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Exam 1 Study Guide - Geog 260

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by: Shpresa Mati

Exam 1 Study Guide - Geog 260 Geog 260

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Shpresa Mati


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Summarizing what to know for the Exam!
Geography of the U.S. and Canda
Professor Fuller
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shpresa Mati on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geog 260 at SUNY Oneonta taught by Professor Fuller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
Five Main Themes of Geography  Location o Absolute o Relative  Place o “Space filled with meaning”  Movement o Emigration o Immigration  Human-Environment Interaction o On going process of influence  Humans and the physical environment are always in motion, every changing, and always having some influence on one another.  Region Regions  How we try to capture/understand the world’s complex phenomena o We try to simplify by breaking down subject. o Areas identified by particular unique characteristics. o Divide world into regions: Physical and Human  We have already decided to focus on U.S./Canada  Why North America? o Size: Canada and U.S. – 13% of world’s land area; Third largest continent yet only two governments  Differences in emergencies from colonial past o U.S. – bloody o Canada – not so much  Canada: French-speaking, English-speaking, First Nations, and Inuit  C o Canada is our best buddy, eh!  Closest trading partner  Longest peaceful political border  Why do U.S. students know so little about it?  3,730 miles across  25% of world’s freshwater recourses  10 provinces, there northern territories  Approximately 34 million people o Canada:  Highest immigration rate among industrialized nations  Newest territory: Nunanvut  Regional Geography o Governments often use regions/territories  Types of Regions o Formal: political identity and distinct boundaries (ex. Great Lakes) o Functional: Described by interconnections/utility (Cleveland Metropolitan Area) o Vernacular: Distinct areas defined by “insiders” (“Dixie, “Sun Belt”)  Our regions of North America o Based on political economic, cultural, and physical ECOREGION  Climate, landforms, watersheds  No absolute borders  Political boundaries cross over them  Fosters dynamic thinking o Regions based on natural division  Why? o Holistic approach o Places man in nature rather than separate from it  Human tendency o Human vs. Nature?  Political boundaries split ecoregions  Ecoregions don’t follow human-formed boundaries o Climate change, ecosystems change o Imagine no political boundaries o Watersheds as an example  Sometimes they can define boundaries well  Most often they cross borders  Political fights ensure Sustainable Geography  Sustainability o Examine each regions of U.S./Canada through its lens o Understand cultural, political, economic, and environmental differences across U.S. and Canada  So what do we mean by “sustainability”? o Triad: People, planet, profit  AKA – social equality, clean sustainable environment, economic equality  Nature and Humans o Live with nature o Humans are the only species to create waste o Systems approach needed  Nature has an influence o Live with nature o Relationship between people and nature helps shape culture  The Ecological Age o Aware of risks/limits  Water Wars o ~40% of U.S. water polluted o Point resources and Nonpoint Sources  Resources o Biomimicry  Energy o Demand for fossil fuels o U.S. and Canada: 5% of word’s pop. 1/3 of its energy o Alternatives  Environment as Lifestyle (“Ecotopia”) o Favor ecological land-use policies over overdevelopment and industrialization o Controlling urban sprawl  Quality of life: “Green psyche”, Outdoor recreation, cities of top “best quality of life” list  The Built Environment o Human Made structures, infrastructures o Where majority of energy is used?  Transportation and industry  Urbanization o Over half the population in “urban” by 1920 o Jobs and mass transit  Sprawl o Quality of life matters; Conservation; Mixed-use development, “TODs”; “compact neighborhoods”; “Green buildings”  Smart Growth o Growth of social, economic, & environment goods for all; Reverse urban sprawl; Decrease auto dependence  Vancouver, BC, Canada o Quality of life voted among highest in the world  Population density increased (~1,905 per sq. mile)  50% growth since 1986!  62% of city’s population live in compact neighborhoods  “Vacouverism”  Post-industrial knowledge = great cost  Housing prices o Sustainable Cities  Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs)  Compact neighborhoods  Portland, Seattle, Vancouver Reaching North America  Earliest Arrivals o Origin? Asia, in the Altai Mountains of Russia/Mongolia o How’d they get here? (Mode of migration): Bering Land Bridge&Boats  Earliest Settlers o Aboriginal and First Nations people in Canada; Native Americans in U.S. o Small numbers and low density BUT, there were some large “cities” o Environmental Ethic, land ownership?  Early Native American Cities o Cahokia (pop. 20,000; 1050-1300’s); Mesa Verde; Chaco Canyon  Vikings (Norse People Over 1,000 Years Ago) o Scandanavia; Greenland; Labrador; Baffin Island o L’Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland and Labrador  Working camp; Similar structures to those in Norse Greenland and Iceland  Site of earliest known European presence; aka The Great Northern Peninsula  Europe was still focused on the Mediterranean overall though o 1000 – 1650 A.D.  Small states consolidated into larger states  New technologies in navigation/shipbuilding  Overland trade developed to the east  The Renaissance fostered exploration and the need for trade  However, in the 1400’s’ – 1500’s o Early “settling” of North America o Countries involved in colonization of area: Great Britain, France, Denmark, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain o First permanent English settlement? Jamestown, VA (1607). To follow? Religious separatists come over in 162  Here come the Europeans! 17 Century Colonization o Why leave Europe? Religion, Money, Commercial exploration (Globalization!)  Colonial History o Two visions of “America”:  1. Utopia  2. Dangerous o Manifest Destiny: “First Effective Settlement” o The values of a “Settler”: Land, Adventure, Control, Individual/Family rights Settling North America  English influence on culture o Christian faiths o Individual right to land o What “civilized” means  Early 1800’s population o Over 25,000 Europeans along east coast (NC to ME) o An American identity o 1820: America’s population surpasses that of England.  1600’s: Initially over 125,000 between St. Lawrence River and Florida o Also about 53,000 in Canada’s northeast  Disease, alcoholism, poverty  Imperialism  Reservation System created in 1890 o Dawe’s Act 1887 (claim it or lose it) o Native Americans/First Nations lose land o Given last valuable land  By 1934 Indian lands were 25% of area in 1880’s  Moved reservations away from major routes of white commerce in 19 cen. o Pushed some tribes into areas rich in energy resources o Some in the west are fighting to control rich deposits of coal, natural gas, uranium, and oil  Government not sharing enough resources harvested from First Nations land o Education, housing, drinking water at “unacceptable” levels o Less than HALF of First Nations children are graduating H.S. Expansion by: Treaty and Expansion  Treaty of 1783: Western Boundary Mississippi River  Louisiana Purchase (1803)  Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) o Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, California, Texas, and much of Arizona and New Mexico  Donation Land Claim Act: Please move to Oregon!!!  FREE LAND  Homestead Act (1862) o President Lincoln, Citizenship, 160 acres, Five Years = Title  1840-1920: o Very little control… Population grew (6x); area tripled; third largest economy in the world  1920-1960: o Stricter standards for some: WWII and Disease  Immigration Distribution o Russian (New York, Hamilton, Pittsburgh, Detroit); Irish (New York, Boston, Chicago); Dutch (Great Lakes) o Scandinavian (Central Canada, Minnesota, Dakotas, Wisconsin, Prairie Provinces) Economy How do we look at a country’s economy? o Categorize Economic Base o How does the area earn income? o Associations between case and cities/regions ECONOMIC SECTORS  Primary o Natural Resources Extraction o Farming: ~1% of pop. Now but 1 & 4 in what exports (’02)  Secondary o Manufacturing/Industry (mostly NE U.S., SE Canada o Spatially varies across North America  Manufacturing Belt (heavy industry) and High-tech  Tertiary o “Service-Sector”: Tourism, health care, retail, personal services, hotels, groceries, restaurants o Shift in North America  Quaternary o Government, journalism, education, media o Spatial concentration Legal Property Ownership  Documenting “real property” ownership? o Spanish, French, English, American systems  Spain o First to introduce land ownership as status in North America o “Hacienda” System  ~300 acres per lot  Communal square in town center with Catholic Church  People lived and farmed around town square in grid lots  France o The Long Lot System  Long thin parcel  350-600ft wide (10x as long)  Cheap, easy to create  Each farm got equal amount of each kind of soil on the floodplain o Furs and Farms! o Advantages?  Water access on one end and road/common are on the other  Give maximum access to the rivers that were the main routes to the interior o Disadvantages?  Rivers can adjust their route  Inheritance problems o England  Metes and Bounds  Uses physical or manmade features to describe location direction and distance  Describes parcel by going around the boundary until back at the starting point Issue.


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