I had to miss class because of a doctors appointment and these notes were a LIFESAVER
Ch 22: Descent with Modification!
Lecture Goals TO Examine some important episodes in history of evolutionary
Lahought O Aristotle Ammarat against evolution; ''scaia naturae"
- each form of life has own rung on latter; reompiexity w/ hun
Don't forget about the age old question of Define polyphyletic.
1 Plato ideal us: imperfect real world at top os | Linnuers + Dinomial naming system tuested classification system
* not a result of evolutionary relationships
2 Cuvier father of paleontolog" first to accept concept of extinction © James Hutton → geological phenomena Coroicgical features formed
through graduai mechanismsj in cycles; Earn is older than previo Chought If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between positive punishment and negative punishment?
Lyell nuiton's theory applies to past a present 1 Lamarck mechanisms for evolution; Organisms have innate
O use of disuse
. desire to be perfect @ interitance of acquired characteristics 3 Learn about adaptations & their importance J
adaptations inherited characteristics of organisms that enhance
selectie survival a reproduction in specific environment's "good enough 1 Importance: new species arise from gradual accumulation of adapta If you want to learn more check out What do stems and roots have in common?
to a different environment = Natural Selection 3 Understand Darwin's Basic Premises through 5 key observations of 13 inferences
T3 inferences 5 Observations
10 individuals whose inherited traits go
thim a higher probability of surviving We also discuss several other topics like Which transmission refers to disease spread through a middle step?
) all species have great fertility I reproducing in a given environment lear
more oifspringu & exponentially if uninhibitted Don't forget about the age old question of When is the pre-civil war happen?
e inequal ability to survive y reproduce ☺ populations stabie in size
reads to agradual change in a population 2 individuals in a population vary foweranie Enaracteristics accuinviating extensively in characteristics
over generations variation heritanie
© production of more individuell anan Out
environment can support leads to ☺ naturai resources limited If you want to learn more check out An art should be?
I competition, wi only a fraction of I off spring surviving each generation
cannor optimize al traits troch
n understand und Darwinan liness o
f environ hent responsil
fitness & fitness = differential reproductive success for higher reproduce at a nigher rate than other individuais ble of certa - traits
• requires traits more suitable to the environment greater survival
greater reproductive success higher fitness B Appreciate comprenend evidence supporting Durwin's evovutionary Theory
) Direct Observations → naturai Selection a process of editing, depends on
time a piace 2 Homoiogy similarity resuiting from common ancestry
- Structures of genome similarity - vestigiai sfructure's - remnants of features that served a function in to
organism's ancestors A beware of convergent evolution (independent evolution) that make . analogous structures (str similar structures resulting
from convergem 3 The Fossil record shows evolutionary changes that have occured I various groups of organisms
- Origins of new species - over time, descent w/ modification proauced increasingly large
differences among related groups of organisms 6 Biogeography stucly of geographic distributions of species
- many endemic species closely related to neighboring species
colonization of organisms gives rise to new species as they adapt to new environments
bratand effects of naturai Selection on population cynamic Lwlin/biw species
natural selection process in which individuaus hat nave a certain heritabie traits survive a reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals b/c of traits
can increase match biw organisms & environment a if environment changes / organisms move to new environment
adaptations to new conditions new species