POS 2112 Exam 1 Study Guide
POS 2112 Exam 1 Study Guide POS 2112
Popular in State & Local Govt
Popular in Political Science
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by StephanieMJ on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POS 2112 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Stan Melnick in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see State & Local Govt in Political Science at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
Reviews for POS 2112 Exam 1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/16/16
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE ***This test is on Chapter 14. Make sure to read these chapters thoroughly!*** 1. Describe the many ways state constitutions may differ from the U.S. Constitution. First, state constitutions define and structure the state’s political institutions: the legislature, the governor and the executive branch, the court system, and other state entities. Citizens in 24 states can vote to change their laws and constitutions directly (see chapter 4 about Referendum, Initiative, and Recall), seven states have no elected lieutenant governor (a position comparable to the vice president in the U.S. government), and 10 states have intermediate courts of appeal (which evaluate questions of fairness about the trial) between their trial courts and supreme courts. Another difference is the balance of powers and checks and balances. State checks and balances, such as executive veto powers, make certain state institutions more or less powerful across states; that is, in some states, such as Wisconsin, the governor is quite powerful, while in others, such as North Carolina, he or she is not. Each of these institutions, and the relationships among them, is defined in state constitutions. Most state constitutions also establish a basic “bill of rights” for residents, often paralleling the federal Bill of Rights. States can add their own protected liberties to their bill of rights. This means that residents of different states can have different rights. States also have a variation of rights and an example of this would be the different states “equal rights” amendments. The federal Equal Rights Amendment failed in the 1970s and 1980s but 20 states have some variety of an equal rights amendment that guarantees nondiscrimination under the law due to race, creed, or sex. Another feature of state constitutions, compared to the U.S. Constitution, is their attention to public policy. Another difference is how they deal with intergovernmental relations. Local governments are entirely creatures of their state, and only exist state governments create them, and a state’s constitution defines how local governments are established. Lastly, state constitutions are typically much longer than the U.S. Constitution because of their more extensive discussion of rights, policy, and local government. State processes for amending constitutions are less cumbersome than the U.S. federal amendments process. State constitutions typically require supermajority (more than 50%) approval in the legislature and subsequent citizen approval in a referendum whereas the U.S. constitution requires a twothirds’ vote in each house of Congress and ratification by threequarters of the U.S. states. 2. Briefly discuss the states social and ethnic diversity impact on public policy choices. Before I discuss the states social and ethnic diversity impact on public policy choices I want to first clarify what public policy even is. Public policy consists of government’s decisions and actions that are designed to achieve the common goals identified by the political process for that jurisdiction. With knowing this I can now discuss the impacts on public policy choices. The social characteristics of the states and communities vary tremendously across the country and can affect the policy. The most obvious social difference among various jurisdictions is the number of people living in each of them. The change in demographics can affect life, business, and the politics of a jurisdiction. The declining population of can lead to plummeting housing values, cities that are “hollowing out,” and reduced tax revenue to pay for programs. Booming states and communities have problems of sprawl, crowded classrooms, and overused infrastructure. Ethnic diversity can affect the policies in many important ways. An example would be that even though they comprise a lower percentage of the population in the Midwest and Northeast than in the South, African Americans began to be elected to political office much earlier in the former than the latter. This is in part because African Americans concentration in the Northern cities more often led to their having majorities in political districts than their dispersion through the rural South allowed. After race, religion is the most important social characteristic differentiating the U.S. states and communities and influencing their policies. An example would be the Roman Catholic Church’s strong influence on education policy in some places due to its long tradition of running parochial schools. Page 13 InState tuition and why it is given. Page 14 geography. Page 17 Social forces. Page 19 ethnic composition. One public policy that varies greatly among the states and also has a direct impact on the students in this classroom is the amount of instate tuition that is charged by public universities. Public universities (the majority of them) are run by the states. The fact that the states run the majority of Public universities allows them to offer instate tuition which drastically decreases the tuition price for the students living in state. By doing this, it contributes to the common good by developing a college graduate for the state. A college education adds value to a worker who then earns more or is more likely to develop a successful business or professional practice which means more tax revenue for the state, more jobs created, more efficiency in the economy, and an improved workforce relative to other states in the nation and countries in the world. The geography of a place can also affect its policy. For example, Florida can get tourists who are attracted to their sunshine and beaches to help pay for their public services by relying heavily on the sales tax. Taxes on every bottle of sunscreen bought in Florida by a visitor shift some of the costs of those states services to nonstate residents. Early American history plays a role as well in affecting the states policies. Mountain states are an example of this because they still exhibit traces of their years as frontier territory, such as antigovernment libertarianism in their politics and women being better represented in elective office than in most other states. These states simply needed to attract women immigrants, since relatively few of them wanted to endure the privations of the frontier, and one way they did this was by empowering women politically. For instance, women could vote in Wyoming in 1869, 50 years before the 19 Amendment to the U.S. Constitution recognized this right throughout the country. 3. How did the attacks of 9/11 impact the power of the federal government in America? The attacks of 9/11 impacted the power of the federal government in America by the U.S. passing the PATRIOT Act 45 days after the 9/11 attacks. The PATRIOT Act expanded the federal government’s police powers, including the right to access medical and tax records, book purchases, and the borrowing of library books, as well as conduct secret home searches. President Bush authorized NSA (National Security Agency) to monitor – without preclearance from a judge – phone calls and emails of U.S. citizens. Congress passed legislation increasing federal control over state and local governments in a host of policy areas. Federal crackdown on foreign threats has impinged directly on areas normally under the control of state and local governments, enabling the federal government to reign supreme over the states. Under the umbrella of Homeland Security, federal laws regulate public health care facilities, restricting prescription drugs, nationalizing k12 education policies, and standardizing state driver’s licenses (these all were typically delegated to the states). Homeland Security and TSA were also created after the attacks. 4. Which demographic groups are most likely to participate in local political activities? What effect does this have on policy making? Wealthy (rich, elite, with a college degree) people are 3 times more likely to say they go to public meetings and they are almost twice as likely to contact officials to express their opinions. Parents because they are trying to get better schools for their children. Homeowners also. The effect it has on policymaking is participation bias. An example of this is if the poor were underrepresented then less money would be spent on welfare compared to a state where the poor were better represented. 5. Is direct democracy better than representative democracy? Provide at least three reasons and an equal number of examples in your answer. There’s no accurate answer as to whether direct democracy is better than representative democracy. There are positives and negatives to both democracies but I will give you three reasons, with examples, as to why direct democracy is better. To begin, it is better because it could “level the playing field” by giving more political value to individual voters, as opposed to those who finance political campaigns. Another reason is that it is a process that can build better citizens by allowing them to participate in meaningful policy choices which will have them wanting to seek out more information. The third reason is that voting directly on policy might also encourage citizens to have more interest in politics and feel more engaged with their government. 6. Define and distinguish among the terms of government, politics and public policy. Government is the set of authoritative institutions by which a geographically defined group of people organizes itself to achieve their common goals. As individuals, our abilities and capacities are very limited; but working together, we can do much more than we can do alone. Politics is the process that people use to determine what their government will do. We use politics to decide which public goods our government will provide, how it will do so, who will benefit, and how we are going to pay for them. Politics consists of elections, campaigns, lobbying, lawmaking, and many activities that we hear about daily in the news, and each of these affects important government decisions. Public policy consists of government’s decisions and actions that are designed to achieve the common goals identified by the political process for that jurisdiction. Any official or regular action of government or its officials is a policy, including its institutions, laws, and regulations. 7. Define and use the comparative method. The comparative method is where political scientists use the wide range of differences among the states and communities to help explain how politics and public policy work. This is used so we could focus on what would benefit specific areas, instead of assuming that all areas are the same and need the same thing. Some examples of why you would use the comparative method would be that the State California has no death penalty but the state of Florida does. Also, New York City has an extensive and efficient mass transit system, while Los Angeles does not. Using this method allows you to find out what works best for where, and why. 8. Describe federalism, and contrast it to unitary and confederal forms of governance. Federalism is the structural (or constitutional) relationship between a national government and its constitutive states. This is what we have on our current Constitution. It is nearly equal distribution of power and very large geographic countries use this. A federalist system works by combining the unifying powers of the national government with the diversity of subnational governments. The American states are not extensions of the national government but instead they have discrete powers which are derived from the federal Constitution as well as their own constitutions and laws. Unitary systems put all of their power into the central government. The central government is the one who controls everything and the subnational governments merely carry out national policies. Small geographic countries typically use this form of constitution. Confederal systems give almost all of the power to the subnational governments. The subnational governments enter into a covenant with one another and derive the bulk of their sovereign powers not from the central government but from their own constitutions. This is known as the Articles of Confederation. 9. Contrast the powers of the federal government versus those reserved to the states under the U.S. Constitution. There are six different grants of powers of the federal government. The first power is delegated powers, also known as expressed powers. The U.S. Constitution has 25 specific grants of power given grants in the U.S. which are delegated powers. Some examples would be the power of currency, power to establish USPS, power to create patents, power to regulate trades between states, and more. The second power is implied powers. These come from the section in the Constitution called Necessary and Proper Clause. The third power is the action which Congress is prohibited from taking. The fourth power is the prohibitions on powers/actions of states (what the states can’t legally do). The fifth power is the reserved powers given specifically to states. The sixth power is shared or concurrent powers which is where both states and national governments could tax us. Under interstate obligations there are three subtopics reserved to the states under the U.S. Constitution. The first subtopic is the full faith and credit clause. This is given in each state to the public acts records and judicial proceedings of every other state. Examples of this would be birth certificates, marriage license, and more. Note that each state can set their own conditions on what’s needed to get a license. The second subtopic is the privileges and immunities which is where citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens of the several states. An example of this would be the privilege of visiting any state you wish, at any time. The third subtopic extradition where a person charged in any state with treason, felony, or another crime, and who flees from justice and is found in another state from which he fled be delivered up to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime. 10. Assess the difference between dual federalism, cooperative federalism, and coercive federalism. Cooperative federalism is a federalism arrangement whereby responsibilities for most governmental functions are interdependent, shared between the federal and state governments. This is a marble cake federalism. Coercive federalism is a federalist arrangement whereby the federal government spearheads and funds programs. It is also referred to as creative federalism. This federalism has the most power. Dual federalism is where citizens are essentially governed by two separate legal spheres. This is also referred to as layer cake federalism. 11. Describe some of the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court that have increased the power of the federal government versus those that have increased power of the American states. Some decisions the U.S. Supreme Court has made which increased the power of the federal government is the Arizona vs. United States case in 2012.The court nullified portions of an Arizona law on illegal immigration because it infringed on the federal government’s superior power to enforce federal immigration policy. Another court case of this would be McCulloch vs. Maryland in 1819. The court upheld the power of Congress to incorporate the Second Bank of the United States and upheld that the State of Maryland could not tax it. Some decisions the U.S. Supreme Court had made which increased the power of the American states is Gitlow vs. New York in 1925. The court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment incorporates the First Amendment’s protection of freedom of speech, making it applicable to the states. 12. Describe different modes of political participation at the local level, and explain how these forms of political participation vary across social groups. Different modes of political participation at the local level are voting, contacting and contributing, attending meetings, interest group activities, grassroots political activity, social movements and protest. (explain each more of participation). Voter turnout in local elections is significantly higher in cities with a higher social status population and in places with more voters who are over 65 years old. Homeowners are more likely than renters to report many other forms of local participation. Parents are more involved as well so they can make sure their children are getting the best education, etc. 13. Explain how state rules and laws affect who votes, and explain how personal factors affect who votes. State rules and laws affect who votes in many different ways. Some states charge poll taxes which is a fee charged so that the citizen could vote. There are also registration barriers which is when the states have discretion to allow voter registration on the same day of the election or have waiting periods of up to 30 days. States also have the discretion to adopt laws that make it easier (or harder) to vote by mail. There are districting barriers the representatives, most state legislatures, and many city and country councils are conducted in single member district under winnertake all election rules. Depending on the state, people found to be “mentally incompetent,” convicted felons who served their time, people in prison, people on parole, and legal immigrant non citizens may be banned from voting. The states can also have strict photo identification laws and can require that voters register at least 20 days in advance. There are of course other state rules and laws that affect who votes besides the ones I had just mentioned. Personal factors affect who votes in many ways. The most frequently cited barrier is the lack of information. More than onethird of Americans agree that not knowing where to begin, or not having enough information, is a serious barrier to becoming involved in local politics. People with no education beyond high school, African American, and Hispanics were significantly more likely to share these sentiments. People whom work in congested urban areas a few miles from their neighborhood polling places may also be less likely to vote. 14. Recognize and define various institutions of direct democracy and consider how it might affect politics in states that do not have direct democracy. The three main features of direct democracy are the referendum, the initiative, and the recall. The referendum is a public vote on a statute or a constitutional amendment that has already been considered by a state legislature or local government. There’s legislative referendum where elected officials have control over the question that voters will consider, although legislators are often bound to place certain items on state ballots. There is also popular referendum which allows a person or group to file a petition to have a public vote on a bill that the legislature has already approved. The two types of initiative process in the United States are the direct initiative and indirect initiative. Direct initiative allows a person or group to file a proposed bill with a state office and then collect signatures from voters to qualify the measure for a spot on the state ballot. Indirect initiative functions as a petition to have the legislature consider a bill proposed by citizens. Recall allows a person or group to file a petition for a public vote to remove an elected officials from office prior to when the official’s term expires. 15. Evaluate how direct democracy affects politics and policy where it is used, and assess how direct democracy states are different from other states. States that have direct democracy have more power to change things like getting rid of their governor. States without this democracy cannot make this change. Some states with direct democracy are Florida, California, Minnesota, Nevada, Arizona, Georgia, New Mexico, Colorado, and more.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'