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UTD - NEUR 3361 - Class Notes - Week 8

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UTD - NEUR 3361 - Class Notes - Week 8

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background image Lecture 11: Emotions Neural basis of emotions ­ Not completely understood
­ Multiple areas of brain act together in any given emotion
­ Some areas, though, are of prime importance
­ fMRI studies have been key
Model of emotion ­ 2 axes/dimensions of emotion o 1) “X axis” avoidance versus approach behavior Does the behavior make the individual go towards or away from the 
stimulus
o 2) “Y axis” Level of arousal (intensity of emotion)  o Ex: on the moderate avoidance site, with increasing arousal  dislike  contempt  hatred  ­ Emotion is an increase or decrease in physiological activity accompanied by feelings  characteristic of the emotion ­ Stimulus  cognitive appraisal  effects o Ex: Stimulus­ seeing a man with a knife  cognitive appraisal ­ your brain registers it as “danger”  effects – autonomic nervous system (ANS) reacts (heart rate, breathing),
behavior changes (run), facial expression changes, emotional feelings 
change (fear) 
­ Feedback ­ the behavioral, ANS effects, and facial expression feed the emotional feelings which then feeds cognitive appraisal  Emotions and culture ­ Only 8 emotions but there are variations in intensities of them  o Emotions are “pan­cultural” which suggests that there are 8 biological emotions How we deal with these emotions is cultural  ­ Each emotion has a characteristic facial expression ­ Across cultures:  o An elicitor (stimulus) causes an emotion (pan­cultural) o This is mediated by culture­specific display rules which lead to an end result o Ex:  Biological ­ joke stimulates the limbic system to laugh (happiness)  Cultural – you’re in church so the frontal cortex suppresses the laugh  Facial expressions ­ Impairment limits social interaction o Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, facial nerve paralysis o Moebius syndrome ­ genetic condition that causes facial paralysis 
background image Girl cannot smile, but chin is slightly tilted up, her mother can tell she’s 
happy but other children probably cannot
o Bell’s palsy  Face is half paralyzed (asymmetric); cannot tell her emotion ­ Facial feedback o The brain monitors facial expression to know how to feel  o Posed expressions (“fake smile”) produce the intended emotion, and the  associated physiological arousal; so we can create our own emotion o Changing motoric activity alters behavior and thinking  “Self­delusion goes a long way in life” o Posed expressions affect how we interpret our environment A stimulus is more painful when making a sad face Cartoons are rated as funnier during induced smiling Women given Botox are less able to frown and have less negative mood When they are told to imitate an angry expression they have less 
amygdala activity – can’t generate anger because they can’t frown 
Brain areas Brainstem (“power”) ­ Controls the intensity of the emotion
­
Locus coeruleus – site of norepinephrine synthesis o Emotional arousal, depression, stress; moderate/contented pleasure ­ VTA, substantia nigra o Dopamine ­ pleasure, exhilaration Orbitofrontal cortex (“controller”) ­ = The bottom part of the frontal lobe/cortex; right on top of the eyes ­ = prefrontal/frontal lobe 
­ Inhibits raw emotion from the amygdala
­ Increased activation from increased “shock value” of material  o Cursing = violation of social norm = funny  ­ Laughter activates the orbitofrontal cortex Prefrontal (orbitofrontal) cortex ­ Final destination for much of the brain’s information about emotion before action is taken ­ Judges our behavior and its consequences o Ex: You want to laugh but you’re in church so your prefrontal cortex suppresses it – judges the appropriateness of your behavior  ­ Damaged  understand moral and social rules but can’t apply  the rules in their own lives ­ Damage early in life  never learn  these rules and are motivated only to avoid  punishment ­ Abnormalities in PFC are associated with  aggression, depression, and schizophrenia
background image ­ Limbic system (“integrator”) ­ Takes information from different sources (visual, environmental, ANS reactions) and  decides   ­ Ex: man with knife is scary in a dark alley but not in an acting class o “Same stimulus different appraisal”  because of a different judgement made by  the limbic system  ­ Hypothalamus ­ ANS reactions (heart rate, pupils, etc.) ­ Amygdala – fear (and aggression – the related behavior o Participates in memory formation, especially emotional ones and recognition of  fear in other people  In fMRI, posed fearful expression  amygdala activation o People with amygdala damage are unusually trusting o Anxiety­reducing drugs act on receptors in the amygdala ­ Hippocampus­ memory (emotional, spatial) o Memory is important in emotion because experience determines the severity of  the situation Ex: The man with the knife is someone you know who told you that if he 
saw you again he’d kill you
­ Cingulate gyrus (= anterior cingulate cortex/empathetic nervous system)  o Pain processing (the pain sensation and the emotion generated from that pain)  o Combines emotional, attentional, and body information in a conscious emotional  experience o Empathy  Sensory cortex activated when being touched physically and when 
watching a movie of someone being touched
Other emotions Pleasure/happiness ­ Related to craving and addiction
­
Medial forebrain bundle – tract rises from midbrain through the hypothalamus; contacts
the locus coeruleus, VTA, and nucleus accumbens to the brain 
o Contains many sites for self­stimulation Surprises ­ Involves the  nucleus accumbens (NAC) ­ addiction ­ Unexpected surprises  more activation of nucleus accumbens than expected reward Klüver–Bucy syndrome ­ Removal of temporal lobes in monkeys  socially unacceptable behavior

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School: University of Texas at Dallas
Department: Science
Course: Behavioral Neuroscience
Professor: van S Miller
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: behavioral neuro, nsc, Miller, van miller, and UTD
Name: Lecture 11: Emotions and stress
Description: Organized word doc off all class notes and power point slides
Uploaded: 02/16/2016
7 Pages 51 Views 40 Unlocks
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