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Bio 1104 Study Guide

by: Zaynah allen

Bio 1104 Study Guide Biol 1104

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study guide for plant exam.
Intro to Biologyy 1104
Dr. Matthew Nusnbaum
Study Guide
Biology, Bio 1104
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zaynah allen on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 1104 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Matthew Nusnbaum in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biologyy 1104 in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
What are the key features of plants? Plants Exhibit Three Characteristic Traits i. Plants Are Photosynthetic ii.  Plants Have Multicellular,  Dependent  Embryos 1. Plant embryos  are attached  to the parent gametophyte iii.  Plants Have Alternating  Multicellular  Haploid  and Diploid Generat ions  1. Plants exhibit  a life cycle called alternation  of generations a. A diploid  sporoph yte stage alterna tes with a haploid  gametophyte  stage  b. Haploid  spores are produ ced via meiosis in the sporophyte c. Haploid  gametes are produced  via mitosis in the gametophyte d. Zygotes form by the fusion  of two haploid gametes How Have Plants  Evolved?  The Ancestors of Plants Were Photosynthetic Protists  1. These organisms  were likely similar  to green algae 2. DNA compar isons reflect evolutionary  relationships 3. Many characteristics are similar  between green algae and plants  a. Chlorophyll  and photosynthetic  accessory pigments Early Plants Invaded Land 1. Plants evolved various traits for life on land  a. Structures to support the body b. Condu cting cells to transport water and nutrients  c. Processes to disperse  gametes witho ut water     2. Plant Bodies Evolved to Resist Gravity and Drying a. Roots anchor the plant and absorb water and nutrients  from the soil b. A waxy cuticle covers the surfaces of leaves and stems and limits water evaporation c. Pores in leaves (stomata)  open for gas exchange, but will close during dry times d. Condu cting cells transpo rt water and nutrients  upward into  the plant e. Lignin, a rigid polymer, helps support the plant body 3. Plants Evolved Protection for Their Embryos and Sex Cells That Disperse Without Water 4. More Recently Evolved Plants Have Smaller Gametophytes a. Nonvascular plants  have a small sporophyt e that remains attached to a more prominent  gametophyte b. Seedless vascular plants  have a dominant sporop hyte and a smaller, but still independent  gametophyte c. Seed plants have microscopic  gametophytes that are barely noticeable What Are the Major Groups  of Plants? 1. The Two Major Groups of Plants Are: Nonvascular Plants and Vascular Plants  2. Nonvascular  Plants Lack Conducting Structures a. These plants possess rhizoids  that bring water and nutrients  to the plant b. These plants are of limited size due to the lack of vascular tissue and lignin c. Nonvascular  plants include the liverworts,  hornworts,  and mosses  i. Liverworts and hornworts are named  for their shapes  ii. Mosses are the most diverse and abund ant nonvascul ar plant   d. The reproductive structures of nonvas cular plants are protected   i. Archegonia  produce  eggs ii. Antheridia produce swimming sperm  that  require  water to reach the egg 3. Vascular Plants Have Conducting  Cells That Also Provide Support a. Lignin adds extra support, so plants grow taller than nonvascular  plants b. The sporoph yte stage is larger and more  conspicuous  than the gametophyte 4. The Seedless Vascular Plants Include  the Club Mosses, Horsetails, and Ferns a. These plants produce swimming sperm,  so water is essential  for reproduction b. Club mosses and horsetails are small and inconspicu ous  c. Fern sporophytes are broad­leaved  and diverse  i. The life cycle of ferns is similar  to that of other  nonvascular  plants   ii. Sporangia produce  spores on special leaves 5. The Seed Plants Are Aided by Two Important Adaptations: Pollen  and Seeds a. Pollen  transports the sperm witho ut water and can be dispersed  by wind or animals b. Seeds consist of a plant embryo, food supply,  and protective coat  i. The seed coat protects  the embryo and maintains  dormancy ii. Stored food is used by the embryo until  it does its own photosynthe sis 6. Gymnosper ms Are Nonflowering  Seed Plants a. Conifers are adapted  to cool climates 1. Thin, green needles  retained  year­round  and “antifreeze” are adaptations  to dry, cold conditions 2. Conifer  seeds develop in cones  i. Male cones produce  pollen dispersed  by the wind ii. Female cones produce  female gametophytes  that develop and produce  eggs iii. Pollen  tube development  takes 14 months,  after which fertilization  of the egg by the  sperm  occurs iv. Embryos are enclosed in seeds dispersed  when  the scales of the female cone open 7. Angiosperms Are Flowering Seed Plants  a. Flowers protect developing gametophytes and often attract pollinators   i. They produce male and female gametophytes ii. Female gametophytes  develop from an ovule in the ovary of a flower  iii. Male gametophytes  (pollen)  are produced  by flower anthers  iv. Pollen  lands  on the stigma and tubes transport sperm  from the flower  stigma to the egg in the ovary v.  The plant embryo enclosed in a seed is formed from the ovule  b. Fruits encourage seed dispersal PLANT  ANATOMY  AND  NUTRIENT  TRANSPORT How Are Plant Bodies Organized? A.The Bodies of Flowering Plants Consist of Two Systems, a Root System and a Shoot System  1. Roots are generally embedded in the soil and serve six major functions a. Anchor the plant b. Absorb water and minerals from the soil c. Transport water, minerals, sugars, and hormones to and from shoot  d. Store surplus food   e. Produce hormones f. Interact with soil fungi and bacteria that help provide nutrients to the plant 2. The shoot system is usually aboveground and is composed of leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits, borne on various parts of stems 3. Functions of shoots include a. Capture sunlight energy and synthesize sugars during photosynthesis b. Transportation of materials among leaves, flowers, fruits, and roots c. Store surplus sugars and starches d. Reproduction e. Hormone synthesis B.Flowering Plants Can Be Divided into Two Groups 1. Two broad groups of plants are called monocots and dicots  a. Cotyledons, parts of the plant embryo, are what distinguish the two groups  i. Monocots have long thin leaves, and bushy fibrous roots ii. Dicots have broad leaves and thick taproots iii.Monocots have a single cotyledon, whereas dicots have two How Do Plants Grow? During Plant Growth, Meristem Cells Give Rise to Differentiated Cells 1. Apical meristems (“tip meristems”) are located at tips of shoots and roots  a. They produce primary growth, which increases the length of the plant and affects the development of specialized  plant structures 2. Increases in diameter occur from cell division in lateral meristems (“side meristems” or cambia)  a. These are located as a continuous cylinder the length of the root and shoot system  b. These produce secondary growth (woody) in some mature shoots and roots 1. Ground tissue includes everything that is not epidermis or vascular and is composed of parenchyma, collenchyma, and  sclerenchyma 2. Parenchyma tissue is the most abundant type of ground tissue   a. Thin­walled cells  b. Usually involved in metabolic activity such as photosynthesis, storage of starch or sugars, or secretion of hormones,  depending on location 3. Collenchyma is more rigid, but flexible   a. Elongated cells  b. Strong, provide support to leaf stalks  4. Sclerenchyma is composed of cells with thick, hardened cell walls  a. Thick secondary cell walls provide additional support in woody stems b. Found in portions of the veins, seed coverings, pear fruit, and wood The Vascular Tissue System Transports Water and Nutrients 1. This system is composed of xylem and phloem 2. Xylem transports water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant a. It is composed of tracheids and vessel elements  b. Tracheids are thin, tube­like cells, with overlapping slanted ends that have pits c. Vessel elements are larger in diameter, and form pipelines called vessels 3. Phloem transports sugars and other organic molecules throughout the plant body a. It is composed mainly of sieve tubes   b. Perforated sieve plates are found at adjoining ends c. Nourished by adjacent companion cells through plasmodesmata How Do Plants Acquire Nutrients? Plants Require a Variety of Nutrients  1. These nutrients are obtained from the air or the soil a. Water is used to transport many nutrients, including minerals, throughout a plant Roots Transport Minerals from the Soil into the Xylem of the Vascular Cylinder  1. The young root is made up of living cells, extracellular space, and tracheids and vessel elements of xylem  a. Cells in the roots are porous, allowing the diffusion of water and minerals into the root b.The Casparian strip (endodermis) provides a barrier for the diffusion of water and minerals into the vascular cylinder Roots Take Up Water from the Soil by Osmosis 1. The inside of the tracheids and vessel elements have a high mineral concentration a. Water travels into the roots through osmosis, following the minerals 2. In some plants, this movement of water creates root pressure, which moves fluid up the shoot  a.The evaporation of water out of the leaves causes the water to move up the shoot (transpiration) How Do Plants Move Water and Minerals from Roots to Leaves? A. Transpiration Drives the Movement of Water from the Roots Upward Through the Plant Body B. The Cohesion–Tension Mechanism Explains Water Movement in Xylem  1. This mechanisms involves two essential processes  a. Cohesion, the attraction among water molecules that holds the water together b. Tension produced by water evaporating from the leaves causes it to move up the xylem 2. Hydrogen bonds between water molecules produce cohesion a. The attraction of water molecules to each other assists the upward movement of water 3. Transpiration produces the tension that pulls water upward 4. Cohesion and tension work together to move water up the xylem   a. The pulling force caused by the evaporation of water is enough to help pull water up the xylem   C. Minerals Move Up the Xylem Dissolved in Water D. Stomata Control the Rate of Transpiration a. A plant must regulate its stomata to maintain a balance of drawing up water and allowing CO  e2try, and  minimizing water loss How Do Plants Transport Sugars? The Pressure­ Bulk Flow Mechanism Explains Sugar Movement in Phloem 1. Differences in water pressure drive the flow of fluid through the sieve tubes  a. Sugars move from mature leaves carrying out photosynthesis, a sugar source, to structures that use the sugar, such as  a developing fruit (sink) b. Sugar produced by a source cell is actively transported into a phloem sieve tube c. Water follows the sugar by osmosis d. Water pressure drives the fluid through the sieve tubes e. Cells of the sugar sink actively transport sugar out of the phloem SOME KEY TERMS pollen angiosperm gametophyte seed antheridium (plural, antheridia) gymnosperm sporophyte archegonium (plural, archegonia) lignin stoma  (plural, stomata) conifer nonvascular plant vascular plant cuticle ovule flower alternation of generations   fruit


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