GY 102 Unit 1 Study Guide
GY 102 Unit 1 Study Guide GY 102
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Conner Jones on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GY 102 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mary Pitts in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Earth System Processes in Geography at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Geography Unit 1 Study Guide Key Terms Geography- science of the relationships among natural systems, geographic areas, society, cultural activities, and the interdependence of all these over space o spatial, holistic (interconnected), method, interdisciplinary (relating to more than one branch of science) Geomorphology- origin, evolution, form, classification, and spatial distribution of landforms; how our landscapes came to be, and how they’re continually evolving and changing Spatial themes: o Location- where? o Place- unique nature (tangible and intangible, human and nonhuman) o Movement- global interdependence o Region- area with its own uniform and unique character o Human Earth Relationships- how the earth and humans interact Catastrophism- “biblical” everything can be explained by a catastrophe in the bible (George Cuvier) Uniformitarianism- “present is key to past” earth constantly changes (James Hutton and Charles Lyell) Open system- energy and or matter move in and out Closed system- no exchange of energy and matter with surroundings happen; you are stuck with what you have Qualitative data- descriptions like colors, textures, smell, taste, etc. Quantitative data- numbers like length, height, temperature, area, volume, time, etc. Remote sensing- gathering data on an object or area from a considerable distance, as with radar, infrared photography, ocean floor sensors, etc. o Active remote sensing- direct beam at surface and analyze energy reflected (radar) o Passive remote sensing- record energy radiated from a surface, visible and infer-red (photos, satellite images) GPS (global positioning system)- determines location on earth using satellite signals GIS (geographic information system)- computer based data processing tool designed to capture, store, and analyze all types of spatial/geographical data Map concepts: o elevation- height above sea level o depth- below sea level o topographic relief- difference in elevation of one feature to another o slope-degrees from horizontal Types of Scale: o written scale- one inch equals four miles o representative fraction- 1:250,000 or 1/250,000 o graphic scale- distance on map to distance on land, most common small scale map- large representative fraction, world map, less detail large scale map- small representative fraction, cover small areas, more detail latitude- parallels, measured in degrees minutes and seconds, measure how far north/south you are from the equator longitude- meridians, measured in degrees minutes and seconds, measures how far east/west you are from the Prime Meridian great circles- made by plane passing through center of sphere small circle- made by plane that does not pass through center of sphere Endogenic- internal, radioactive, constructive Exogenic- external, solar energy, destructive Rocks- mass of one mineral (limestone) or an assemblage of many different minerals (granite) Types of rock: o Sedimentary rocks- formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water o Igneous rocks- formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava o Metamorphic rocks- Rock that was once one form of rock but has changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or some other agent without passing through a liquid phase o Hydrothermal rocks- rocks whose minerals crystallized from hot water or whose minerals have been altered by hot water passing through them Physical weathering- fracturing, frost and mineral wedging, roots and other biological activity, thermal expansion Chemical weathering- dissolution, oxidation, biological reactions, hydrolysis Deposition- oldest layer on bottom and youngest layer on top Geologic time- system of chronological measurement that describes timing and relationships between earth and events throughout Earth’s history Relative time- based on other absolute times (after lunch) Absolute time- a worldwide system of time (at 12:30 eastern time) Superimposition- theory that oldest rock is on bottom layers and newest rock is on upper layers of rock Catastrophism- appearance of earth today is solely based on a series of catastrophic events Uniformitarianism- earth is a result of uniform daily, monthly, yearly processes Punctuated equilibria- evolution of earth is marked by isolated episodes of rapid change with long periods of no change in between Isostasy- relationship between crustal thickness and elevation Plate tectonics- a geologic theory proposed to explain the large scale movements of earth’s lithosphere; this is due to forces in the asthenosphere and upper mantle Types of plate movements: o divergent- move apart o convergent- move toward each other o transform- move horizontally past one another Key Diagrams
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