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Mass Media Exam 1 Review

by: Jocelyn

Mass Media Exam 1 Review MMC2604

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Chapters 1-6
Mass Media and You
Darlena Cunha and Steve Orlando
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Mass Media and You

Popular in Communication

This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jocelyn on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MMC2604 at University of Florida taught by Darlena Cunha and Steve Orlando in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Mass Media and You in Communication at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
Monday, February 8, 2016 Mass Media Review Chapter 1: Mass Communication - Communication: the creation and use of symbol systems that convey information and meaning - Culture: the symbols of expression that individuals, groups, and societies use to make sense of daily life and to articulate their values - Mass Media: A medium of communication such as newspapers, television or radio, that is designed to reach the mass of the people. • Convergence: when newer forms of technology disrupted and modified older forms - Mass Communication: the process of designing cultural messages and stories and delivering them to large and diverse audiences through media channels as old and distinctive as the printed book and as new and converged as the Internet History of Media - Talking —> Writing —> Print —> Radio —> TV—> Internet - Every time there is a change, the current society starts to freak out Oral and Written Eras in Communication - Socrates: public debates known as the Socratic method whose most famous student, Plato, sought to banish poets since their ideas were less rigorous The Print Revolution - Books became the first mass marketed products in history The Electronic Era - Telegraph, fax, radio, phone, tv - By the 1920s and 30s, the city had come the focus of national life. - Telegraph made four key contributions: • Separated communication from transportation • Transformed information into a commodity 1 Monday, February 8, 2016 • Made it easier for military, business, and political leaders to coordinate • It led to future technological developments like the radio, fax, and telephone - By the 1950s and 60s, tv had a dramatic impact on daily life. The Digital Era - Digital Communication: images, texts, and sounds are converted (coded) into electron signals that are then reassembled (decoded) as a TV Picture, a magazine article, a song, or a telephone voice. On the Internet, various images, texts, and sounds are all digitally reproduced and transmitted globally. • Decoding messages: Race, Ethnicity, Education, Gender, Social Status, Economic Status, and Life Experience - Bloggers: people who post commentary on cultural, personal, and political-opinion based web sites became key players in reporting news. - Email became the new postal service. - Reinventing oral culture has been the emergence of social media The Linear Model of Mass Communication - Senders (authors, producers, and organizations) transmit messages (programs, texts, images, sounds, and ads) through a mass media channel (newspapers, books, magazines, radio, television, or the Internet) to large groups of receivers (readers, viewers, and consumers). - In the process, gatekeepers (news editors, executive producers, and other media mangers) function as message filters • Gatekeepers = News Management. They decide what is fit for the audience and in which way it should be told to them - Media gatekeepers make decisions about what messages actually get produced for particular receivers. This process allows for feedback in which citizens and consumers can return messages to senders or gatekeeper through letters, phone calls, web posts, or talk shows. - Problem with the liner model: media messages don't usually move smoothly from a sender to a receiver. Words and images are likely to just spill into one another. - Message Producer —> Message —> Medium —> Audience 2 Monday, February 8, 2016 A Cultural/Contemporary Model for Understanding Mass Communication - Individuals bring diverse meanings to messages, given factors and difference such as gender, age, educational level, ethnicity, and occupation. - Audiences actively affirm, interpret, refashion, or reject the messages and stories that flow through various media channels. • While the linear model says how a message gets from a sender to a receiver, the cultural/contemporary model suggests that there is a complexity in this process because senders (writers, editors, ad agencies, etc.) have a lack of control over how audiences actually interpret their messages. - Consumers also shape media messages to fit or support their own values and viewpoints - Selective exposure: people seek messages and produce meanings that correspond to their own cultural beliefs, values and interests. - The rise of the Internet has technically made everyone into a “sender” with social media, complicating traditional roles in both the models. • Internet allows senders to transmit content without needing approval from a gatekeeper. The Evolution of Media: From Emergence to Convergence - The word media is a Latin plural form of the singular noun medium, meaning an intervening substance through which something is conveyed or transmitted. - Media innovations typically go through four stages: • Emergence/Novelty Stage: inventors and technicians try to solve a particular problem like making pictures move or sending mail electronically Entrepreneurial Stage: inventors and investors determine a practical and • marketable use for the new device. Ex: Internet started in the military for people that wanted a decentralized communication system. • Mass Medium Stage: businesses figure out how to market the new device or medium as a consumer product • Convergence Stage: older media are reconfigured in various forms on newer media. This doesn't mean that the older form ceases to exist. Ex. NY Times is available both in print and online. 3 Monday, February 8, 2016 - During this stage, we see the merging on many media forms to online platforms, but also we see the fragmentation of large audiences into smaller niches. Media Convergence - Convergence: a term that media critics use when describing all the changes that have occurred over the past decade, and are still occurring, in media content and within media companies. The term has two meaning stemming from technology and business respectively. - The Dual Roles of Media Convergence The first definition of media convergence involves the technological merging of • content across different media channels-the magazine articles, radio programs, songs, TV shows, video games, and movies now available on the Internet. • The second definition of media convergence-sometimes called cross platform- describes a business model that involves consolidating various media holdings under one corporate umbrella. The goal is toe better manage resources and maximize profits. - This way, a media corporation employing the convergence model can use fewer employees to generate multiple versions of the same story - Google is the Internet’s main organizer and aggregator - Media Convergence and Cultural Change • Media multitasking had led to growing media consumption and distraction Stories: The Foundation of Media - Narrative-or storytelling-put events in context, helping us to better understand both our daily lives and the larger world. The Power of Media Stories in Everyday Life - Socrates believed that art should uplift us from the ordinary routines of our lives - The playwright Euripides believed that art should immature life - Plato developed the classical view of art: it should aim to instruct and uplift - Aristotle, Plato’s student, argued that art and stories should provide insight into the human condition but should entertain as well. 4 Monday, February 8, 2016 Culture as a Skyscraper/Hierarchy - Throughout the twentieth century America, critics and audiences alike perceived culture as a hierarchy with supposedly superior products at the top and inferior ones at the bottom. - In this model, the top floors of the building house high culture, such as ballet, the symphony, art museums, and classic literature. - The bottom floors are even the basement house popular low culture, including icons like soap operas, rock music, radio shock jocks, and video games. - Concerns: • Many critics believe that popular culture distracts the masses from serious literature and philosophy since popular forms of culture are made for profit rather than artistic expression. • Popular culture exploits classic works of literature and art. • Many elements of popular culture have a short life span and higher forms of culture have a better staying form • The prevalence of so many popular media products prevents the public from experiencing genuine art. • Popular culture undermines democratic ideals and reasoned argument. It may inhibit not only rational thought but also social progress by transforming audiences into cultural dupes lured by the promise of products. • “Big Mac” theory suggests the people are so addicted to mass proceeded media menus that they lose their discriminating taste for finer dare and, much worse, their ability to see and challenge social inequities. Culture as a Map/Process - Culture is an ongoing and complicated process-rather than a high/low vertical hierarchy-that allows us to better account for our diverse and individualistic tastes. - In the map model, we judge forms of culture as good or bad based on a combination personal taste and the aesthetic judgments a society makes at particular historical times. Such evaluations are “all over the map”. 5 Monday, February 8, 2016 - The appeal of culture is often its familiar stories, pulling audiences toward the security of repetition and common landmarks on the cultural map. Many children find comfort in predictability. - Adults also like cultural adventure. We seek new stories and new places to go-those aspects of culture that demonstrate originality and complexity. - People have complex tastes, so our cultural treasures contain a variety of messages. - Critics of popular culture assert that society was better off before the latest developments of mass media. These critics resist the idea of re-imaging an established cultural hierarchy as a multidirectional map. The nostalgia for some imagined better past has often operated as a device for condemning new cultural phenomenon. Cultural Values of the Modern Period - Modern Period: begins with the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century until about the mid-twentieth century. • Modernization involved captains of industry using new technology to create efficient manufacturing centers, produce inexpensive products to make everyday life better, and make commerce more profitable. • Modern print media allowed ordinary readers to engage with new ideas beyond what their religious leaders and local politicians communicated to them. • To be modern also meant valuing the ability of logical and scientific minds to solve problems by working in organized groups and expert teams. • Walter Lippmann’s ideas were influential throughout the twentieth century and were a product of the Progressive Era-a period of political and social reform that lasted roughly from the 1890s to 1920s. - Progressive Era reformers championed social movements that led to constitutional amendments for women’s suffrage and prohibition, political reforms that eld to secret ballot during elections, and economic reforms that ushered in the dermal income tax to try to foster a more equitable society. - Influenced by the Progressive movement, the notion of being modern in the twentieth century meant throwing off the chains of the past, breaking with tradition, and embracing progress. 6 Monday, February 8, 2016 Shifting Values in Postmodern Culture - Post Modern Period: roughly the mid twentieth century to today - Four major features: • Populism - Tries to appeal to ordinary people by highlighting or even creating an argument or conflict between “the people” and the “the elite”. In virtually every campaign populist politicians often tel stories and run ads that criticize big corporations. • Diversity - The post modern period emphasizes diversity and fragmentation, including the juxtaposition of old and new cultural styles. Ex. Gap stores located next to a food court with Vietnamese, Italian and Mexican options. • Nostalgia - There is a tendency to revel in nostalgia for the pre modern values of small communities, traditional religion, and even mystical experience. - Some criticize modern values for laying the groundwork for dehumanizing technological advances and bureaucratic problems. Ex. When Republican candidates depict themselves as protectors of tradition and small town values. • Paradox - The willingness to accept paradise is the fourth aspect of postmodern time. While modern culture emphasized breaking with the past in the name of progress, post modern culture stresses integrating or converting retro beliefs and contemporary culture. - At the same time we are nostalgic for the past, we are also embracing new technologies with a vengeance. - Although new technologies can isolate people or encourage them to chase their personal agendas, new technologies can also draw people together to advance causes or to solve community problems or to discuss politics. 7 Monday, February 8, 2016 Media Literacy and the Critical Process - Media Literacy: attaining an understanding of mass media and how they construct meaning-requires following a critical process that takes us through the steps of description, analysis, interpretation, evaluation, and engagement • To begin this process of critical assessment, we must imagine culture as more complicated and richer than high-low model allows. 1. Description: paying close attention, taking notes, and researching the subject under study 2. Analysis: discovering and focusing on significant patterns that emerge from the description stage 3. Interpretation: asking and answering “What shoes that mean?” and “So what?” questions about one’s findings 4. Evaluation: arriving at a judgment about whether something is good, bad, or mediocre, which involves subordinating one’s personal taste to the critical “bigger picture” resulting from the first three stages 5. Engagement: taking some action that connects our critical perspective with our role as citizens to question our media institutions, adding our own voice to the process of shaping the cultural environment 8 Sunday, February 14, 2016 Chapter 2: The Internet, Digital Media, and Media Convergence - The Internet, the vast network of telephone and cable lines, wireless connections, and satellite systems designed to link and carry digital information worldwide, was initially described as an information superhighway The Birth of the Internet - 1946: ENIAC—Electronic Numerical Indicator and Computer is created signifying the birth of the computer - The Defense Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) developed a solution to enable researchers to share computer processing time starting in the late 1960s. • This original Internet called ARPAnet, nicknamed the Net, enabled military and academic researchers to communicate on a distributed network system. - User from multiple locations could log on - The network used a system called packet switching, which broke down messages into smaller pieces to route through multiple paths easier. - Email was invented in 1971 by computer engineer Ray Tomlinson and used the @ symbol to signify the location of the user The Net Widens - The introduction of microprocessors, miniature circuits that process and store electronic signals, led to the introduction of PCs - 1976: The personal computer is born - In the mid-1980s, fiber optic cable became the standard for transmitting communication data speedily. • This made the commercial use of computers even wider than before The Commercialization of the Internet - 1989: The World Wide Webis born and developed by Tim Berners-Lee - HTML (hypertext markup language) is the written code that creates Web pages and links and is language that all computers can read, so computers with different operating systems can still communicate 9 Sunday, February 14, 2016 - The release of Web browsers, the software packages that help user navigate the Web, brought the Web to mass audiences. - AOL (formerly America Online) began connecting millions of home users in 1985 to its Web system through dial-up access and quickly began the United States’ top Internet Service Provider (ISP) - As broadband connections, which can quickly download multimedia content, users moved away from the slower dial up ISP service to high speed service. - In digital communication, an image, text, or sound is converted into electronic signals represented as a series of binary numbers which are then reassembled as a precise reproduction of an image, text, or sound. - Instant messaging offered both a fascinating and troubling new part of media culture in the late 1990s - Eventually, having employees catalog individual Web sites became impractical. Search engines offer a more automated route to finding content by allowing users to enter key words or queries to locate related Web pages. What Are Social Media? - Social media is described as: • A venue for social interaction—a pace where people can share creations, tell stories, and intact with others • Multiplatform, participatory, and digital… an essential feature of truly democratic public life • Platforms that enable the interactive Web by engaging user to participate in, comment on, and create content as a means of communicating with their social graph, other users, and the public Types of Social Media - Blogs • They enabled people to easily post their ideas to a Web site. Blogs can be personal or corporate multimedia sites, sometimes with photos, graphics, podcasts, and video. - Collaborative Projects 10 Sunday, February 14, 2016 • Wiki Web sites enable anyone to edit and contribute to them. - Content Communities • Content communities are the best examples of the many-to-many ethic of social media. They exist for the sharing of all types of content from text to photos and videos like Youtube. - Social Networking Sites • On these sites, user can create, share ideas, and interact with friends. Social Media and Democracy - Social media has also proven to be an ejective tool for democracy, and for undermining repressive regimes that thrive on serving up propaganda and hiding their atrocities from view. • Arab Spring in Tunisia • Occupy Wall Street Convergence and Mobile Media - 1976: The personal computer is born - 1989: The World Wide Web is born and developed by Tim Berners-Lee - Early 1990s: Convergence begins • Convergence: When an array of media— a text, photos, audio and video— converge in one place, the Internet, and are easily shared • 1994: Text messaging • 1995: Amazon— Online retail is born • 1998: Google—World domination is born • 2002: Friendster—Social media is born 2004: Facebook • • 2005: Youtube—The viral video is born • 2006: Twitter • 2007: iPhone —The smart phone is born 11 Sunday, February 14, 2016 • 2009: Selfie • 2010: Instagram • 2013: Yik Yak The Next Era: The Semantic Web - The best example of the Semantic Web is Apple’s voice recognition assistant Siri, first shipped with its iPhone 4S in 2011. Ownership: Controlling the Internet - Telecommunications Act of 1996 overhauled the nation’s communications regulations, most region and long-distance phone companies and cable operators have competed against one another to provide connections to the Internet. There is more to controlling the Internet than being the service provider for it. • Ownership and control of the Internet is connected to three Internet issues that command much public attention: - The security of personal and private information - The appropriateness of online materials - The accessibility and the openness of the Internet • Important questions raised - Should personal or sensitive government be private or should the Internet be an enormous public record? - Should the Internet be a completely open forum or should certain types of communications be limited or prohibited? - Should all people have equal access to the Internet or should it only be available to those who can afford it? Targeted Advertising and Data Mining - By gathering users’ location and purchasing habits, these data-collecting systems also function as consumer surveillance and data mining options • The practice of data mining also raises issues of internet security and privacy. - E-commerce: the buying and selling of products and services on the Internet, which took off in 1995 with the launch of Amazon. 12 Sunday, February 14, 2016 - One common method that commercial interests use to crack the browsing habits of computer users is cookies, or information profiles that are automatically collected and transferred between computer servers whenever user access Web sites. - Even more unethical and intrusive is spyware, information-gathering software that is often securely bundled with free downloaded software. • Spyware can be used to send pop-up ads to users’ computer screens - As a result, consumer and privacy advocates are calling for stronger regulations, such as requiring Web sites to adopt opt-in or opt-out policies. • Opt-in policies, favored by consumer and privacy advocates,require Web sites to obtain explicit permission from consumers before the sites can collect browsing history data. • Opt-out policies, favored by data mining corporations allow for the automatic collection of browsing history unless the consumer requests to opt out of the practice Security: The Challenge to Keep Personal Information Private - The USA Patriot Act grants sweeping powers to law-enforcement agencies to intercept individuals’ online communications, including email messages and browsing records - Phishing: one particularly costly form of internet identity theft that involves phone email messages that appear to be from official web sites. Access: The Fight to Prevent a Digital Divide - The term digital divide refers to the growing contrast between the “information haves”, those who can afford to purchase computers and pay for internet services, and the “information have-nots”, those who may not be able to afford a computer or pay for internet services Net Neutrality: Maintaining an Open Internet - Net neutrality refers to the principle that every web site and every user— whether a multinational corporation or you— has the right to the same internet network speed and access. • Major telephone companies want to offer faster connections to clients willing to pay higher rates 13 Sunday, February 14, 2016 - In late 2010, the FCC adopted rules on net neutrality, noting “the internet’s openness promotes innovation, investment, competition, free expression, and other national broad band goals Alternate Voices - Microsoft has long been the dominant software corporation of the digital age, but independent software creators persist in the developing alternatives. One of the best examples of this is the continued development of open-source software. • Linux was established in 1991 by Linus Torvalds 14 Sunday, February 14, 2016 Chapter 3: Digital Gaming and the Media Playground Basic Timeline - 1880s—Penny Arcade - 1930s—Pinball - 1948—Cathode Ray Tube - 1972—Odyssey - 1975—Atari (pong) - 1983—Nintendo - 1989—Sega Geneis/Gameboy - 1994—Playstation - 1999—Dreamcast - 2001—Xbox - 2006—Wii Random Numbers - 375 million people play games on Facebook - World of Warcraft: 12 million subscribers in 2010, 7.8 million in 2014 - Apple: Sold 500 million iPhone and 210 million iPads in 2014 - Movies made $35.9 billion last year - Video games brought in $93 billion - 72 percent of households play video games - Spending $20.8 billion annually Mechanical Gaming - In the 1880s, coin-devoted contraptions devoted to cashing in on idleness appeared in train depots, hotel lobbies, bars, and restaurants, known as “counter machines”, found themselves a permanent home in the firs modern indoor playground: the penny arcade. 15 Sunday, February 14, 2016 - Another arcade game, the bagatelle, spawned the pinball machine, the most prominent of the mechanical games. • Used to be called the sinister game in the 1930s, but after WWII, the addition of the flipper bumper allowed it to gain more acceptance The First Video Games - The first video game patent was issued on December 14, 1948, to Thomas T.Goldsmith and Estle Ray Mann for what they described as a “Cathode Ray Tube Amusement” • CRT powered screens provided the images for analog television and for early computers’ displays - The first television game was released by Magnavox in 1972 - Modern arcades: gather multiple coin-operated games together and can be thought of as a later version of the penny arcade Nolan Bushnell developed Pong • Arcades and Classic Games - The avatar, a graphic interactive character situated within the world of the game, became the most common figure of player control and position identification. Consoles and Advancing Graphics - Today, many electronic games are played on home consoles, devices used specifically to play video games. Gaming on Home Computers - More recently, PC gaming has experiences a resurgence, due to the advent of free- to-play games The Internet Transforms Gaming - Sega Dreamcast in 1999 was the first console to feature a built in modem MMORPGs, Virtual Worlds, and Social Gaming - Massively multiplayer online role-playing games are set in virtual worlds that require users to play through an avatar of their own design. 16 Sunday, February 14, 2016 • World of Warcraft is the most popular - Online fantasy sports games also reach a mass audience with a major social component like Madden NFL. Convergence: From Consoes to Mobile Gaming - Video game consoles now work as part computer part cable box - Portable players were created like the Nintendo D.S. in 2004 and the PSP in 2005 Video Game Genres - The video game industry, as represented by the Electronic Software Association, organizes games by gameplay the way in which the rules structure how players interact with the game, rather than by any sort of visual or narrative style. - Action and Shooter Games • Action games ask players to test their reflexes, and to punch, slash, shoot or throw as strategically and accurately as possible. • FPS: first person shooter perspective allows players to feel like they are actually holding the weapon. - Adventure Games • Adventure games involve a type of gameplay that is the opposite of action games with a non confrontational nature. - Role-playing Games • RPGs are typically set in a fantasy or sci-fi world in which each player chooses to play as a character that specializes in a particular skill set - Strategy and Simulation Games • The perspective in strategy games is omniscient with the player surveying the entire world or playing fields and making strategic decisions. Simulation games involve managing resources and planning worlds, but these • worlds are typically based in reality. - Casual Games • Usually have very simple rules and are very easy to play 17 Sunday, February 14, 2016 - Sports, Music, and Dance Games Communities of Play: Inside the Game - PUGs (pick-up groups) are temporary teas usually assembled by matchmaking programs integrated into the game. • Noobs: clueless beginners • Ninjas: turn and leave the groups • Trolls: Spoil the game - More organized groups like gilds and clans are created instead to avoid PUGs Communities of Play: Outside the Games - Sharing of knowledge and ideas is known as collective intelligence • The most advanced form of collective intelligence is modding, slang for modifying game software. Electronic Gaming and Media Culture - Adver-games are video games created for purely promotional purposes such as Chester Cheetah for Cheetos. - In-game advertisements are more subtle and integrate advertisements as billboards in the game. Regulating Gaming - Entertainment Software Rating Board was founded to institute a labeling system designed to inform parents of sexual and violent content that might not be suitable for younger players. The Future of Gaming and Interactive Environments - Gamification describes how interactive game experiences are being embedded to bring competition and rewards to every day business processes. The Ownership and Organization of Digital Gaming - Super Mario 64 game cartridge that launched with console was dubbed to be the best video game ever. 18 Sunday, February 14, 2016 The Structure of Digital Game Publishing - AAA game titles, games that represent the crest standard for technical excellence can cost as much as a blockbuster film to make and promote. - The largest part of the development budget foes to paying talent. - The other form of licensing involves intellectual properties like sorties that require licensing agreements. Selling Digital Games - The boxed game/retail model is the most traditional model and dates back to cartridges Popular Radio - 1844: Samuel Morse invents the first telegraph - 1894: Guglielmo Marconi invents the wireless telegraph - 1906: First broadcast by Fessenden - 1920: KDKA is the first radio station - 1920s: Variety Shows - 1922: AT&T (which had a government sanctioned monopoly on the telephone) broke its RCA contract and tried to monopolize radio, too, calling it “wireless telephone.” - 1925: Comedy, Amos and Andy - 1926: David Sarnoff creates NBC, the first broadcasting network - 1927: Radio Act of 1927: radios must act in public interest and the Federal Radio Commission (FCC) is created - 1928: William Paley creates CBS creating competition because channels paid CBS 50 dollars an hour as opposed to 96 an hour from NBC - 1928: channels pay local programming but paid broadcasting company for their programming - 1930s: Golden Age of Radio 19 Sunday, February 14, 2016 • 1937: Hindenberg disaster (voice sounds different during the disaster) • 1938: “War of the Worlds” broadcast - 1930s: Quiz shows • 1931: Clara, Lu, and Em as the first soap opera • FDR used fireside chats - Transistors: small electrical devices that receive and amplify radio signals, use less power, are durable and less expensive. - FM – frequency modulation, pitch and distance, static free - AM – amplitude modulation, volume and height - 1932: RCA monopoly falls - 1934: Communications Act of 1934: allowed for commercial broadcasting, advertising supported – FRC turned into the Federal Communications Commission – regulates distribution and content - 1940s: WWII - 1950s: TV arrives, radio reinvents itself. Top 40 format radio are born - 1960s: FM radio begins to overtake AM radio in popularity - 1967: Public Broadcasting Act of 1967: mandated to provide alternatives to commercial radio - 1970s: Album oriented FM radio - Top 40 Celebrity Extra: Casey Kesem Meltdown - 1980s-90s: FCC repeals Fairness Doctrine, talk radio is born on AM radio • You can talk about what you want and don't have to give opinions of both sides - 1996: Telecommunications Act of 1996: eliminated most ownership restrictions on radio. Radio station owners declined by a third in one year, and variety suffered. Follow the money. • Allows individuals and companies to acquire as many radio stations as they want, with relaxed restrictions on the number of stations a single broadcaster may own in the same city 20 Sunday, February 14, 2016 - 2000s: Satellite, HD radio are born - 2000s: Streaming radio is born - 2004: Podcasts - 2008: XM and Sirius merged - 2014: “Serial” is born - 1860: Electronic waves: Maxwell and Hertz - Point to point communication: telegraph, telephone - Point to many communication: radio, broadcasting - Adult contemporary, (over 40) - Contemporary alternative (teens) - Country (most popular in the nation) - Urban contemporary (ethnically and racially divided) Sound Recording and Popular Music Technology - 1860: first recorded sound by Edouard-Leon Scott de Martinville - 1877: The phonograph by Edison - 1887: The gramophone by Berliner improved upon in 1896 - 1906: The Victrola by the Victor Talking Machine Company - 1925: Free music is first broadcasted on the radio - 1930s: Radio - 1931: Stereo invented, used commercially in 1958 21 Sunday, February 14, 2016 - 1940s: Vinyls - 1948: The LP - 1950s: Transistor Radio - 1963: Casette Tape - 1970s: FM radio becomes popular - 1976: Digital recording by Thomas Stockham - 1979: The Walkman - 1983: CDs - 1992: MP3s - 1999: Napster - 2001:iPod - 2003: MP3 Player - 2001: iTunes - 2010: Music Streaming The Music - 1880s: Ragtime, Scott Joplin - 1900s: Ragtime, Show tunes - 1920s: Jazz, Vaudeville - 1930s: Swing - 1940s: Big bands, crooners, ballads of Frank Sinatra - 1950s: Rock n roll, R&B • Payola: the practice of record promoters paying deejays to play particular songs - 1960s: The British invasion, Motown Surfer rock, beach boys, women groups, folk rock • 22 Sunday, February 14, 2016 - 1970s: Disco, big hair bands - 1980s: New wave, punk, metal - 1990s: Grunge, rap - 2000s: Indie, pop is reborn Chapter 6: Television and Cable - 1927: Electronic TV is born by Philo T. Farnsworth - 1939: World’s Fair/TV shown to the public - 1940s: FCC begins assigning TV channels, cable is born - 1941: 1st TV commercial - 1950s: Color TV, TV dinners are born • 1950s: The Golden Age of Tv, sales of TV surpass radios • 1950s: Networks gain control of programming • 1950s: The late-night talk show is born • 1950s: The morning show is born - 1960: Kennedy/Nixon debate • 1960s: 90% of US households own a TV • 1960s: Networks begin full regular programming in color - 1962: first satellite TV broadcast - 1963: Army-Navy football game instant replay is born - 1967: First global satellite TV broadcast • 1967: The Brady Bunch premieres - 1970s: TV shows tackle social issues • All in the Family • M*A*S*H • The Jeffersons 23 Sunday, February 14, 2016 • 1970s: The Home VCR is born - 1975: HBO is born, cable TV takes over - In the 1950s-70s, networks controlled 95% of programming, but in 2012, networks controlled less than 40%. • This declined stemmed from Cable TV, VCRs, DVD Players, and online services like Netflix - 1980s: CNN launch, cable news is born • 1980s: Must see TV is born - The Cosby Show - Cheers - Seinfeld - Hill Street Blues - Family Ties - Telecommunications Act of 1996 • Abolishes boundaries of ownership Cable companies, phone companies and long distance carriers can enter • each other’s markets • Consolidation: owners can operate TV and radio stations in the same market where they own cable systems. - 1999: TiVO is born - 2000s: Online, on-demand TV is born 24 Sunday, February 14, 2016 - TV comedy has 3 formats: • -sketch comedy: short comedy skits (SNL) • -situation comedy (sitcom): reoccurring cast; each episode establishes a narrative situation, complicates it, develops it, and then resolves it (I Love Lucy, Seinfeld) • -domestic comedy: characters and settings are more important than predicaments; mix dramatic and comedic elements (Modern Family/Sex and the City) - Affiliate stations Ones that contract with a network to carry its programs • - FCC enacted 2 regulations with long-term effects on cable's expansion: -1972 • Must-carry rules - Require all cable operators to assign channels to and carry all local tv broadcasts on their systems - -would ensure local broadcasts will benefit form cable's clear reception - -prohibited cable companies from bringing in network-affiliated stations from another city • Access Channels - Requires cable systems to provide and fund a tier of non broadcast channels dedicated to local education, government and the public - 2 production cost categories: • Below-the-line: 40% of budget; "hardware" - equipment, special effects, cameras, crews, designers, electricians • Above-the-like: 60% of budget; "software" - creative talent: actors, directors, writers, producers - Syndication: leasing TV stations/cable networks the exclusive right to air TV shows 25


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