Exam 1 Review
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Graham on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FILM 2700 at Georgia State University taught by Ahmet Yuce in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 112 views. For similar materials see HISTORY OF MOTION PICTURES in Film at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Film 2700 Exam 1 Review PreCinematic Entertainment Dioramas: painted backdrops with 3D figures, usually daily life of other cultures Illustrated Fictions: early comics, novels with big pages, ½ words, ½ visuals o Marketed to literate and illiterate for more $$$ Magic Lantern: glass plate b/n candle and magnifying glass o early projector, museum experience for common people Preconditions for the Invention of Cinema 1) Phil phenomenon and persistence of vision a. Persistence of vision: visual trace of an image lasts on the eye longer than the image itself (a visual memory) b. Phi: because of (a), eyes can create continuous link between slightly different images i. Precinematic optical toys: phenakistoscope and zoetrope (created using these principles of vision) 2) Photographic images in rapid succession a. AT LEAST 16 frames per second (fps) 3) Projection 4) Flexible and durable film strip a. Needs to flow through camera without getting torn up i. 1888/89: George Eastman invents celluloid film strips ii. 1890s: WKL Dickson cuts it into 35mm film strips iii. 35 mm film widely used up until digital age 5) Intermittent mechanism in camera (shutter) a. Starts and stops the film strip as it moves BRIEF HISTORY OF EARLY PHOTOGRAPHY First photo taken in 1826 on glass plates 1839: introduction of paper film materials (too fragile) 1888/89: Eastman and celluloid film sheets Eadweard Muybridge (England): 1878, photographs horse galloping with 12 cameras Etienne Julies Marey (France): Invented photogun to capture birds; 1882= several images of pelican on one plate 1892: Thomas Edison and WKL Dickson: Combine celluloid and camera for the first time (Dickson’s 35 mm film sheets Create kinetograph (for recording) and kinetoscope (for viewing) o Is this really cinema? Kinetoscope cannot project! (See prereqs for cinema) Edison and Dickson create Black Maria Studio: based on camera obscura, has opening to let in sunlight and turns so that it always faces the light filmed everyday events in a theatrical manner (Juggler, blacksmith) no sound (except one experimental film, “the Violinist”; didn’t stick because no sync) no narrative, produced with aim of showing something only Edison patented these inventions, but only for the US… enter, The Lumiere Brothers French factory owners Invented cinematograph to produce cheap films for the kinetoscope o Cinematograph can record AND PROJECT! TADA! CINEMA! o Cinematograph closer to what we know as cameras today 1895: first film screening, Grand Café in Paris Nonnarrative Early Director Styles: 1) EdisonDickson a. Staged everyday activities b. Filmed in studio (Black Maria) c. Theatrical performances d. Static single shot, no cuts e. Think “Big Brother”, “American Idol” 2) Lumiere Bros a. Real location, real people (known as “actualities”) b. Daily life as it occurs in real space and time c. Static single shot, not cuts *Audiences interested in spectacle of seeing a picture move, not the film’s story* Early Narrative Director Styles: 1) Georges Melies (French) a. Magician, used cinema for magic; films known as “trick shows” b. One course of action, one static shot c. Diegetic backdrops, stage design d. Visual effects e. Selfenclosed film (no reference to offscreen space) f. “A Trip to the Moon” (1902), “The Vanishing Lady” (1896) g. Contemporary cousins: scifi, fantasy 2) Edwin S. Porter (American) a. Impression of reality b. Omission of diegetic events c. NOT selfenclosed (references offscreen space) d. “meanwhile” logic e. Mostly single course of action, single static shot, with some minor camera movement f. “Great Train Robbery” (1903) g. Contemporary cousins: westerns, “Goodfellas” *BOTH USE CONTINUITY EDITING: Hollywood editing, unonbtrusive cuts, camera movement, etc… whatever you do, DON’T MAKE THE FORMAL CHANGES OBVIOUS TO THE AUDIENCE* STYLISTIC ASPECTS INVETED BY D.W. GRIFFITH *DW Griffith= father of language of narrative cinema; “Birth of a Nation” (1915), “Intolerance” (1916)* Interframe Narration Editing, relationship between frames o 180 Degree Rule! Camera should not cross imaginary line cutting 2 actors in half. 2 Ways of establishing Axis of Action (imaginary line) 1) Establishing shot: show everything in the scene from a wide angle so the audience understands everything’s position in space 2) Eyeline matching: if a character looks into offscreen space, in the subsequent shot you should show what they were looking at to establish space o Crosscutting 1) Cutting between two sets of actions taking place in different spaces at the same time (single common temporality, different spaces) 2) Same space at different times 3) Same place, same time, different sets of action 4) Different place, different time o Differing shot lengths : creating visual sentences Lengthy shot on a potato emphasizes its importance o Accelerated montage Length of shots, gradually number of cuts = tension! Useful in chase scenes Intraframe Narration: narration created by relationships between the elements in the frame (objects, characters, lighting); miseenscene and cinematography o Camera movement Pan: horizontal rotation of stationary camera Tilt: vertical, stationary camera looks up and down Tracking: follows subject, moving camera in stable route Travelling: follows subject, no stable route (probably handheld camera o camera angles low angle powerful high angle inferior o acting Griffith: movie acting and theater acting are DIFFERENT! Continuous vs interrupted performances Theater= single perspective, film= changing perspective Close ups mean exaggerated acting is TOO MUCH! o Expressive use of lighting Manipulating time (light for day, dark for night) Manipulating emotion (dark= negative, light=positive) o Showing multiple actions in a single frame War movies, epics GERMAN EXPRESSIONIM: 1920’s Germany PostWWI, Germany the loser Loss of belief in national identity and government Year after WWI: almost 1 million people die of malnutrition; poverty rampant 1920: The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (Robert Weien) first German Expressionist film! German Expressionist characteristics: Fantasy fictions Artificial set design Nonrealistic Intention of making the psychological visible Scholarly Approaches to GE 1) Zeitgeist (n, spirit of the period in a specific culture) a. Film style determined by socialpolitical context b. Reveals mental condition of 1920s Germany c. Foreshadowing of Hitler 2) Escapism a. Socialpolitical truth indirectly influenced style b. Escape into reams, prevent from facing trauma of era 3) Mix of 1+2: Zeitgeist but overdetermination is not the cause! a. Influenced by socialpolitical context, but not overdetermined! No absolute relationship between the two b. Escapism doesn’t make sense—why wouldn’t they make comedies instead? c. Purpose: reveal psychological conditions (zeitgeist) by means of recontextualization i. Films say something about war but is not a film about war Dramatic Qualities of Film Noir: Urban settings, city of crime Corruption and crime Investigations Flashbacks Antiheroes (often journalists, PI’s, detectives) Femme Fatales (attractive but dangerous) Victims of FF: direct (lover, mother, brother, etc) and indirect (antihero) Mnemonic act: point of the flashback in the diegetic timeline (diegetic= within world of narrative) Mnemonic: memory revealed through visual FLASHBACK MARKERS: Intertitles (ie “6 months earlier”) Changes in color (black and white, sepia tones) Objects that offer connection (looking at photograph, then flashback to event in photo) and contradiction (looking at a modern day car, then flashback to see an old model car) Special effects and editing (rewind effect, flash) TYPES OF FLASHBACKS: 1) External a. Flashback to something that happened BEFORE beginning of film b. Ex: movie is set in 2016, and we flashback to an event in 2005 2) Internal a. Flashback to something that happened within diegetic timeline of film i. Repetition: shows something we’ve already seen (so we see it when it’s in the present and when it’s in the past) ii. Gap filling: part of diegetic timeline but we haven’t seen it before; something omitted (ellipsis) (like if a character goes to the store offscreen, and then later we see what happened at the store) Ellipsis: an omission, a temporal void in the narrative. Different from “meanwhile” logic! o “meanwhile” logic: two things happening at same time o Ellipsis: “6 months later”, period of time completely removed Intertitles (ie “6 months earlier”) Changes in color (black and white, sepia tones) Objects that offer connection (looking at photograph, then flashback to event in photo) and contradiction (looking at a modern day car, then flashback to see an old model car) Special effects and editing (rewind effect, flash) Types of Flashbacks (or flashforwards) 3) External a. Flashback to something that happened BEFORE beginning of film b. Ex: movie is set in 2016, and we flashback to an event in 2005 4) Internal a. Flashback to something that happened within diegetic timeline of film i. Repetition: shows something we’ve already seen (so we see it when it’s in the present and when it’s in the past) ii. Gap filling: part of diegetic timeline but we haven’t seen it before; something omitted (ellipsis) (like if a character goes to the store offscreen, and then later we see what happened at the store) Ellipsis: an omission, a temporal void in the narrative. Different from “meanwhile” logic! o “meanwhile” logic: two things happening at same time o Ellipsis: “6 months later”, period of time completely removed
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