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POS 150- Study Guide for Exam #1

by: Brigette Maggio

POS 150- Study Guide for Exam #1 POS 150

Marketplace > Arizona State University > Political Science > POS 150 > POS 150 Study Guide for Exam 1
Brigette Maggio
GPA 3.9

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These notes cover POS 150 for Exam #1.
Comparative Government
Dr. Kittilson
Study Guide
POS 150, political science
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brigette Maggio on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POS 150 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Kittilson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 180 views. For similar materials see Comparative Government in Political Science at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
POS 150­ Comparative Government  Study Guide for Exam 1    nation:​ refers to a group of people with a common identity (may be built upon a common  language, history, race, or culture, or simply upon the fact that these people have occupied the  same territory)    state:​ independent legal authority over a population in a particular territory    ideology:​  a structure or constraint that organizes our issue stances  ­ideology political parties: left (“liberal”) and right (“conservative”)    democracy:​  a political system in which citizens enjoy a number of basic civil and political rights,  and in which their most important political leaders are elected in free and fair elections and are  accountable under a rule of law (“government by the people”)  ­equal voting, free/ fair elections, inclusion, participation    authoritarian regime:​  all the power in the hands of the few (China, Zimbabwe)  ­aggregation takes place within party or in interactions with groups/ rigged elections    economic inequality: ​ GINI Index represents the distribution of wealth within a country 0= equal  & 1= inequal    political socialization:​ involves families, schools, communications media, churches, and all the  various political structures that develop, reinforce, and transform the political culture, the  attitudes of political significance in the society    interest articulation:​ involves individuals and groups expressing their needs and demands    interest aggregations: ​ combines different demands into policy proposals backed by significant  political resources    multiparty system:​  systems like the U.S. where individuals are broken up into groups of  common interests and political goals    Duverger’s Law:​  systematic relationship between electoral and party systems, so that  single­member district plurality election systems tend to create two­party systems in the  legislature, while proportional representation electoral systems generate multiparty systems    redistribution: ​transfer of income and wealth from some individuals to others by means of a  social mechanism such as taxation, charity, welfare, land reform, monetary policies, etc.    welfare state:  broken up into 3 categories:   ­need:​ designed to help those that need support from the government  ­contribution:​  benefits should go to those that contribute to the program  ­entitlement:​ everyone should have benefits regardless of special circumstances    unitary systems: ​ power is concentrated in national government (Britain, France, China, Japan,  and Iran/ most of world’s states are unitary)    federal systems:​  can make legislation and collect taxes (U.S., Germany, Russia, India, Nigeria,  Mexico, and Brazil)    proportional representation:​  a way of translating votes into seats more proportionally to the  population, vote for a party’s list of candidates instead of single candidate (how you can write a  letter or call your representative)    types of interest group systems:​  can shape political attitudes (rise of trade unions, political  parties, mass media,  ­pluralist interest group systems:  ­multiple groups may represent a single societal interest  ­group membership is voluntary and limited  ­groups often have a loose or decentralized organizational structure  ­there is a clear separation between interest groups and the government  ­democratic corporatist interest group systems:  ­a single peak association normally represents each societal interest   ­membership in the association is often compulsory and nearly universal  ­peak associations are centrally organized and direct the actions of their  members  ­groups are often systematically involved in making and implementing policy  ­controlled interest group systems:  ­there is a single group for each social sector  ­membership is often compulsory  ­each group is normally hierarchically organized  ­groups are controlled by the government or its agents in order to mobilize  support for government policy    single­member district: ​ 1 person elected in the district/ win by plurality (candidate who gets  most votes wins/ “first past the post”)    multi­member district: ​ electoral districts that send 2 or more members to a legislative chamber    Parliamentary System:​  executive and legislative branches are interdependent and legislative  branch is directly elected (Prime Minister and Cabinet emerge from legislature)  ­confidence (majority) relationship  ­no divided government like our presidential system  ­ no real term limits and no veto power    Presidential System: ​ executive and legislative are separate  ­separately elected  ­fixed terms  ­coordinations must be achieved to make policy     class voting: method of a shareholder voting by which different classes of shares are voted  separately on fundamental corporate changes that adversely affect the rights and privileges of  that class    working class: ​social group of people employed for wages, especially for manual or industrial  work    trade unions: ​(labor union) of craftspeople or workers, distinguished from general workers  ­an organization whose membership consists of workers and union leaders united to  protect and promote their common interests (negotiate wages and working conditions)    British Ministries: a number of specialized departments, each led by a minister (like our  Department of Justice ­­­> Ministry of Justice)    National Health Service: ​ an example of universal healthcare system (Canada and Switzerland)    Prime Minister: ​head of government in a Parliamentary System/ principal minister over a  sovereign or state    Grand Coalition: ​arrangement in a multi­party parliamentary system in which the two largest  political parties of opposing political ideologies unite in a coalition government     mixed member proportional system:​  2 layers to electoral rules for same parliament    ­2 votes: 1 particular party and 1 for candidate (Japan & Germany)    democratization:​  transition to a more democratic political regime    Millennium Development Goals: 8 ​ basic human rights  ­Millennium Summit: 2000 ­­­> Target Date: 2015  ­Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger  ­Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education  ­Goal 3:​ Promote gender equality and empower women  ­Goal 4: Reduce child mortality  ­Goal 5:​ Improve maternal health (one of the biggest improvements)  ­Goal 6:​ Combat HIV/ AIDS  ­Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability  ­Goal 8:​ Develop a global partnership for development    cabinet:​  leaders of major departments in Presidential or Parliamentary systems    district magnitude= 1:​  number of seats in a district  ­district magnitude affects degree of proportionality  ­as magnitude increases, each party’s share of the seats corresponds  ­larger the magnitude, the more proportional the system    political executive:​  President, Dictator, Prime Minister 


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