POS 150- Study Guide for Exam #1
POS 150- Study Guide for Exam #1 POS 150
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brigette Maggio on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POS 150 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Kittilson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 180 views. For similar materials see Comparative Government in Political Science at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
POS 150 Comparative Government Study Guide for Exam 1 nation: refers to a group of people with a common identity (may be built upon a common language, history, race, or culture, or simply upon the fact that these people have occupied the same territory) state: independent legal authority over a population in a particular territory ideology: a structure or constraint that organizes our issue stances ideology political parties: left (“liberal”) and right (“conservative”) democracy: a political system in which citizens enjoy a number of basic civil and political rights, and in which their most important political leaders are elected in free and fair elections and are accountable under a rule of law (“government by the people”) equal voting, free/ fair elections, inclusion, participation authoritarian regime: all the power in the hands of the few (China, Zimbabwe) aggregation takes place within party or in interactions with groups/ rigged elections economic inequality: GINI Index represents the distribution of wealth within a country 0= equal & 1= inequal political socialization: involves families, schools, communications media, churches, and all the various political structures that develop, reinforce, and transform the political culture, the attitudes of political significance in the society interest articulation: involves individuals and groups expressing their needs and demands interest aggregations: combines different demands into policy proposals backed by significant political resources multiparty system: systems like the U.S. where individuals are broken up into groups of common interests and political goals Duverger’s Law: systematic relationship between electoral and party systems, so that singlemember district plurality election systems tend to create twoparty systems in the legislature, while proportional representation electoral systems generate multiparty systems redistribution: transfer of income and wealth from some individuals to others by means of a social mechanism such as taxation, charity, welfare, land reform, monetary policies, etc. welfare state: broken up into 3 categories: need: designed to help those that need support from the government contribution: benefits should go to those that contribute to the program entitlement: everyone should have benefits regardless of special circumstances unitary systems: power is concentrated in national government (Britain, France, China, Japan, and Iran/ most of world’s states are unitary) federal systems: can make legislation and collect taxes (U.S., Germany, Russia, India, Nigeria, Mexico, and Brazil) proportional representation: a way of translating votes into seats more proportionally to the population, vote for a party’s list of candidates instead of single candidate (how you can write a letter or call your representative) types of interest group systems: can shape political attitudes (rise of trade unions, political parties, mass media, pluralist interest group systems: multiple groups may represent a single societal interest group membership is voluntary and limited groups often have a loose or decentralized organizational structure there is a clear separation between interest groups and the government democratic corporatist interest group systems: a single peak association normally represents each societal interest membership in the association is often compulsory and nearly universal peak associations are centrally organized and direct the actions of their members groups are often systematically involved in making and implementing policy controlled interest group systems: there is a single group for each social sector membership is often compulsory each group is normally hierarchically organized groups are controlled by the government or its agents in order to mobilize support for government policy singlemember district: 1 person elected in the district/ win by plurality (candidate who gets most votes wins/ “first past the post”) multimember district: electoral districts that send 2 or more members to a legislative chamber Parliamentary System: executive and legislative branches are interdependent and legislative branch is directly elected (Prime Minister and Cabinet emerge from legislature) confidence (majority) relationship no divided government like our presidential system no real term limits and no veto power Presidential System: executive and legislative are separate separately elected fixed terms coordinations must be achieved to make policy class voting: method of a shareholder voting by which different classes of shares are voted separately on fundamental corporate changes that adversely affect the rights and privileges of that class working class: social group of people employed for wages, especially for manual or industrial work trade unions: (labor union) of craftspeople or workers, distinguished from general workers an organization whose membership consists of workers and union leaders united to protect and promote their common interests (negotiate wages and working conditions) British Ministries: a number of specialized departments, each led by a minister (like our Department of Justice > Ministry of Justice) National Health Service: an example of universal healthcare system (Canada and Switzerland) Prime Minister: head of government in a Parliamentary System/ principal minister over a sovereign or state Grand Coalition: arrangement in a multiparty parliamentary system in which the two largest political parties of opposing political ideologies unite in a coalition government mixed member proportional system: 2 layers to electoral rules for same parliament 2 votes: 1 particular party and 1 for candidate (Japan & Germany) democratization: transition to a more democratic political regime Millennium Development Goals: 8 basic human rights Millennium Summit: 2000 > Target Date: 2015 Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Goal 4: Reduce child mortality Goal 5: Improve maternal health (one of the biggest improvements) Goal 6: Combat HIV/ AIDS Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development cabinet: leaders of major departments in Presidential or Parliamentary systems district magnitude= 1: number of seats in a district district magnitude affects degree of proportionality as magnitude increases, each party’s share of the seats corresponds larger the magnitude, the more proportional the system political executive: President, Dictator, Prime Minister
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