Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSCI 1024
Popular in Comparative Government and Politics
Popular in Political Science
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eric Arkfeld on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSCI 1024 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Taylow in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Comparative Government and Politics in Political Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
1. Aristotle a. said it is impossible to live in human community without politics 2. politics is the process of making government policies, but also includes influences outside government upon public opinion a. “politics determines who gets what when and how” Laswell b. “politics is the authoritative allocation of values” Easton c. the “art of the possible” 3. most people, most of the time support the government a. when they do not government may use force to coerce compliance 4. Conflict a. occurs when one group makes demands and another responds negatively 5. Consensus a. necessary particularly in pluralistic society, where individuals and groups are expected to press for their own interests and values b. necessarily for national cohesion, even in the case of an authoritarian government i. force alone cannot keep a country together 6. Pluralism a. Common consensus that each group should be able to pursue its own interests 7. Communalism a. Ethnicity, language, or religion define separate exclusive groups. Memories of historical conflicts passed along from generation to generation, providing identity and unity for the group. b. Political attitudes and positions on issues are structured by ethnic, linguistic, or religious identity. c. Compromise is difficult or impossible > violence frequently becomes the means for settling disputes 8. Hobbes a. government keeps people civil i. Humans who lived together had created a social contract by which they gave up the liberties of their natural state to a sovereign who in turn promised to provide protection to them against foreign/domestic threats b. Thought order was so important that the government should be a ll powerful 9. Locke a. all being equal in independent are entitled to life, health, liberty, or possessions i. Law of nature wills the peace and preservation of all people ii. Not everyone follows this law so punishment is necessary iii. Individual is responsible for selfdefense and has the right to punish offender b. government needed to be powerful but limited 10. Puritans a. Westminister Abbey, 1648 Man is corrupt by nature and wholly inclined to evil b. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/cONmzaT4x10/maxresdefault.jpg 11. Hobbes, Locke, Puritans a. Life is nasty and violent without some means of control beyond the individual 12. Rousseau, Marx, Anarchists a. Human nature could be virtuous under the right conditions i. Each group differs on their idea of the “right conditions” 13. Rousseau a. thought that the human condition in the state of nature was a virtuous one b. He thought governments corrupt human potential c. Solution: Create small republics in which the entire community could express its will through direct participation d. “Man is born free, and yet everywhere he is in chains” 14. Marx a. political power reflected the mode of production within the society b. exploitation begins when there is a division between the owners and workers i. Rich become rich by profiting from the poor c. with mode of production brought to the laborer, the exploitation of the masses would dissipate i. This would lead to the emergence of the c lassless society ii. state would wither away 15. Anarchists a. believe the government is the cause of trouble b. view close communities with strong tendency towards egalitarianism (idea of equality for all people) c. Power corrupts! d. alternative to government corrupting people is the voluntary cooperation in natural communities e. relies heavily on the notion that human beings are naturally well behaved, just and righteous 16. Ideologies a. widely vary in intensity and direction b. Classical Liberalism i. emphasized the state as the enemy c. Modern (american) Liberals i. concerned of the dangers to liberty that government poses but also insist free society must be protected from nongovernment forces that may take away liberties d. Classical Conservatism i. emphasized the hierarchical, integrated community and the importance of the state directing this community ii. natural hierarchy in human relationships iii. some born to rule, others to obey iv. all together or all lost e. Modern (American) Conservatism i. liberty within financial realms is important ( ii. on social and personal issues, the government should guide the people f. Socialism i. believed that positive action by the state should be used to bring equal opportunities to all citizens g. Fascism i. leans towards antiintellectualism and antimodernism ii. glorifies warfare and brutality iii. appeals to those dissatisfied with economy and politics but no clear ideas on how to solve their problems 17. State a. Definition i. possesses a territory, a population and sovereignty ii. also possesses external sovereignty, or the ability to conclude binding agreements with other states b. Roles i. Community Building 1. national identity and civic pride are important ii. Provide Protection 1. historic role assigned by hobbes 2. includes defense against foreign enemies and the maintenance of order within the society c. Nations i. politicians and media often refer to states as nations 1. nations are groups of people with a strong psychological sense of unity based on common history, culture, language, economic life, or territory ii. a single state may contain multiple nations d. Civil Society i. made up of the interactions of individuals living in the territory of the state 18. Peace of Westphalia in 1648 a. since 1648, the world has been divided into states and their colonies 19. Economic Systems a. Capitalism i. system in which the means of production and distribution of goods and services are in the hands of private owner as operating for profit ii. laissez faire underlies capitalism and is the ideology that holds that there should only be minimal government intervention in the economy iii. emphasis is on the market where prices depend on the levels of supply and demand iv. argument is that by rewarding successful entrepreneurs, all of society will benefit, although not equally 1. historically has not dealt with those who fall out the bottom of the system b. Socialism i. system in which the means of production and distribution of goods and services are held in common by the people (through the state or cooperatives) ii. private property is the primary cause of economic suffering and injustice and that common ownership eliminates said exploitation iii. historically has not effectively dealt with the incentive problem 1. if we all receive the same, what is the incentive to work c. Communism i. seeks to merge the political and economic into a single system ii. politics must control all of the economy iii. one party controls all of politics, economics and society iv. goes further in control than socialism d. Problems with Choice in the Market i. Wealth and income are distributed unequally in all societies ii. markets are not good at producing public goods, i.e. goods that can be used by anyone but nobody is required to pay for them iii. Market mechanisms to don’t take externalities into account, i.e. negative or positive benefits may go to third parties e. Nightwatchman State i. based on philosophical liberalism, depends on the redistribution of wealth by higher taxes to provide for some politically acceptable level of education, health, housing, employment and income of its citizens 1. we’re all in this together motto f. Regulatory State i. Seeks the protection of consumers, investors, children, the poor, and other groups in society by government regulations ii. guard against greed and other wrongdoings 20. Legitimacy a. Definition i. belief that one’s government conforms to recognized principles or accepted standards ii. governments cannot be successful without being perceived to be legitimate b. Internal Legitimacy i. determined by what the people of the country think, and therefore varies from place to place ii. Monarchies, theocracies, military regimes, and one party ideologically based states can be internally legitimate 21. Political Culture a. legitimacy is grounded in the political culture of a society b. political culture is made up of broadly shared ways of thinking about politics and government within a society i. includes cognitive orientations (how people believe politics works) and affective orientations (how people feel about politics) c. Political socialization i. how we acquire our political orientations and behaviors ii. gained through the influence of peers and groups, families, and mass media iii. particularly effective early in life 22. Democratic Political Culture a. Popular Sovereignty i. ultimate power belongs to the people b. Equality i. all citizens must have an equal opportunity to participate, regardless of wealth, intelligence, education, skills, personality, health, connections, motivation, and other possessions ii. in reality, participation requires political capital, or the resources necessary to participate. 1. includes money, organizational ability, personal discipline, and other talents c. Consultation i. it is necessary for the government to figure out what the people want ii. policy should reflect the wants of the people iii. consultation is not just one sided, as the people must voice their opinions as much as the government must listen d. Majority Rule i. decisions are made according to the greatest number of who favors a proposal for an action ii. majority may be vary for different decisions e. minority Rights i. protection of an consultation with the minorities is of importance ii. no one should be left out of the benefits of the commonwealth iii. majority may have to make concessions in order to provide for those in the minority 23. Designing Government a. Constitution i. Where is the sovereignty located? 1. only located within a central government or shared within smaller internal units? 2. power shared varies widely depending on the constitution ii. Unitary 1. states that are not federal 2. ultimate power is held in the central government 3. regional units administer their areas through the authority and under the control of the central government 4. power is delegated to smaller units but is often not shared iii. Decision Making 1. Judicial Review a. review takes place when courts review cases on appeal and speak to the constitutionality of a law or executive action 2. Parliament a. has been supreme since the 17th century in England 3. Switzerland a. has no Judiciary and relies on the referendum of the people b. Balancing Majority and Minority i. difficult in societies that are polarized ii. was a very big issue to James Madison Terms to Define ● Pg 21 Shively politics The making of common decisions for a group of people through the exercise of power by some members of the group over other members power The ability of one person to cause another to do what the first wishes, by whatever means. manifest power based on observable action by A that leads B to do what A wants implicit power B does what A desires not because of anything A says or does but because B wants to for whatever reason authority Power based on a general agreement that the holder of the power has the right to issue certain commands and that those commands should be obeyed governmentThe group of people within state who have the ultimate authority to act on behalf of the state legitimacy The belief by the people that theshould have the authority state Basic unit by which people are organized politically; States are militarily independent; governments that typically regulate economy political science interpretive political scientists Political scientist who emphasize historical , anthropological, and (sometimes) legal methods, and the complex whole that is being studied behavioralists Political scientists who emphasize statistical analysis and abstract theories seeking out basic, essential regularities across a set of events theory A statement linking specific instances to broader principles empirical theories theories on what has happened and why normative theories based on empirical assumptions to interpret how or what the world should be ● Pg 47 Shively ideology system of ideas and ideals American Liberalism identifies not only the government but also outside influences as threats to liberty. Leaves moral and personal decisions to the individual and puts more emphasis on economic regulation American Conservatism lose variant of true Liberalism. Suspicious of governmental intervention to make people more but is often will to entrust government with power to maintain morality Liberalism An ideology posting that the most important goal of politics is to help individuals develop their capacities to the fullest. People should be regulated and aided as little as possible. libertarianism A relatively pure form of classic liberalism, favoring limited government conservatism an ideology posting that the most important goal of politics is to create stable communities based on a hierarchy of power in which leaders and followers have reciprocal responsibilities and obligations socialismAn ideology posting that society consists of classes constantly in conflict. Working class should takeover to create a just society classes In Marx’s theory of socialism, groups of people who share the same relationship to the means of production and who therefore develop a distinctive view of themselves and of the world. His theory had them as drivers of social and political change communism the more militant branch of socialism. Argue that the only way to build a socialist state is by revolution. democratic socialism Branch of socialism that supports electoral democracy and holds that the proper way for workers to control society is to win elections. More moderate than communists. fascism a political movement that appeared in many countries in the 1920s and 1930s. Stressed militaristic pageantry and a strident nationalism as ways of binding people to a dramatic dictator. neoliberalism An ideology emphasizing economic side of liberalism free markets, free trade, private industry. Emphasis on economic efficiency and economic growth identity group A group of people who share an identity that they think defines them and sets them apart from others ● Pg 75 Shively public goodsomething that benefits all members of the collectivity and that no one can be prevented from using nation state sovereignty the legal capacity of a geographic unit to maintain ultimate responsibility for the conduct of its own affairs nationalism passionate identification with a nation nationstate: states try to develope a sense of nation within the boundaries of the state in order to create nationalism for the state statebuilding: the process of building or reconstructing a state; rules, institution, expectations failed stategeographic entity with no effective central government; controlled by warlords and gangs autonomous state a state in which the government and bureaucracy are relatively insulated from political pressures of groups in the society civil society the part of society that is publicly involved but not controlled by the government european union 27 Western European states with a (weak) common government and coordinated many of their economic policies ● Pg 95 Shively gross domestic product total value of all goods and services exchanged; groceries, mechanics, education. proportional to economic activity PPP per capita GDP GDP divided by the population= average amount of economic transactions per person(per capita GDP) PPP puts all per capita GDPs of all states into a comparable unit. ● Pg 129 Shively rent transfers of money that does not relate to production. importsubstitution industrialization: inflation prices are rising and the value of the currency is declining progressive taxation takes more percentage of taxes from people who have a higher income regressive taxation takes more percentage of taxes from people who have a Lower income central bank a bank set up by its government to handle its transactions, to coordinate the policies of private banks and manage interests rates of the economy. corruption improperly performing one’s public tasks for personal benefits (bribes) political economy rational choice models political psychology codetermination ● Pg 149 Shively justice substantive justice procedural justice arbitrary action due process effective policy market mechanism externality ● Pg 180 Shively regime democracy authoritarian democracy third wave agentcentric explanation: pacts crisis transitions authoritarian system military government coup oneparty state: monarchy theocracy ● Pg 204 Shively political culture political socialization agents of socialization social capital ● Pg 225 Shively constitution incentive compatibility unitary state federal state a sovereign state that is governed by a higher power willingly rule of lawactions of the government are based on general principles that are applied equally to all people. constitutionalism a constitution is designed fairley and the government is faithful to that constitution. ● Pg 2933 O’Neil Practice Exam 1. Aristotle Believed that human beings a. are social animals who require politics 2. King Henry II exclaimed one day that “Will no one rid me of this priest’, which is an example of: a. implicit power 3. John Stuart Mill a. ? b. Notes on Mill: i. The ability of choice sets man apart from other species ii. rejected utilitarianism and strict rationality iii. critisizes socialism iv. sees danger of “tyranny of the majority” v. Only reason to interfere with others is selfdefense 1. big proponent of freedom of choice 4. Pluralism would be most closely associated with a. the civil society 5. Modern Liberalism differs from classical liberalism in that it a. perceives enemies in addition to the government 6. American Conservatism a. owes much to classical liberalism in its views on economic arrangements 7. What is the essential Characteristic of a State? a. Sovereignty 8. A failed state refers to one that a. has no effective central state apparatus 9. Privatization Refers to a. individuals developing their own businesses 10. Which of the following is not a traditional role of government a. general welfare 11. the primary concern in socialism is: a. equality 12. A state that attempts as little government regulation as possible is known as: a. a night watchman state 13. Constitutionality is always determined by judicial review a. false (switzerland) 14. Central planning is commonly associated with a. communism 15. Constitutionalism refers to: a. Federalism 16. Legitimacy is sought by governments a. because it is easier to function when citizens believe in the system 17. Divisions of states into provinces constitutes federalism if a. the units retain some sovereignty 18. The teaching of political values and assumptions to children is called a. political socialization 19. A state can attain legitimacy by: a. providing security b. historical ethnic or religious identity c. processes of government d. all of the above 20. Madisonian democracy excludes which of the following: a. “if unrestrained by external checks, a majority of individuals will never tyrannize over a minority of individuals” 21. Short Answer (Define) a. Classical Liberalism i. Ideology that identifies the government as the main enemy against freedom b. Modern (American) Liberalism i. Ideology that identifies the threat that government poses to liberty, but also the threat that outside influences pose Modern (American) Conservatism ii. Ideology that emphasizes economic freedom with minimal government interference and that personal and moral decisions are to be made by the government. c. Classical Capitalism i. Based on free trade and allows for entrepreneurs to be rewarded, which benefits all of society, although not equally d. Classical Socialism i. Classical Socialism is based in the notion of total equality for all citizens by way of positive action by the state 22. Essay a. Thinking of Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and Marx, where does each place the blame for society’s ills and what are their solutions i. Hobbes 1. Life is inherently nasty due to humans not being naturally virtuous 2. Life without government results in everyman fighting every man 3. strong, all powerful government should exist to keep people civil ii. Locke 1. life is in chaos without government 2. government should be of the people for the people, who reserve the right to overthrow it at any time if liberties are encroached upon 3. State governments should be smaller and benefit the community iii. Rousseau 1. thought that people are naturally virtuous and that governments corrupt people 2. wanted to create small republics to allow for direct participation 3. Ideal society is small agricultural communities iv. Marx 1. the rich exploit the poor for their own gain 2. society should be classless, with the mode of production brought to the laborer. 3. The government will only exist until the virtue of humanity is restored, then once man is virtuous, the government will dissolve
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