Study Smart Questions Exam 2
Study Smart Questions Exam 2 PSYC100
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brooke Sullivan on Saturday April 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC100 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Curtis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 231 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 04/09/16
Exam 2 Study Smart Questions 4/9/16 11:54 PM Biological Foundations o When a neuron sends a signal, it is sending an electrical impulse down its body. It start in the dendrites, where the action potential from another neuron is received. The neurotransmitters from the presynaptic neuron causes ligand gated sodium channel to open. This influx of sodium throws off the threshold, which is -70mV. If the membrane potential reaches threshold, more and more sodium channels will open and the neuron will depolarize, sending down the action potential. As the action potential travels down the axon, more sodium channels open. After the it has traveled the length of the axon, sodium channels farther north on the cell begin to close and potassium channels begin to open, allowing potassium to flow out. The neuron overcompensates and ends up in what is called the absolute refractory period. During this time, there are more sodium ions within the cell and more potassium ions outside of the cell. As the sodium potassium pumps balance out the ions (2 sodium in, 3 potassium out), the neuron goes through the relative refractory period, and eventually reaches in resting membrane potential again. o Axon: length of the neuron where the action potential travels to reach the terminal end of the cell; Axon Hillock: connection between the soma and the axon; Dendrites: Receives messages from other neurons through neurotransmitters; Schwann Cells: fatty insulation that allows for the faster transmission; Soma: body of the cell that houses the nucleus and acts as the control center of the neuron; Synapse: The space in between neurons; Terminal: end of the neuron that houses the terminal buttons; Terminal Buttons: Send neurotransmitters across the synapse and pick the back up through a process called reuptake. o When an action potential reaches the synapse, it causes an influx of calcium ions. These calcium ions regulate neurotransmitters and the vesicles they travel in. The vesicles fuse with the end of the synapse and the neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft. The neurotransmitters bind to ligand gated channels on the post synaptic membrane. After the sodium channels have opened, the neurotransmitters unbind, and return to the presynaptic cleft in a process called reuptake. Excitatory action potential increase the likelihood of an action potential happening in the post synaptic neuron while an inhibitory action potential decreases that likelihood. o Central Nervous System: comprised of brain and spinal cord; Brain: receives and processes sensory information, initiates responses, stores memories and generates thoughts and emotions; Spinal Cord: conducts signals to and from the brain, controls reflex activities; Peripheral Nervous System: composed of motor neurons and sensory neurons; Afferent Division: takes information from sensory organs and sends to the CNS; Efferent Division: takes information from the CNS and send it to the muscles and glands; Somatic Nervous System: controls voluntary movements; Autonomic Nervous System: controls involuntary responses; Sympathetic: fight or flight; Parasympathetic: rest or digest o Brain Stem: where spinal cord enters the skull; Medulla: old brain functions happen without conscious effort; heart beat, breathing; Pons: helps coordinate movement; Thalamus: take in sensory information related to seeing, hearing, touching, and tasting; Reticular Formation: essential in arousal; sleeping, walking, pain perception; Cerebellum: responsible for nonverbal learning and memory, perception of time, modulating emotions, control voluntary movement; Hypothalamus: controls body temperature, hunger, circadian rhythms, pleasure and reward; Pituitary Gland: stores and secretes hormones; Amygdala: responsible for memory consolidation, fear, and aggression; Hippocampus: essential to learning and memory; Corpus Collosum: connects the two lobes of the brain; Cerebral Cortex: responsible for the most complex cognitive functions; Motor Cortex: controls voluntary movements and sends messages from the brain to the body; Somatosensory; Cortex: processes incoming sensations; Frontal Lobes: speaking, planning judging, abstract thinking, personality; Parietal Lobes: sense of touch, body position; Temporal Lobes: comprehension, sound, speech; Occipital Lobes: information related to sight Sensation and Perception o To begin, the light your eye is sensing travels through the pupil and is refracted as it travels through the lens. The now upside down image is reflected onto the retina, and an image that we need to focus in on is reflected onto the fovea of the retina. The rids in the eye detect light from the stimulus, and the cones detect the color. The messages from the photoreceptors are sent though the optic nerve to the brain. o Sound is funneled into the ear by way of he pinna and further directed through the meatus. The tympanic membrane translates wave energy from the sound waves to mechanical waves to travel throughout the rest of the ear. The malleus is connected to the eardrum and vibrates in response to the vibrating of the ear drum and sends vibrations to incus; the incus takes vibrations from malleus and sends them to the stapes; the stapes takes vibrations from the incus and compresses the waves so that they can be sent to the inner ear. As the vibrations are passed to the cochlea, the cilia on the nerve cells inside it begin to vibrate. These frequencies will be translated into nerve impulses that get sent to the brain for processing. o Interposition: the partial blocking of a more distant object by a closer one; Relative Height: with regard to the horizon, those objects below the horizon are closer and those above it are farther away; Familiar Size: using the size of something you are already familiar with in order to determine the size of something near it; Texture Gradient: a texture near you appears much more defined than does one that is farther away; it will appear smooth; Shadow: the size and position of a shadow of an object allows us to determine the size and location of said object; Linear Perspective: parallel lines seem to converge when they are farther in the distance; Motion Parallax: as we move, objects that are closer to us move faster across our field of view that do objects that are in the distance; Accommodation: the moving and shaping of the lens relative to the distance of the object from the lens; Binocular Disparity: the difference between the two different images your eyes see; Convergence: the closer as object is to your eyes; the more they cross; the farther away, the less they cross o Proximity: we perceive things closer together as more of a group than those farther apart; Similarity: we perceive things with similar characteristics to be part of a group; Good Continuation: we are more likely to see lines as continuous than as individual lines meeting; Closure: we will mentally close open shapes because our brains prefer whole figures to partial ones o Inversion: a flipped image on the retina vs the right side up image in the brain; Microsacades: small perceivable movements vs one smooth continuous picture; Optic Disk: a dark spot or skip in the perceived image vs the image with everything filled in; Checker Board Illusion; the two squares are the same color vs the variance in color we perceive Consciousness and Awareness o To be self aware is to understand that you exist as a different being from the rest of the world. Scientists can see this in children when children are put in front of the mirror with a mark on their cheek. If the child motions towards the mark, it can be concluded that the child recognizes itself as itself in the mirror. Theory of mind is the ability to understand that other people have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different than our own. Scientists can see this in children by telling them about a girl and her friend who are paying with a ball. The first girl puts the ball in a basket, ad then leaves the room to go to the bathroom. Her friend then moves the ball in puts it in a nearby box. If you ask the child where the first girl is going to look for the ball when she returns, children with no theory of mind will say the box because they have not yet realized that the first girl does not know her friend put in the box. Children with a developed theory of mind however will acknowledge that fact, and they will say she will look in the basket where she left it. o Depressants (Alcohol and Xanax) decrease CNS arousal an excitability levels, making you feel sedated. Stimulants (Cocaine and Methamphetamine) increase CNS activity, increasing alertness and productivity, or inducing a euphoric state. Hallucinogens (LSD and Ecstasy) cause hallucinations and euphoric sensations. Narcotics (Opium and Heroine) give a very strong pleasure response. Cannabinoids (Weed and Hash) create a feeling of being sedated, but not immobilized. o Cocaine prevents certain neurotransmitters from being reabsorbed so they linger in the synapse, cause a greater effect in the brain and body. Alcohol binds to GABA receptors and blocks glutamate receptors, increasing inhibitory effects and decreasing excitatory effects. o LSD is known to has similar characteristics to serotonin neurotransmitters, and binds to serotonin receptors. Heroine works on the dopaminergic system, shutting down the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters without regulation. Marijuana binds to cannabinoid receptors., which also shut down inhibitory responses, allowing dopamine to be released without regulation. Sex and Relationships o Perceived support comes from knowing that people are there for you, if you should need them. Received support is actually receiving the support from others. Support networks house people who you can talk to if you need to, but with whom you do not already have a deep relationship with. This support network can lead to things like lower stress and a higher satisfaction with life. o Natural selection comes from characteristics that allow for individual survival. Sexual selection comes from characteristics that help one find a mate. Both men and women find kindness, dependability, and intelligence. Men also prefer youth and beauty, symbols of fertility, while women prefer ambition, a sign that their mate will be able to provide for her and her children. o Sexual infidelity makes men more jealous, and they protect their relationship with violence and aggression. Emotional infidelity makes women more jealous and they are more likely to enhance their appearance and evoke their partner’s jealousy to fend off poachers. o Love is composed of passion, commitment, and intimacy. Liking (intimacy) is found in close friendships. Infatuated love (passion) is seen with “love at first sight”. Empty love (commitment) is seen in arranged marriages. Romantic love (passion and intimacy) is seen in a relationship where the partners like each other and are physically bonded. Companionate love (intimacy and commitment) is found in lifelong relationships without physical wants. Fatuous love (compassion and commitment) is seen in whirlwind courtships. Consummate love (passion, intimacy, and commitment) is something not many people achieve. o XYZ statements help avoid placing blame and causing your partner to become defensive. Active listening makes sure you partner feels like they are being heard. Paraphrasing revises what your partner is saying so they understand that you are earing them. Perception checking is asking your partner how they feel and what they are thinking instead of reading their mind. Validation involves acknowledging and respecting your partner’s opinion, even if you do not readily agree. Negative affect reciprocity occurs when partners go back and forth with negative emotions at each other. 4/9/16 11:54 PM o 4/9/16 11:54 PM o
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