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Astronomy 201 EXAM 2 Study Guide

by: Abby Geiger

Astronomy 201 EXAM 2 Study Guide ASTR 101

Marketplace > Clemson University > Science > ASTR 101 > Astronomy 201 EXAM 2 Study Guide
Abby Geiger
GPA 3.2
Solar System Astronomy
Dr. Sean Brittain

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About this Document

This study guide contains the most important information from the powerpoints, lectures, textbook, and homework.
Solar System Astronomy
Dr. Sean Brittain
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Geiger on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ASTR 101 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Sean Brittain in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 142 views. For similar materials see Solar System Astronomy in Science at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 02/16/16
ASTRONOMY TEST 2 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER FOUR Speed how far something will go in a certain amount of time Velocity speed AND direction Acceleration velocity changes in speed direction or both Negative acceleration slowing Things accelerate without changing speed moving in a circle Gravity accelerates objects by the same amount ardless of mass Acceleration of gravity g98 msquot2 Momentum mass x velocity Angular Momentum any object that is spinning or moving along a curved path Anguar momentum keeps a planet rotating and orbiting the Sun mass x velocity x radius Why objects rotate faster as they shrink in radius ice skater spinning Torque twisting force the type of force that can change angular momentum Amount of torque depends on how much and where force is applied The only way to change an objects momentum is by applying net force Net force combines effect of all individual forces put together Mass amount of matter in your body how hard it is to accelerate something The more mass the harder it is to accelerate Weight force that a scale measures when you stand on it Depends on mass and the forces gravity acting on mass ON THE MOON my weight is leiLmy mass is the same Free fall falling without any resistance to slow you down You are weightless in free fall Issac Newton realized the same physical laws that operate on Earth also operate in the heavens Discovered laws of motion and gravity Newton39s Laws of Motion 1 An object will remain in motion until a force acts on it to stop it 2 Force mass x acceleration FMxA 3 For every force there is an equal and opposite reaction force You and Earth exert equal and opposite forces on each other When a compact car and a truck have a head on collision The force of the car on the truck is equal and opposite to the force of the truck on the car The momentum transferred from the truck to the car is equal and opposite to the momentum transferred from the car to the truck The change of velocity of the car IS NOT the same as the change of velocity of the truck BECAUSE the masses are not the same Conservation of Momentum as long as there are no external forces the total momentum of interacting objects cannot change conserved Conservation of Angular Momentum as long as there is no external torque the total angular momentum of a set of interacting objects cannot change conserved Conservation of energy energy cannot be created NOR destroyed ALL ACTIONS INVOLVE THE EXCHANGE OR CONVERSION OF ENERGY OF ONE FORM TO ANOTHER Energy is what makes matter move Kinetic Energy energy of motion Radiative Energy energy carried by light Potential Energy stored energy Gravitational Potential Energy depends on mass and how far an object can fall as a result of gravity Object has MORE gpe when it is high than when it is near the ground Thermal Energy collective kinetic energy of the many individual randomly moving particles within a substance At a lower temperature ess kinetic energy At a higher temperature more kinetic energy Depends on temperature AND density Larger density in a 212 degree pot than in a 400 degree oven which is why you can put your hand in the oven to get out a tray of cookies but you wouldn t put your hand in the pot to get out some corn Average energy is higher in the oven Total energy is higher in the pot Kelvin absoute zero 0 K water freezes 27315 K water boils 37315 K Celsius Absoute zero 27315 C Water freezes O C Water boils 100 C Fahrenheit Absoute zero 45967 F Water freezes 32 F Water boils 212 F Universal Law of Gravitation 1 Every mass attracts every other mass through gravity 2 The strength of the gravitational force attracting any two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses 3 The strength of gravity between two objects decreases with the square of the distance between their centers If you triple the distance between two objects the gravitational force between them decreases by a factor of 9 Orbits can be Bound ellipses Unbound Parabola Hyperboa Escape Velocity kinetic energy has to exceed potential energy Gravity causes tides The Moon s gravity pulls harder on the near side of the Earth than on the far side Gravitational pull decreases with distance CHAPTER FIVE Radiative Energy energy that light carries Thermal Radiation photon energy and shape depend on object s temperature Transparent transmits light Opaque absorbs light Waves Peak higher than average Trough lower than average Wave length distance from one peak to the next Frequency number of peaks passing by at any point Waves have a frequency of cycles per second Speed how fast the peaks travel Wavelength x frequency speed Longer wavelength lower frequency Shorter wavelength higher frequency Electromagnetic waves electrons move when light passes by light carries a vibrating electric eld Light waves are a vibration of electric and magnetic elds ALL WAVES MOVE AT THE SAME SPEED Energy of a photon depends on its freguency Electromagnetic spectrum in order from longest wavelengthsmallest energy to shortest wavelengthlargest energy Radio Waves Microwaves Infrared Visible Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Ultraviolet XRays Gamma Rays Short wavelengths larger energy Longer wavelengths smaller energy Light and Matter Interactions 0 Transmission Allowing light to pass through objects 0 Visible light meets clear glass cell phone signals pass through walls 0 Absorption hand near light hand absorbs some light absorbed energy warms your hand 0 Visible light does not pass through a black wall blue light hits a red sweatshirt Re ectionScattering light bounces off matter 0 Red light hits a red sweatshirt white light hits a white sheet of paper 0 Re ection light moves in one general direction 0 Scattering light moves in all random directions 0 Emission energy of light comes from electrical potential energy 0 Light comes from a light bulb light comes from your computer screen Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of particles and wavelengths XRays shortest wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum Kirchoff39s Laws 1 Dense material radiates as a continuous spectrum 2 Hot diffused gas radiated through a discrete spectrum 3 Cool diffused gas in front of dense material generates dark lines in the continuous spectrum Spectrum depends on a star s chemical composition Emission spectrum bright emission lines against black background Absorption spectrum dark absorption lines over the rainbow background AABSENCE Spectral lines are wider when an object rotates faster Photometer can measure the intensity of light from a single celestial object Total brightness depends on temperature and area Blue light has a higher frequency than red light Bluer higher energy Redder lower energy Redshift moving away from us Blueshift moving towards us Atoms are the smallest particles retaining properties of an element Atoms combine to form molecules Molecules can exist as liquid solid or gas The nucleus of an atom is made up of protons and neutrons Protons Positive Neutrons Neutral Atomic weight protons neutrons in the nucleus Atomic number number of protons in the nucleus Isotope version of an element with a different number of neutrons An atom is ionized when it loses one or more electrons Electrons negative Electrons surround the nucleus in orbitals that contain only a limited number of electrons Eectrons can move from orbital to orbital Energy levels Lower energy level atom emits a photon Higher energy level photon strikes atom atom moves up level frequency of light is absorbed CHAPTER SIX Two main functions of a telescope Magni cation and light gathering power MOST IMPORTANT PROPERTY OF A TELESCOPE collecting area determines how much light a telescope can gather Telescopes can collect far more light with far better angular resolution than a human eye Refracting Telescope focuses light with lenses Re ecting Telescope focuses light with mirrors First type of telescope Ground telescopes can study radio visible and limited portions of infrared and ultraviolet regions Light Pollution light from human sources that makes it dif cult to see stars at night Angular Resolution measures the angular size of the smallest features the telescope can see Angular resolution of human eye 1 arcminute Diffraction Limit angular resolution the telescope could achieve if nothing besides the size of its lightcollecting area affected the quality of its images Atmospheric turbulence causes the stars to twinkle Galileo 1St person to use telescope to observe objects in space LocalSky o Zenith the point directly overhead 0 Horizon all points 90 degrees away from zenith o Meridian line passing through zenith and connecting N and S points on horizon Imaging taking pictures of the sky Spectroscopy breaking light into spectra Separates the different wavelengths of light before they hit the detector that records the spectrum Timing measuring how light output varies with time How does Earth s atmosphere affect groundbased observations Telescope sites are chosen to minimize the problems of light pollution atmospheric turbulence and bad weather Why do we put telescopes into space Forms of light other than radio and visible do not pass through Earth s atmosphere Also much sharper images are possible because there is no turbulence How can we observe invisible light Telescopes for invisible light are usually modi ed versions of re ecting telescopes Many of the telescopes used for observing invisible light are in space


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