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Sociology Exam 1

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by: Dominique Bluehorse

Sociology Exam 1 Sociology 101

Dominique Bluehorse


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these notes will explain what will be on our exam 1 test. All the questions are from the chapter 1-5 quizzes. All the questions and correct answers are listed. Answers are underlined. 100 questions.
Introduction to Sociology
Study Guide
sociology, Exam 1, sociology 101, Chapter 1, chapter 2, chapter 3, chapter 4, Chapter 5
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"Almost no time left on the clock and my grade on the line. Where else would I go? Dominique has the best notes period!"
Julianne Welch

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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dominique Bluehorse on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 101 at University of New Mexico taught by Stone in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 719 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of New Mexico.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
CHAPTER 1 1. Which discipline defines itself as “the systematic study of human society”? Sociology 2. The chapter’s sociological analysis of childbearing around the world suggests that the number of children born to a woman reflects: whether she lives in a poor or a rich society. 3. The pioneering sociologist who studied patterns of suicide in Europe was Emile Durkheim. 4. Sociologists use the term “social marginality” to refer to people who are defined by others as an “outsider.” 5. Examples of people applying their knowledge of sociology at work include people in All of the these are correct. 6.Which of the following historical changes is among the factors that stimulated the development of sociology as a discipline? the rise of the industrial economy and growth of cities 7. The concept “sociology” was coined in 1838 by Auguste Comte. 8. Sociology differs from the older discipline of philosophy by focusing on how society actually operates. 9. Positivism is a way of understanding the world based on science. 10. The major goal of sociology’s pioneers, including Auguste Comte and Emile Durkheim, was to discover how society actually operates. 11. Sociologists cannot identify “laws of society” that allow us to precisely predict the behavior of an individual because human behavior may be patterned, but it is also spontaneous. 12. The theoretical approach in sociology that assumes society is a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability is the structural-functional approach. 13. Robert Merton explained that what is functional for one category of a society’s population may be dysfunctional for another category. 14. Which pioneering sociologist founded Chicago’s Hull House to assist immigrants and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize? Jane Addams 15. Karl Marx, speaking for the social-conflict approach, argued that the point of studying society was to bring about greater social justice. 16. Which of the following statements is based on a symbolic-interaction analysis of sports? Each player understands the game a little differently. 17. Which of the following terms is defined in the text as “a mental construct that represents some aspect of the world in a simplified form”? concept 18. Imagine that you were going to measure the age of a number of respondents taking part in a survey. As you record the data, you are using the concept “age” as variable 19. Examine the following series of numbers: 1, 2, 3, 4, 10. What is the median value? 3 20. All of the following statements—except for one—are guidelines for ethical research endorsed by the American Sociological Association. Which one is NOT one of the ASA’s guidelines for ethical research? Researchers must always perform their research several times in order to ensure its accuracy. 21. “A statement of a possible relationship between two or more variables” is the definition of which concept? hypothesis 22. Which research method asks subjects to respond to a series of items on a questionnaire or in an interview? survey 23. A small number of people that are used to represent a much larger population is called a sample 24. Which sociological research method is MOST likely to produce quantitative data that will identify cause-and-effect relationships? experiment 25. Unlike simple stereotypes, sociological generalizations are not applied to all individuals in a category, are based on all available facts and are offered fair-mindedly with an interest in the truth. CHAPTER 2 26. The U.S. is the most multicultural of all countries 27. What is the term for the ways of things, ways of acting, and material objects that together form a people’s way of life. Culture 28. The intangible world of ideas created by members of a society is referred to as. Nonmaterial culture. 29. Cars, computers, and iPhones are all examples of which of the following? Material culture 30. According to scientists, Homo sapiens first appeared on Earth at least how many years ago? 250,000 years 31. Experts have documents almost 70 million languages around the world. 32. The fact that instant messaging is based on a new set of symbols shows us that. All are correct (today’s young people are creating new symbols, there are many ways to use symbols to communicate, culture changes over time. 33. Cultural transmission refers to the process of passing cultural patterns form one generation to another. 34. Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called values. 35. Folkways are rules about every day, casual living; while mores are rules with great moral significance. 36. An act of kindness, such as opening the door for an elderly man, illustrates conforming to norm. 37. Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society’s population are referred to as popular culture. 38. Harley Davidson motorcycle riders, computer programmers, and jazz musicians all display subculture patterns. 39. Multiculturalism is defined as a perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the U.S. and promoting equality of all cultural traditions. 40. About how many adults in the U.S. speak a language different than English at home? 60 million 41. The region of the U.S. where the largest percentage of people speak a language other than English at home is the Southwest. 42. Which of the following statements is a good example of cultural lag? Gaining the ability to modify genetic patterns in humans before understanding the possible social consequences of doing so. 43. The spread of cultural traits from one society to another is called diffusion. 44. Ethnocentrism refers to judging another culture using the standards of your own culture. 45. Cultural universal are elements of culture that are part of every known culture. 46. The theoretical approach that highlights the link between culture and social inequality is the social-conflict approach. 47. Experiencing an unfamiliar culture can generate culture shock is true. 48. Japan is more multicultural than the U.S. is false. 49. Cultural lag refers to the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others is true. 50. The Amish way of life accepts most of the U.S.’s popular culture is false. CHAPTER 3 & 4 51. What concept refers to the lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture? Socialization 52. By “taking the role of the other,” Mead had in mind imaging a situation from another person’s point of view. 53. According to Mead, children learn to take the role of the other as they model themselves on important people in their lives, such a parents. Mead referred to these people as significant others. 54. Which of the following statements comes closest to describing Erik H. Erikson’s view of socialization? Personality develops over the entire life course in patterned stages. 55. Which of the following is a lesson learned from the hidden curriculum? Cooperation 56. When people model themselves after the members of peer groups they would like to join, they are engaging in a process that sociologists call anticipatory socialization 57. Based on the text’s survey of the life course, you might conclude that while life-courses are linked to biology, they are largely social construction 58. What is the term sociologists give to a category of people with a common characteristic, usually their age? Cohort 59. Which of the following concepts refers to a setting where a staff tries to radically change someone’s personality through carefully controlling the environment? A total institution 60. Which of the following BEST sums up Goffman’s idea of the resocialization process? The breakdown of an old identity, then build up a new identity. 61. An inmate who loses the capacity for independent living is described as Institutionalized. 62. Based on what you have read in this chapter, you would correctly conclude that all of these are correct. (Society shapes how we think and act, human beings are spontaneous and creative with the power to change society, and human beings have the capacity to change the world.) 63. Childhood and other stages of the life course are defined similarly in all societies. False 64. The process by which people act and react in relation to others is called social interaction. 65. Which of the following concepts defines a social position that a person holds? Status. 66. What concept refers to a social position that is received at birth or involuntarily assumed later in life? Ascribed status 67. Which concept refers to a social position that is assumed voluntarily and that reflects a significant measure of personal ability and effort? Achieved Status. 68. Julie is a police officer who finds that wherever she goes in her small town, people seem to think of her as a “cop.” Julie is experiencing the effects of which of the following? Master Status 69. Which of the following is involved when a surgeon chooses not to operate on her own son because the personal involvement of motherhood could impair her professional objectivity as a physician? Role conflict. 70. Rebuilding relationships with people who knew you in an earlier period of life is a common experience for those who are undergoing which of the following? Role Exit. 71. The Thomas theorem states that situations defined as real are real in their consequences. 72. What does the term “presentation of self” mean? Efforts to create impressions in the minds of others. 73. Nonverbal communication refers to body movements, gestures, and facial expressions. 74. In the United States, people stand farther away from one another when they are talking than two people would in a Middle Eastern nation. This pattern reveals differences in meaning attached to personal space. 75. Cultures differ in terms of all of these are correct. (what triggers emotions, the rules of how people display emotions, how people value emotions.) CHAPTER 5 76. What do sociologists call two or more people who identify and interact with one another? A social group. 77. What is the correct sociological term for all people with a common status, such as “college students”? A category 78. A secondary group is a social group that is impersonal and engages in some specific activity. 79. Which of the following is the BEST example of a primary group? A family that has gathered to celebrate a religious holiday. 80. Which of the following is the BEST example of a secondary group? A Microsoft Corporation awards banquet 81. What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks? Instrumental leadership. 82. Which concept refers to group leadership that emphasizes collective well-being? Expressive leadership 83. Which type of leader encourages everyone in a group to have a say in what happens? Democratic leader 84. Which of the following statements is consistent with the findings of Solomon Asch? Many people are willing to compromise their own judgement to avoid being seen as different by others. 85. Which of the following concepts refers to a social group that people use as a point of reference in making evaluations or decisions? Reference group 86. Which concept refers to a social group with only two members? Dyad 87. The concept “triad” refers to which of the following? A social group with 3 members. 88. Which of the following is typically true of a social network? Networks are “fuzzy” groups made up of people we “know of” rather than those we know well. 89. Formal organizations are large secondary groups with a goal orientation. 90. If you were a prisoner, a maximum-security prison would be which of the following types of organizations from your point of view? A coercive organization. 91. The concept “bureaucracy” refers to an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently. 92. What concept refers to all factors outside an organization that affect the organization's operation? Organizational environment. 93. Max Weber argued that formal organizations were efficient, but he cautioned that they can have harmful effects on people. As he saw it, what is the danger? Organizations create alienation. 94. Which of these concepts was used by Robert Michels to refer to the rule of the many by the few? Oligarchy 95. During the last fifty years, Japanese formal organizations have differed from those in the United States by being more collective in their orientation. 96. People riding together on a subway are called a social group. False 97. In the process of anticipatory socialization, people use social groups they wish to join as reference groups. True 98. One person’s in-group can be another person’s out-group. True 99. The number of people in a group does not affect how the members interact with one another. False 100. Bureaucracy places more importance on personal ties than on technical competence. False


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