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