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BIO 101 Study Guide PART 2: Carbs/ PART 3: Protein & Nucleic Acids

by: Vivian Luong

BIO 101 Study Guide PART 2: Carbs/ PART 3: Protein & Nucleic Acids BIO 101

Marketplace > California State University - Fullerton > BIO 101 > BIO 101 Study Guide PART 2 Carbs PART 3 Protein Nucleic Acids
Vivian Luong
Cal State Fullerton

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Part 2 (carbohydrates) & Part 3 (protein/nucleic acids) study guide to prepare for Exam 1
Elements of Biology
Cindy Duong
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vivian Luong on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Cindy Duong in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
BIO 101 STUDY GUIDE PART 2: CARBOHYDRATES/ PART 3: PROTEIN/NUCLEIC  ACIDS 1. Examine and provide description general structure of a carbohydrate.            Linear Form               Ring Form 2. Monosaccharides consist of a single sugar molecule. a) What is the function of monosaccharides?   Immediate source of energy b) Which foods contain these sugars?  Glucose: bread, whole grain, sports drinks  Fructose: fruits  c) Describe 3 ways in which glucose is processed by the body once it is ingested.  Process for energy  Stored as glycogen in skeletal muscle/liver  Converted to fat in adipose tissue 3. Diabetes is a medical condition where the amount of glucose in bloodstream remains  elevated, even when fasting. a) Describe how glucose is transported into our cells. Identify the organ and hormone  responsible for regulating blood glucose levels.  Insulin is released from pancreas b) What occurs during Type II diabetes that results in elevated blood sugar?  Body cells don’t respond and resist to insulin  So glucose builds up in blood instead being absorbed by cells c) What is acanthosis nigricans and describe how it may be linked with diabetes?  People who have high blood pressure or diabetic have darker/cracked pigments  behind their neck 4. Disaccharides consist of 2 sugar molecules. a) What is the function of disaccharides?  Immediate source of energy b) Which foods contain these sugars?  Sucrose: sugar cane/granulated sugar  Lactose: dairy products 5. What are polysaccharides(complex carbs)?  Long chains of glucose 6. Plants contain 2 types of complex carbs. Discuss the function of each.  Starch: as energy over night w/o sunlight; plants can store their extra glucose as  starch  Cellulose: to strengthen plants structure; cant break it down, helps clear our  digestion system 7. When we eat plant­based foods that contain both starch and cellulose, which is digested  and used for energy, and which cannot be digest and is source of fiber?  Starch is used for energy and cellulose cannot be digested and is used for source  of fiber 8. What are the health benefits of consuming fiber­rich foods?  Stabilizes blood cells  Reduce lipid absorption  Helps elimination of solid waste 9. How does digestion of simple carbs affect blood sugar?  Provide immediate source of energy  Causes fluctuation (mood change) in blood sugar levels 10. How does the digestion of complex carbs affect blood sugar?  Stabilizes blood sugar  Takes longer to break down (delayed energy release) BIO 101 STUDY GUIDE PART 3: PROTEIN & NUCLEIC ACIDS 1. Amino acids are molecules that are used to make protein that our bodies need. Identify  the main chemical groups of amino acid.  NH2, COOH, and side group = amino acid  Ex. Tryptophan 2. Complete the table below on the function of different protein types in the body. Protein Type Lecture Examples Function Structural Keratin Structural support of protein  found in hair and nails Structural Collagen Structural support of protein  that supports skin Enzymatic Lactase (not lactose) Speeds up body/chemical  reaction Contractile 1) Actin 1) Responsible for single  cell movement 2) Actin and Myosin 2) Need both to help with  skeletal muscle contraction Transport Hemoglobin ­Finds oxygen and transports to cells that need it 3. Examine the nucleotide shown below. Nucleotides are used to build nucleic acids, such  as DNA and RNA. Identify the 3 components of a single nucleotide and discuss the  function of nucleic acids.  Components: Phosphate, sugar, nitrogen  DNA / RNA: store genetic information


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