Hist 1020 - Exam 1, study guide part 1
Hist 1020 - Exam 1, study guide part 1 Hist 1020
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kala Dunnigan on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari Casteel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Jan 19- Jan 28. History Study Guide Enlightenment What started enlightenment? Absolutism Absolutism= king had absolute control over everything Voltaire wrote Candide “learn, think, and experience for yourself” John Locke- blank slate (tabula rasa) “You have infinite potential” - Again, emphasis on your experience in life - Natural Rights: 1) Life 2) Liberty 3) Property Everyone has these rights… except SLAVES and WOMEN Where did people talk about enlightenment ideas? - Salons (houses used to meet and talk about enlightenment) - Coffee houses - Newspapers (these were bias usually) Limitations of enlightenment: - Slavery- the words slave and rights contradict each other - Women- women naturally weaker than men Advocate for women= Mary Wollstonecraft *Enlightenment created a culture of questioning that will undermine the authority of European rulers Atlantic Revolutions A. American Revolution - Aka. Seven-year war/French and Indian War - Expensive $$$ How did Britain pay for this war? 1) Sugar act 2) Stamp act 3) Townshend act - All of these were taxes on the American colonies Last straw: Tea Act Boston tea party throw tea into sea American enlightenment Thomas Paine- common sense (1776) - Common sense = we need to leave Britain because we can govern ourselves Declaration of independence (1776) - Acknowledging freedom of USA from Britain 1788- Thomas Jthferson sent to France King louis 16 = King of france - France has a seven-year war and gets in debt like Britain did French estates 1) Clergy 2) Nobility 3) Commoners - The clergy and nobility were exempt from tax - France not getting enough money to pay debt Louis can’t change tax laws, only estates general can, last time they met was 1614 1788-1789 Electing Reps Tax paying men, 25 or older were allowed to vote 300 reps per state Third estate says they need more representation Louis locks the third estate out so they go meet in a tennis court National Assembly Third estate national assembly “we promise to stay together as a group, the national assembly, until there is a French constitution” – Tennis court oath Storming of Bastille - National assembly needed weapons - Bastille was where the French kept their weapons - Also, asked Louis to make constitution NOW, but he says not now Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen - Very similar to Declaration of independence - Listed natural, unalienable rights of man - Not women Women march to Versailles Weather ruined crops women mad and cant feed kids march to Versailles for food louis gives them extra food not good enough People force louis and family to move back to Paris Louis and family on house arrest Try to sneak out as third estate People catch them & charge him in court Louis death penalty French Constitution - Fulfills tennis court oath - National assembly is now the Legislative assembly Third estate national assembly legislative assembly French people use national anthem (La Marseillaise) and new flag (red,white,blue) to feel like a free nation Committee of public safety Maximillian Robespierre “If you don’t believe/agree with the beliefs of the French revolution, you will be killed” Introduction of the Guillotine st Marie Antoinette= 1 to be killed by guillotine Marie Tussaud - death masks (wax molds of real heads) Committee isn’t doing anything to stop chaos Robespierre sent to guillotine France without rule again Next rule of France= The Directory 5 people fight over power and don’t help France at all.. King louisCommittee of public safety (Robespierre)The Directory Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte- military general decides to rule France coup d’état says he is leader NOT king until he crowns himself emperor Saint Dominique Only good source of money for France 60% of worlds coffee 40% of worlds sugar Atlantic slave trade don’t hurt slaves because they are money Toussaint L’ouverture- tells slaves about enlightenment in France and their new natural rights - St. Dominique slaves revolt against France and WIN - St. Dominique is now Haiti - Nestflag also red white and blue - 1 independent country in Latin America Haitian Constitution (1805) Article one: Free, sovereign, independent nation Article two: Slavery forever abolished Article three: Haitian rights and equality Haitian revolt inspires many other Latin American revolutions INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION pt.1 ***Industrialization fundamentally changed the way people lived*** Began in England because… 1) Agricultural advancement 2) Population growth 3) Access to raw material Britain’s Feudal system wasted land and was inefficient Sprinkled seed by hand Agricultural advancements Jethro Tull – Seed Drill - More efficient - Control where seeds land Charles “Turnip” Townshend- crop rotation - Plant all fields all the time - Animals have new grazing fields animal poo = fertilizer - Crop rotation created SURPLUS Surplus feed more people population growth England trades with America - Traded cotton - Enclosure- people who tended to land and lived on it, get kicked off - People become homeless What do the newly homeless peasants do? - Work by making cotton into yarn - Extremely slow process Solution Spinning Jenny- one person can work large loom - made cloth 15x faster Water frame- Richard Arkwright Cotton Gin- Eli Whitney - separated seeds from the cotton Pick cotton faster more slaves triangular slave trade New power/Energy sources Thomas Newcomen’s steam engine - inefficient James Watt’s steam engine - efficient - separate condensers steam engines originally used to pump water out of mines British Coal Mines - coal on surface was used up - began to dig - started manufacturing steam engine machines Factory system - from small cottages to big factories peasants find jobs here - efficiency was a concern The Great Exposition Place to show of countries achievements & goods Need huge building Sir Joseph Paxton and the Crystal Palace “Temple made of glass”- unlike anything, anyone had ever seen Opening ceremony (may 1, 1851) Exhibit size based on wealth British textiles= biggest exhibit France= 2 ndlargest exhibit - France had worlds largest mirror - Projected beauty India handmade objects - The difference between colonies, and colonizers (handmade small items for colonies- raw material… manufactured, large items for the colonizing countries) United states – bigger than India, smaller than Britain. Machinery room was the main event, because it highlighted the advancements of the industrial revolution Industrialization Part 2. Surplus, cotton, new machines/ material… How to transport it? Railways = BIGGEST change for Industrial revolution - Locomotive race - Winner gets contract to have their locomotive on the new Grand British Experimental Railway Railways the world is more connected - People begin traveling more - People think differently about distance and space (proximity, not outer space) - Railways increased travel time need a set standard of time London time- the time in London was standard for all railway travel, to dismiss confusion about arrival and departure times standard time helped prevent accidents and delays time communicated by telegraph telegraph further crushed distance and made world more accessible Factory life Adam smith- specialized labor; everyone makes one piece over and over again for “quality and efficiency” shift work rather than seasonal after shift, people want leisure leisure Football (soccer) started in neighborhoods… slowly grew from there ALSO CONNECTED WORLD TOGETHER, by culture Exporting sport
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