Study guide for midterm 02/19/16
Study guide for midterm 02/19/16 101- Communications
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by tanillemonica on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101- Communications at Boston University taught by Tammy vigil in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see The World of Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at Boston University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Field of Experience STUDY Guide Communication Is a process, human, shared, and symbolic Means of sharing information using symbols as a common system by which human behavior is translated Communication Competence Situational, relational, and learned The process of accomplishing ones goals in a manner that overall maintains or enhances the relationship in which it was presented. Transactional model Noise Decoder Feedback Receiver Encoder Linear model Noise Sender Sender/Encode Chann Receiver/Decod r Message er el Medium (Channel) 5 categories of communications Intrapersonal COM- self Interpersonal COM- 2 people Small group COM- 3-15 people Public COM- few or one to many Mass COM- few, many –very many ALWAYS MEDIATED Burke’s definition of man Humans are symbol users, creators, and misusers Creators: inventors of the negative symbols system classifies good and bad Users: use symbols to understand our place in the world Misusers: rotten w/perfection, never satisfied Idea Terministic Screens The words we use can reflect and/or change our attitude & behavior Word created by burke The reflection of language that is filtered and willingly consumed Discursive V presentational Discursive RULES-BASED Any kind of message that relies on order to make sense Rational- reason based, easier for building arguments Presentational Presented as a whole, message in bulk Order less important, arguments more challenging Readily elicits emotion, more varied interpretations Denotative V Connotative Denotative Most widely used definition - #1 dictionary definition Universal emotionally detached meaning Connotative Emotionally charged meaning- interpretative value All words have denotive & connotative meanings Complications b/c: Language complexities, arbitrary & flexible nature of symbols Humans= rational & emotional, Humans= creators Heavy reliance on symbols Convergence V divergence Convergence- language that brings people together Divergence- language that is used to separate groups of people (ex: Dr, Mrs, Jr), Must be on purpose Taste V Aesthetic Judgement Taste- what we have been socialized to think Aesthetic- intrinsically beautiful Linguistic relativism The idea that culture is shaped and reflective of the members who speak it NonVerbals Visual: things we see that deliver a message Kinesics: body movements Emblems: basic & clear movements have direct verbal translation Illustrations: do not have direct translation but help enhance verbal Regulators: keep communication flowing Adaptors: signs of physiological & psychological state, interpreted symbolically, not intentional Affect displays: displays of emotion, translate emotion in body movements Proxemics: determines the parameters of a relationship Public: 12ft+ Social: 4-12ft Personal: 1.5-4ft Intimate: 0-1.5ft Haptic: Touch on or by others Artifacts: Objects 6Cs’ Clear Say what you mean and mean what you say Never assume the audience will understand if it is never clearly stated. Euphemisms & vague language only useful to leave ambiguity – otherwise can lead to miscommunication Concise Healthy vocab useful Minimal, clear, and simplistic language Remember Occam Razor Concrete Make sure you’re on the same page as your audience Being specific removes ambiguity- clear and concise w/ audience Presentational elements bring abstract into concrete Creative Adjectives & adverbs enhance meaning Attention getting and retaining Appeals to emotions, unique= memorable Culturally sensitive Avoid language that could be offensive to any parties, Intentional v. unintentional offence Know audience & self Terministic screens Freedom to be creative does not release speakers from the consequences of that speech Correct Rules of grammar exist to facilitate communication, failure to follow= miscommunication Only can break rule once proven them to be known otherwise ignorant & uneducated Phonological, syntactic, sematic (Pragmatic language) Language= symbols agreed upon by society are subject to: Phonological rules: how words sound when pronounced Syntactic rules: determine structure & decide in what way symbols can be arranged Semantic Rules: allow us to apply direct meaning to objects Pragmatic Rules: how people use language in everyday interactions Interpersonal deception theory Lying Appropriation Not subtle, but not changed Taking a symbol and using it in a new and unexpected way Change in context or usage NEVER completely dropping original definition but SLIGHTY altering it Bricolage Actual use changes Taking objects & altering its meaning by CHANGING the way it’s used Counter Bricolage Bricolage mass produced Commercializing the bricolage definition of an object
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