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Psychology Review

by: Brittany Mayeda

Psychology Review PSYC 1315-004

Brittany Mayeda
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes are a review to our test
Introductory Psychology
Dr. Lauren Coursey
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Mayeda on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1315-004 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Lauren Coursey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 02/15/16
Review for Psychology: Ch 1, 2, 3, 5   Chapter 1: What Is Psychology o Psychology—the scientific study of behavior (anything we do that can be directly  observed) and mental processes (thoughts, feelings, and motives)  Psychology is a science because it uses systematic methods, such as  critical thinking (what psychologists are because they ask a lot of  questions while reflecting deeply), the empirical method (gaining  knowledge by observing events, collecting data, and thinking logically),  and the scientific method.  o Sigmund Freud—thought that human behavior is caused by dark, unpleasant,  unconscious impulses o Wilhelm Wundt—created the branch of psychology by integrating philosophy  (insight about human nature) and natural sciences; more subjective, introspective  approach  Structuralism—structures of mental processes, identifies the components  of the human mind (in other words, the “what?”) o William James—not what the mind is but what it is for; the mind is flexible  (“stream of consciousness”)   Functionalism—functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in the  individual’s adaption to the environment; interactions with the world and  purpose of thoughts (in other words, the “why?”).  o Charles Darwin—evolutionary theory, human behavior is adaptable  o Biological Approach—focus on the body, especially the brain and nervous system  Neuroscience o Behavioral Science—scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants (focuses on behavior toward environment)   John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner (studied people’s actions)  Behaviorism o Psychodynamic Approach—unconscious thoughts; conflict between biological  drives, society demands, and early childhood family experiences  Freud—psychoanalysis o Humanistic Approach—emphasizes on a person’s positive qualities (positive  growth and freedom to choose one’s destiny); people can choose values over  impulses  Positive Psychology—branch of psychology that emphasizes human  strength o Cognitive Approach—emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing;  how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems  Information processing o Evolutionary Approach—uses evolutionary ideas such as adaption, reproduction,  and natural selection as a basis for explaining specific human behaviors. o Sociocultural Approach—examines the ways in which social and cultural  environments influence behavior; how cultural context influences behavior  o Know the difference between a clinical psychologist and a psychiatrist o Know the different branches of psychology and what they are  Cognitive Psychology  Developmental Psychology   Personality Psychology   Social Psychology   Industrial Psychology   Clinical and Counseling Psychology   Health Psychology   Community Psychology   Forensic Psychology o Personal Experience:  Past experiences make people form bias and inaccuracy; this type is a flaw for uncovering the truth  Fail to recognize our perspectives may be limited and experiences are  subjective and interactions with the world may be different   Different interpretations   Personality and behavior influences reality and interactions  o Self­fulfilling Prophecy—develop expectations  Subtle influence and social mimicry—we follow others actions  when interacting with others   Confirmation bias—bias toward confirming information once  developed preexisting values, opinions, beliefs, selective on  exposure to things   Hindsight bias—knowing/predicted outcome after knowing event  occurred  Chapter 2: Psychology’s Scientific Method  o Steps of the Scientific Method  Observing some Phenomenon  Formulating Hypothesis and Predictions:  Hypothesis—educated guess that derives logically from a theory. o A theory can generate many hypothesis  Testing Through Empirical Research:   Collecting and analyzing data  Operational definition—provides an objective description in a  particular study (being specific)   Drawing Conclusions:  Publishing scientific journals   Evaluating the Theory:  People begin to review the article o Descriptive Research—about describing some phenomenon, defining what the  thing is, how often it occurs  cannot prove causes (how and why) but can reveal important information   about people’s behaviors and attitudes  observations, surveys, interviews, case studies o Correlational Method—2 variables are systematically measured and relationship  between them are assessed (how they change together)   Cannot determine causation; they can only co­occur   Cannot say a variable causes the other       Correlation Coefficient—statistic that tells how related 2 variables are  Measures in a ­1 to 1 (describes direction of relationship)  o 1 perfect correlation in the positive direction  o ­1 perfect correlation in the negative direction  Positive Correlation—moving together in same direction, either  both increasing or both decreasing  Negative Correlation—one value increases while the other  decreases       Experimental Research—to determine whether a causal relationship exists  between two variables; explains causes   Randomly assign   Control for extraneous variables  Manipulate Independent variable and measure dependent variable  Know the difference between internal and external validity      Chapter 3: The Science of Psychology       Nervous System: body’s electrochemical communication circuitry.  o Know about the afferent and efferent pathways o Central Nervous System: brain and spinal cord  o Peripheral Nervous System: network of nerves that   Broken down into two branches Somatic—handles pain, temperature, and motor nerves Autonomic—take messages to and from body’s organs; breathing  heart rate, digestion  o Sympathetic—fight/flight response  o Parasympathetic—calms the body       Neurons—nerve cells that handle information processing       Glial Cells—provide support, nutritional benefits and keep neurons running  smoothly. o  Know the different parts of the neuron   Resting Potential: stable negative charge of an inactive neuron, ion  channels closed   Action Potential: brief wave of positive electrical charge that sweeps down the axon; ion channels stay open     All­or­nothing Principle—once the electrical impulse reaches a certain  level of intensity (threshold), it fires and moves all the way down the axon without losing intensity.       Neurotransmitters     Acetylcholine—stimulates firing of neurons and is involved in muscle  action, learning, and memory Deficiency=Alzheimer’s     GABA—key function in the brain by inhibiting neurons from firing Low levels=anxiety     Glutamate—exciting neurons to fire and is especially involved in learning  and memory Too much=headaches/seizures; low levels=anxiety, depression,  schizophrenia, Parkinson’s      Norepinephrine—responding to stress; inhibits the firing of neurons but  excites the heart muscles, controls alertness, regulates sleep with  acetylcholine Too much=stress, jumpiness; too little=depression      Dopamine—control voluntary movement and affects sleep, mood,  attention, learning, and ability to recognize opportunities for rewarding  experiences Low=Parkinson’s; high=schizophrenia      Serotonin—regulation of sleep, mood, attention, (states of sleep and wakefulness)  Low=depression; Prozac increase serotonin levels      Endorphins—natural   opiates­depress   nervous   system   activity   and eliminate pain      Oxytocin—also a hormone that plays an important role in experiencing love and social bonding       The Brain   Know about the different brain structures and their functions Hindbrain   (medulla,   cerebellum,   pons),   brain   stem,   midbrain (reticular   formation)   forebrain   (limbic   system   [amygdala, hippocampus], thalamus, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex [occipital, temporal, frontal, parietal])  Left vs Right Hemisphere’s along with Broca’s area (producing speech) and Wernicke’s area (understanding speech).      Chapter 5: State of Consciousness      Consciousness—tied to biology and physiology, awareness of external events and internal sensations under a condition of arousal (physiological state of being engaged in environment); awareness of self and thought about own experiences      Global   Brain   Workspace—interconnected   neurons   and   consciousness (consciousness=connections between neurons)       Theory of Mind—others inner experiences may differ from our own, able recognize oneself, develops around age 4, basis for empathy, sympathy, and perspective­taking (seeing things from another point of view)      Levels of Consciousness     Automatic Processing—lower level of attention, highly efficient—routine tasks   Nonconscious, involuntary, effortless, unintentional, (like driving for a year)  Control Processing—higher level of attention, most alert state  More slowly, effortful deliberation, efforts toward goal (starting to drive, executive function­higher­order complex thinking, planning)  Duplex Mind—autonomic and controlled processes always conflict (leads to silly mistakes)  Daydreaming—intermediate level; may be important for planning/problem solving­low level of conscious   Subconscious—not in focal attention/not actively thinking; solution solved after conscious thought    Unconscious—Freud approach (viewed it negatively) perception/priming approach  o Sleep—spend roughly 1/3 of our lives sleeping, natural state of rest; reversible loss of consciousness (lower level of consciousness)   Follow   rhythm:   circadian   rhythm   24   hours;   sleep/wake   cycles, temperature   (daily   behavioral/physiological   cycles)   changes   b/p; monitored by suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) (part of the hypothalamus)   Adaptive Function   Safety—Webb and Agnew; keeps us from responding during dangerous times  Energy conservation/efficiency—sleep; when we least efficient  Restorative   Function—body   rejuvenation   and   growth,   protein production, health deterioration from lack of sleep  Brain   Plasticity—enhances   synaptic   connections   (memories) memory consolidation   Amount of sleep:   Infants: 14­16 hrs/day   5 yr olds: 6.5­8 hrs/day   20 yr olds: 6.5­8hrs/day   Older adults: depends­shorter/fragmented sleep, more awakenings during nigh, more naps during the day   Stages  Alert—beta waves, high frequency, lower in amplitude, more desynchronized, reflect concentration and alertness   Wakefulness—alpha waves (relaxed); increase in amplitude, more synchronized   Stage 1—theta waves, slower frequency, increase in amplitude (lightest sleep) myoclonic jerks   Stage2—theta waves, sudden increase in wave frequency, sleep spindles  Stage   3­­<50   delta   waves;   slowest   frequency   and   highest amplitude, can dream  Stage 4­­>50% delta waves, difficult to wake, decreases with age   Stage 5—REM sleep; dreaming occurs, eyeballs move; mixed theta, alpha, and beta waves  NREM—restorative   function,   reduction   of   stages   3   &   4   in healthy/older people; snoring, can dream but unlikely to remember (non­emotional random thoughts)  REM—organizes   connection   in   brain,   dreaming   (bizarre, emotionally charged) “Paradoxical sleep”  Associated   with   distinct   patterns   of   neurotransmitter   activity initiated in the reticular formation  Sleep Disorders   Know the disorders and what each is o Insomnia o somnambulism (sleepwalking) o Night terror o Narcolepsy  o Sleep Apnea  Dreams  Manifest Content (what’s actually happening) vs latent content (events=symbolism=true meaning)  Cognitive theory of dreaming—dreaming can be understood by applying the same cognitive concepts used to study the waking mind  o Dreams=subconscious, cognitive processing, information processing and memory  Activation­synthesis theory of dreaming—dreaming occurs when the cerebral cortex synthesizes neural signals generated from activity in the lower part of the brain    Psychoactive drugs—act on nervous system to alter consciousness, modify perception, and change mood   Tolerance—continued   use   of   these   drugs—the   need   to   take increased amounts for same effect   Physical dependence—continued use; physiological need for a drug that causes unpleasant withdrawal  Psychological dependence—strong desire to repeat sue of drug for emotional reasons (feeling of well­being; reduction of stress)   Know the different types of drugs and their effects  o Depressants   (alcohol,   barbiturates,   tranquilizers, opiates/narcotics)  o Stimulants   (caffeine,   nicotine,   amphetamines/uppers, cocaine, MDMA/Ecstasy)  o Hallucinogens (marijuana and LSD)  States of consciousness  Hypnosis and meditation 


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