Anth. 160 Study Guide 1
Anth. 160 Study Guide 1 ANTH 160
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Liliana Calderon on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 160 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Tanya M. Meuller in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Human Life Course in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Anthropology 160 Exam Test dude Thursday 5:00pm Open note, open book. Good luck! -Natural selection: 1. Stabilizing 2. Directional 3. Disruptive -Genotype-phenotype variability Gregor Mendel and the peas established the knowledge of dominant/recessive traits There can be a series of combinations of trait switching: 1. mutation 2. re-combination 3. crossing over -can behavior evolve? YES it can. Ex: dung flies [adjust copulation time depending on women availability]; tail bones in whales [don’t have a penis done anymore] -phenotype plasticity: Tinbergen’s 4 levels of Causation: 1. Proximate [the how]: what makes the behavior happen at any given moment? 2. Ontogeny [the development aspect]: how does the machinery develop as the organism grows? 3. Phylogenetic [evolution aspect]: How have the behavior systems of each species evolved until they became what they are now? 4. Ultimate: in what ways does this behavior influence the survival rate and success of the organism? Learning and evolution: Learning mechanism are evolved structures of the brain. We learn some things better than others evolution interpretation: learning depends on the characteristic adaptive problems Biases Gender stereotypes The thought that boys are better at math, but girls are better at social, artistic skills. -Social Learning -Culture as Learned behaviors: we all have human universals, that regardless of culture or time in history. -motherese -object permeability -language -face recognition/ facial expressions -ability to make mental maps Humans learn through imitation; such a trait is inherently undetectable in other animals, who learn on their own or are taught. Culture as alearned behavior:setsthe norm of what behaviors arepreferredor accepted in a certain environment -composed of physical and non-human biological elements -cultural rules provide high levels of local conformity to arbitrary patterns -the way we learn affects the way we interpret certain aspects of the world. MOVIE NOTES/ KEY POINTS: The human race is diverse and unique, yet there are things that unifies all human beings: human universals (examples listed above). remember Swiss army analogy [the brain is complex and is capable of completing various tasks and problems, rather than only one]. -social skills are vital for human development, but there are things that can affect it, leading to other detriments: -William’s syndrome: Affects mathematic and spatial skills, yet their social and language skills are very well developed -Autism: lackofsocialskills,lackofestablishingadifferencebetweentruthanddeceptioncan’t lie nor play pretend (imagine). -face recognition is important inorderto survive, andknowwho to trustimportantmechanism and stepping stone for baby development that begins with motherese. Lack of social components can lead to isolation due to inability to connect to emotions andactempathetically,thuslackofcooperationwithothersiscommon.[lookupexample of Phineas Gage]. -GROUP SELCETION VS. INDIVIDUAL AND ALTRISM -Group selection: posits that certain traits seem to operate for the good of other individuals (ex. Beginnings of Altruism). -Individual selection: posits that selection acts on the individual level to favor/disfavor traits; relies on the idea of selfishness. Application of Darwin’s theory to group selection: 1. Existence of altruistic behaviors 2. Non-social vs. social behaviors 3. Misapplication of “social Darwinism” Examples in the Animal World: -lay less eggs than capable for SURVIVAL -Animal alarm calls are used to warn others of aerial predators; they risk being spotted with their call to save others as being a service to the rest of the population. -animals commit infanticide as a means of regulating population, something is wrong with the offspring that will stop if from developing successfully, or eliminate competition and get female to have someone else’s kids. Group selection activities such as sharing food, committing infanticide, and taking risks have their rewards, but is mathematically improbable Rejection of group selection: -reproduction occurs at no set rate, and with no regards to the environment - Animals/people alike will migrate if needed and group selection is a weak force that depends on low migration rates
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