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Exam 1 study guide

by: Keturah Hrebicik

Exam 1 study guide EES 160

Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Geology > EES 160 > Exam 1 study guide
Keturah Hrebicik
GPA 2.7

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About this Document

These notes show all the definitions we have covered up to this point. All the definitions you will need are listed, both the words and the definitions
Geoogy for elementary teachers
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Keturah Hrebicik on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EES 160 at University of Kentucky taught by Staff in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see Geoogy for elementary teachers in Geology at University of Kentucky.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
EES 160 study guide In class there was a paper describing everything we needed to know. The definitions we needed to know and a few example questions. This study guide will give the definitions to those words and raining begins the answers to the questions. My Philosophy in Teaching EES 160 Inquiry-based learning- learning based off of questions instead of stating the facts at the beginning Essential questions- core content questions that becomes the basis of learning for that day. Ways of learning/blooms taxonomy- From the bottom of the pyramid to the top: remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, creating 5-E model- engage, explore, explain, extend, evaluate Teaching standards, what is science and what is geology? Uniformitarianism the present is the key to the past and the world has been changing slowly over vast time Catastrophism- presence of sudden, short lived, violent events System- a set of connections Geology- the studio of earth including its structure, composition, the processes that act on it and its history. Hydrosphere- all the water on earth surface Lithosphere- all the land that makes up earth Biosphere- all the life on earth Atmosphere- all the air and gasses surrounding earth Science- a process in which we try to understand how the natural world works. Scientific methods- an outline in which there are steps tip undergo an experiment. Hypothesis- prediction Geologic time Deep time- the concept that the time scale is vast because the earth is very old. Age of universe- 13.8 billion years Age of solar system and the earth- 4.6 billion years Relative time- she's based off of relationships Absolute time- time usually determined radiometrically based on the half lives of elements. Law of original horizontally- layers of sediment are originally deposited horizontally under the action of gravity Law of superposition- layers are deposited in a time sequence, with the oldest laird on the bottom and the youngest on top. Law of lateral continuity- layers initially extend lately in all directions, in other words they are Law of cross-cutting relations- when a layer odd rock cuts into other layers of rocks, the Mayer being cut into is older then the rock intruding. Law of faunal succession- sedimentary rock strata that contains fossilized flora and fauna, and these fossils succeed each vertically in a specific, reliable order that can be identified over wide horizontal distances. Geologic time and the origin of the earth system. Radiometric dating- a way to date minerals and rocks age by looking at the carbon found on them. The older the rock is, the less carbon it would contain. Paleogeography- the study of geologic features at particular times in geologic past Uninformaties- where in a section of rocks, where a layer is missing and replaced by either open space or a mixture of rocks from a variety of time periods. Terrestrial planet- first four planets that are closest tip the sun. These include mercury Venus earth and mars Gas giants- the outermost planets made up on large quantities of gas. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Continuously habitable zone- the small zone in the solar system in which life is suitable. Earth is the only planet in this zone Origin of the earth system Primordial nebula- cloud of dust and gas before the time of the solar system Protoplanetary disk- cloud of dust that would have slowly began larger and more dense slowly creating the sun. Gravity- the force of attraction between two objects. Usually referring to earth and humans. Internal differentiation- the inner part of the earth is made up of many different distinct layers including the core, mantle and the crust. Degassing- removal of excess gas. Core- the inner most part of the earth Mantle- the middle and largest section of the earth, where convection currents take place Crust- outermost layer of earth, thinnest layer, where organisms live. Convection currents- the rise and fall of liquid due to change in temperature, hot rises and cold falls creating a current. Introduction to minerals Rocks- a naturally occurring solid combined of minerals. minerals- naturally occurring crystalline structures, inorganic and having defined chemical composition. Physical properties- properties of a mineral that can be determined by doing tests that would not affect the chemical structure of the mineral. Luster- how a mineral looks. The most Chinook forms or later are metallic and non metallic Cleavage- the tendency for a mineral top break in one or more directives, leaving smooth surfaces. Are often flat and shiny. Color- simply the color of the mineral. Streak- the color of the powder left behind after rubbing it on a white porcelain plate Hardness- the resistance a mineral had to scratching Crystal form- the size, shape and other factors of a crystal can help determine the type of mineral. Chemical properties- properties that change the chemical composition. For example reactions with acid. Elements- the most fundamental substance in which matter can be separated. Atoms- the smallest individual particle that retains the properties of an element. Molecules- the smallest chemical units that has all the specific properties of a special compound. Compounds- a combination of two poor more elements at a specific ratio. Constructive processes- processes that builds the earth up, most occur in the mantle. Deconstructive processes- processes that destroy the earth. Examples include weather, people and other factors. Minerals and rocks Fabric- the arrangement our pattern in the grains in rocks. Metamorphic rocks- rocks that are formed by changing other types of rocks by heart and pressure. Sedimentary rocks- rocks formed by the accumulation of sediment in a fluid Igneous rocks- rocks formed by the cooling and solidification of molten rocks either in the earth our on the surface. Lava- molten material on the earth surface Magma- molten material within the earth Sediment- small pieces of minerals and rocks. Rock cycle- the constant cycling of rocks. Lithification- where sediment compact under pressure and in fluid to create a solid rock. Fossils Fossils- the natural preserved remains or traces of organisms from the remote past Body fossils- fossils preserving an actual part pod an organism, hard or soft. Direct fossils- fossils that actually involve the former hard or soft parts of the organism Indirect fossils- mills and casts of hard parts but don't actually contain the organisms hard parts Trace fossils- a track, trail, borrow our structure made by an organism add a result of activity. Chemical fossils- chemicals found in rocks that provide an organic signature for ancient life.


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