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Study Guide Ascent of Europe

by: Sophia Shore

Study Guide Ascent of Europe HIST 031

Marketplace > University of Pennsylvania > History > HIST 031 > Study Guide Ascent of Europe
Sophia Shore
GPA 3.65

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STUDY GUIDE for midterm.
The Ascent of Europe
Benjamin Nathans, Thomas Max Safley
Study Guide
Renaissance, history
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sophia Shore on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 031 at University of Pennsylvania taught by Benjamin Nathans, Thomas Max Safley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see The Ascent of Europe in History at University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
Sophie Shore  February 23, 2016 International Production, International Markets: Slavery, Consumption, and Hegemony  International trade transforms business and life o Long­distance trade required larger­scale companies  Join­stock company first appears in Portugal, 15  century  Ordinary partnership   Partners hold stock jointly, are liable jointly  Early corporations  East India Companies (Dutch, English, French)  Limited liability  Evolution of defining institutions  Shares  Governing structure/voting rights  Liability  o These companies carry luxury goods that begin as luxuries  A fascination for the exotic: emporia, curiosities  Inspires new patterns of production  Inspires new patterns of consumption  Imitative commodities   Cheaper imitations o Marchands merciers  The trade in “luxuries” brings with it a trade in humans o Definition of a slave o Origins of slavery  Captives  o Preconditions of slavery  Abundance of land  Shortage of labor  Under­development of technology  Labor­intensive production   Slave societies in history o Moses Finley – Greece as first “slave society”  Slaves as a major source of productivity  Slaves as a major influence of culture  Necessary conditions for the emergence of a “slave society”  Private ownership of land  Commodity production for markets  Labor shortage  o “Slave societies” in Western history  th  Athens in the Age of Solon (5  century BCE)  Roman Empire (2  century BCE­2  century CE)  Medieval Europe  Plantation society in early modern Europe and the New World  Sophie Shore   Spread of slavery to the New World o Medieval slave plantations in the Mediterranean  Sugar production on Cyprus  o Sugar production spreads to Eastern Atlantic islands  Madeira in the 15  century  o Sugar plantations in Brazil in 16  century th o Sugar plantations in Caribbean in 17  century   Barbados o Atlantic islands lack suitable labor source  Profits depend on labor  Indigenous  Indentured  Enslaved: Resort to African people  Demand for slaves o Only in ancient Rome did supply precede demand o Demand for slaves creates slave trading routes and frontiers  Ancient Greeks purchase slaves in the Black Sea basin  Medieval traders seek slaves in Eastern Europe (Slavs)  o Slave trade uniquely important in Africa  Portuguese acquire slaves on the West African coast in the 15  century  As the demand and price increase, frontier moves inland  Slaves moved across the Sahara, up the Nile, and across the Red Sea  West African states develop economies specializing in the slave trade o Slaves sold, captured, and stolen  Economic impact of slavery o Relationship of slave trade to regional disparities in economic development   Slavery essential to economic development of America  Slavery detrimental to economic development of Africa  o Estimates of volume of slave trade (Philip Curtin)   C. 11 million slaves traded in Atlantic  Mist carried by Portuguese and British merchants  o Impact on Africa  Limited geographically to West­Central Africa  Economic costs and benefits mixed  Social externalities o Impact on Europe and America   Slavery a source of profit and, thus, capital  Slavery and industrialization o Eric Williams (1944­): Slavery is essential to Industrial Revolution  o Further studies have modified this extreme view  Profits from slavery were more modest than Williams projected  Slave­producing regions were outlets of industrial goods   The end of the slave trade Sophie Shore  o West Indies and USA end slave imports in 1808 o Productivity of slave labor vs. free labor  Keeps slavery alive in the USA  o All major religions sought to limit slavery  th  No systematic attack on slavery brought until mid­18  century  Slavery already in decline in the Atlantic trade  Why abolitionist movements develop when they did  Enlightened ideologies  Unprofitability of slave labor in some industrial niches  Opposition by free labor o Fear of competition   What makes slavery hegemonic? o Slavery in the West is tied to economic development o Today slavery is illegal o Is slavery worth the price?  Modern capitalism generates the highest standard of living for the largest  portion of the Earth’s population in all of Earth’s history  The distribution of wealth is characteristically uneven (Thomas Pickety)  


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