BIO 101 Study Guide PART 2: Carbs/ PART 3: Protein & Nucleic Acids
BIO 101 Study Guide PART 2: Carbs/ PART 3: Protein & Nucleic Acids BIO 101
Cal State Fullerton
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vivian Luong on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Cindy Duong in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
BIO 101 STUDY GUIDE PART 2: CARBOHYDRATES/ PART 3: PROTEIN/NUCLEIC ACIDS 1. Examine and provide description general structure of a carbohydrate. Linear Form Ring Form 2. Monosaccharides consist of a single sugar molecule. a) What is the function of monosaccharides? Immediate source of energy b) Which foods contain these sugars? Glucose: bread, whole grain, sports drinks Fructose: fruits c) Describe 3 ways in which glucose is processed by the body once it is ingested. Process for energy Stored as glycogen in skeletal muscle/liver Converted to fat in adipose tissue 3. Diabetes is a medical condition where the amount of glucose in bloodstream remains elevated, even when fasting. a) Describe how glucose is transported into our cells. Identify the organ and hormone responsible for regulating blood glucose levels. Insulin is released from pancreas b) What occurs during Type II diabetes that results in elevated blood sugar? Body cells don’t respond and resist to insulin So glucose builds up in blood instead being absorbed by cells c) What is acanthosis nigricans and describe how it may be linked with diabetes? People who have high blood pressure or diabetic have darker/cracked pigments behind their neck 4. Disaccharides consist of 2 sugar molecules. a) What is the function of disaccharides? Immediate source of energy b) Which foods contain these sugars? Sucrose: sugar cane/granulated sugar Lactose: dairy products 5. What are polysaccharides(complex carbs)? Long chains of glucose 6. Plants contain 2 types of complex carbs. Discuss the function of each. Starch: as energy over night w/o sunlight; plants can store their extra glucose as starch Cellulose: to strengthen plants structure; cant break it down, helps clear our digestion system 7. When we eat plantbased foods that contain both starch and cellulose, which is digested and used for energy, and which cannot be digest and is source of fiber? Starch is used for energy and cellulose cannot be digested and is used for source of fiber 8. What are the health benefits of consuming fiberrich foods? Stabilizes blood cells Reduce lipid absorption Helps elimination of solid waste 9. How does digestion of simple carbs affect blood sugar? Provide immediate source of energy Causes fluctuation (mood change) in blood sugar levels 10. How does the digestion of complex carbs affect blood sugar? Stabilizes blood sugar Takes longer to break down (delayed energy release) BIO 101 STUDY GUIDE PART 3: PROTEIN & NUCLEIC ACIDS 1. Amino acids are molecules that are used to make protein that our bodies need. Identify the main chemical groups of amino acid. NH2, COOH, and side group = amino acid Ex. Tryptophan 2. Complete the table below on the function of different protein types in the body. Protein Type Lecture Examples Function Structural Keratin Structural support of protein found in hair and nails Structural Collagen Structural support of protein that supports skin Enzymatic Lactase (not lactose) Speeds up body/chemical reaction Contractile 1) Actin 1) Responsible for single cell movement 2) Actin and Myosin 2) Need both to help with skeletal muscle contraction Transport Hemoglobin Finds oxygen and transports to cells that need it 3. Examine the nucleotide shown below. Nucleotides are used to build nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. Identify the 3 components of a single nucleotide and discuss the function of nucleic acids. Components: Phosphate, sugar, nitrogen DNA / RNA: store genetic information
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