Psychology of Aging Study Guide
Psychology of Aging Study Guide 22392
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kenedy Ramos on Monday February 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 22392 at Gonzaga University taught by Dr. Wolfe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Aging in Psychlogy at Gonzaga University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Psychology of Aging Study Guide Exam #2 Terms to Know Maximum Life Expectancy: maximum age to which the members of a species can live (has not really changed much if at all and appears to be around 105-115 years old) Primary Aging: physical changes that are absolutely inevitable in the aging process (ex/ wrinkling of skin, menopause etc.) Secondary Aging: non-inevitable age-related deterioration caused by environmental damage (ex/skin damage from the sun, smoking etc.) Chronic Disease: long-term progressive illness, typically without any clear-cut external cause or cure (ex/ Huntington’s disease) Free Radicals: cause damage to the cells’ DNA found in the nucleus Apoptosis: programmed cell death; cells are programmed to die when they become too old or damaged (diseases associated with defective apoptosis are cancer, autoimmune, MI, strokes, Alzheimer’s, diabetes, ALS, hepatitis etc.) Osteoarthritis: event in which the cartilage that supports joint breaks down and leads to the expansion of both sides of the bones. The fluid inside the joint begins to leak and cause extreme pain, stiffness and limited movement. Osteoporosis: event in more older, post-menopausal women than men in which they lose bone density because of the loss of calcium, and pockets grow inside the bone, creating discomfort and brittleness of the bone. Blood Pressure Systolic: higher heart rate, measures the heart contracting, when the blood pressure increases and blood moves out along the vessels Diastolic: lower heart rate, measures the heart relaxing, when the blood pressure decreases and blood fills the heart Hypertension: high blood pressure Embolic Stroke: emboli (blood clots or atherosclerotic material), break off and clot a portion of a blood vessel causing a blockage and loss of blood on the other side of the vessel (32% of strokes are emboli in origin) Cerebral Ischemia: ischemia (groups of disorders caused by an insufficient blood supply to the brain, transient ischemia can be caused by a temporary blockage that clears before permanent damage is done Atherosclerosis: when the blood thinks the blood vessel is damaged and sends platelets to fix the clot when in fact there is no clot at all. Platelets start clotting the normal vessel and can cause severe blockage, potentially leading to a stroke. Diabetes: Peripheral Neuropathy: a degeneration of the nerves within the foot that can cause pain or loss of feeling Peripheral Vascular Disease: narrowing or blockages of the arteries which carry blood from the heart down to the foot Heart Disease and Strokes: 65% of people with diabetes will die of heart disease or stroke (2-4 times as likely as those without diabetes) Blindness: 12,000-24,000 will lose sight annually due to diabetic retinopathy, leading cause of blindness in the 20-74 age group Kidney Disease: diabetic neuropathy is leading cause of end stage kidney disease accounting for 43% of new cases Nerve Disease and Amputation: 60-70% of people with diabetes have mild to severe peripheral nerve damage and 82,000 amputations per year of foot or leg HPA Axis: Hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis which inhibits stress hormones Impairments: losses or abnormalities of cognitive, emotional, physiological, or anatomical structure or function (predict or correlate with functional limitations) Functional limitations can lead to further impairments like loss of conditioning, muscle strength, mobility, etc. Disability: an inability or limitation in performing tasks, activities, or roles, to the levels expected within physical or social contexts Healthcare: Medicaid: largest public health insurance program for low-income individuals and is jointly funded by the federal and state governments (government sets the standards for who is eligible and who is not and what they have covered for those who are qualified) Medicare: federally funded health insurance program that covers 35 million seniors and 6 million non-elderly with disabilities (the state does not pay for it, people pay a monthly premium) Sensation: initial registration of physical stimulation by the sensory organ Perception: interpretation or processing of sensory information at the level of the CNS/brain Attention: ability to direct mental resources and efforts to salient aspects of sensory information Threshold: minimal amount of stimuli a sensory receptor must receive before the presence of the stimuli is detected (sensitivity refers to capability of the biological system to respond to stimuli Absolute threshold: intensity of stimulation necessary to detect stimulus 50% of the time Difference Threshold: how large a difference/change between a pair of stimuli is necessary for the differences to be noticed Signal Detection Model: includes both the sensitivity to a stimuli AND the person’s decision making approach (how willing are they to make false positive errors vs. false negative errors) *Side Note: the greater the sensitivity the less stimulation is needed and he lower the threshold Structure of the Eye: Light enters the eye through the cornea first, then passes through the pupil, the size of the pupil is regulated by the expansion and contraction of the iris, the convexity of the lens helps focus the light on the retina at the back of the eye (peripheral retina: is the distal from the fovea; general retina: more central). The iris is less able to expand and contract as a person ages The lens can become cloudy and decreases the amount of light that hits the retina and creates a “diffusing” effect which increases glare. The lens also becomes thicker and less able to “flex” for changes between near and far vision (leads to the necessity of eyeglasses) Diabetic Retinopathy: damage to the small blood vessels and creates blotchy/patchy blockage in vision Glaucoma: lose peripheral retina due to pressure issues (limited to only central vision) Macular Degeneration: affects the central/general retina due to cell damage in the eye Cataract: clouding of the pupil Reaction Time: interval from onset of stimulus to completion of motor response Simple Reaction Time: one type of stimulus and one type of response Choice Reaction Time: two types of stimuli and two types of responses Complex Reaction Time: more sophisticated choice reaction time paradigm with more than two stimuli and response types *Side Note: with simple reaction times, results rarely change with age; however in complex/choice reaction time, results noticeably change as participants get older Sustained Attention: monitoring a sensory signal and detecting meaningful change, increased time on task leads to fatigue and errors No age/time differences in simple tasks, by in complex tasks/degraded stimuli show decline in reaction times based on age Divided Attention: attending to two or more stimuli at the same time, processing two or more stimuli at the same time Few age related differences with simple tasks, but the type of task and familiarity with task are important factors (ex/number of car crashes in 16 year olds vs. those of 40 year olds vs. 70 year olds) Selective Attention: paying attention to some information while ignoring other competing stimuli, can occur across modalities Anterograde Amnesia: inability to form new memories after an event (injury) Retrograde Amnesia: loss of previously established memories after an event (injury) Short Term Memory: commonly used term with various meanings, in technical terms it means the limited capacity to hold 7+ or 2- bits of information which is lost without rehearsal or transfer to long term memory Long Term Memory: store of unlimited capacity – is often confused with remote memory Remote Memory: ability to remember things that happened years ago Source memory: where, when, or from whom you learned something Temporal Memory: when events occurred or the sequence of events Frequency of Occurrence Memory: how many, how much, how often something has happened in the recent past Memory: the ability to register information, organize the information in a meaningful way, and recall or reorganize the information when needed (Encode, Store, Retrieve) Encoding: input processes Storage: retaining information Retrieval: output processes Nondeclarative (Implicit/Procedural) Memory: type of long-term memory that does not require conscious thought, it allows you to do things by rote (habitual repition) Perceptual Learning: broken figures Classical Conditioning: eye blink Motor Learning: mirror drawing Implicit Priming: word stems Prospective Memory: involves remembering to perform a planned action or intention at some future in point in time Event based – like a to-do list Time – based – taking medication at a certain time, picking up milk on the way home etc. ( no external cues) Dementia: an acquired/persistent syndrome of intellectual impairment, impairments in memory and other cognitive domains, impairments in social and/or occupational functioning, degenerative dementias are pathological processes, nondegenerative dementias are a mixed group of disorders with diverse etiologies Alzheimer’s: Probable Alzheimer’s: the most common diagnosis made during a patient’s lifetime (most if not all features and criteria are met), gradual steady decline in cognitive function, function impairments in ADL’s, no other disease or factor which accounts for these changes Definite Alzheimer’s: evidence of microscopic changes in neurons characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease, generally can only be done with a brain biopsy or an autopsy, neurofibrillary tangles and BETA amyloid plaques Possible Alzheimer’s: also overlaps with a newer category known as mild cognitive impairment, often used early in the course of the disease when only some of the criterion are met, most frequently involves some degree of memory impairment without known medical etiology, generally does not involve significant functional impairments although family may note some degree of change Neurofibrillary Tangles: neurons is damaged due to the collapse of its internal support structure Beta-amyloid: a protein of a longer protein called amyloid precursor protein which is found in cell membranes that helps the cell survive and grow. The APP sticks through the membrane and is partly inside and partly outside the cell, enzymes then snip the APP segments including the beta-amyloid which then clumps all together. Mild Alz: memory loss worsens, confusion in familiar settings and times, increased time to complete normal tasks, trouble paying bills, poor decisions, less initiative, mood and personality changes, (initially sxs are mild but get worse, impairments in learning- encoding and consolidation, impairments in storage – retrieval, reduced ability to learn new information and an accelerated rate of forgetting what has been learned, motor learning general preserved) Moderate Alz: increasing memory loss and confusion, difficulty recognizing family and friends, cannot perform complex tasks, may be restless and agitated, loss of impulse control, may have hallucinations or paranoia Severe Alx: plaques and tangles are widespread throughout the brain, complete dependence for care, weight loss, seizures may occur, secondary infections and medical problems
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