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UNM / Engineering / ANTH 160 / Which of the following is true about natural selection?

Which of the following is true about natural selection?

Which of the following is true about natural selection?

Description

School: University of New Mexico
Department: Engineering
Course: Human Life Course
Professor: Tanya meuller
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Anthropology 160-001
Cost: 50
Name: Anth. 160 Study Guide
Description: here are reviews for the weekly quizzes, which will have information that will be asked on the exam; do not forget to answer in complete questions, about 3-5 sentences
Uploaded: 02/17/2016
6 Pages 32 Views 9 Unlocks
Reviews

melanie.saunders88 (Rating: )



Weekly Quiz: Natural Selection, Heritability and Learning


Which of the following is true about natural selection?



1. Which of the following is true about Natural Selection?

-It operates on existing heritable variation in the population, favoring expressions of traits that  are most suitable for the environmental conditions.

-It leads to differential survival of individuals in the population, with those possessing favorable  traits surviving in higher numbers than those without favorable traits.

-It leads to differential reproduction of individuals in the population, with those possessing  favorable traits leaving more descendents in future generations than those without favorable  traits.

 - All of the above

2. Which of the following is not a component of Darwin’s Evolution by Natural Selection? If you want to learn more check out Types of probability and non-probability sampling?

- Possession a trait must lead to an individual being better adapted to all  aspects of the environment  


Which of the following is not an example of stabilizing selection?



 -There must be variation in a trait

 - Possessing a trait must lead to differential survival and/or differential reproduction. - The variation must be heritable

3. In the British moth example, which of the following is the mechanism by which the better  camouflaged moth is preferred?

 - Predation rates – birds prey upon the moths that are visible, thus those  that are better camouflaged survive and reproduce at higher rates.

 - Interaction between the pollution and fertility – those that are melanistic are more resistant to the  effects of pollution, and thus survive and reproduce at higher rates

 -Wing fragility – the higher levels of pollution caused the wings of the peppered variant to become  quite travel, therefore these moths died at higher rates.


What is the difference between proximate and ultimate causation?



Don't forget about the age old question of What are the six submodules of mental grammar?

 - None of the above.

4. A scientific "theory" can best be defined by which of the following statements  -A provisional conjecture

 - A set of statements or principles that use existing knowledge to generate  testable predictions

 -A set of statements or principles for which there is no evidence If you want to learn more check out What is an independent variable?

 - A set of rules or facts that are indisputable

 5. Which of the following is not an example of stabilizing selection?

-Ache height in the forest period - males who were too short wouldn't be able to keep  up with prey, while males who were too tall would have more trouble moving through  dense forest quietly.

-Birth weight in babies - babies who are born too small have trouble surviving, and  babies who are too large at birth may risk getting stuck in the birth canal.

-Cranial capacity across human evolution - larger brained humans were  more successful than smaller brained humans, as their cognitive capacity  allowed them to more successfully extract resources that were  embedded, and allowed them more flexibility. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four basic statements of annual reports?

 -None of the above.

Weekly Quiz No. 3

1. Which of the following is a correct statement about genotype and phenotype?  ∙ Genotype refers to the physical expression of the trait (what we “see”); phenotype refers to the  actual genetic composition of the gene(s) responsible.

∙ Phenotype determines genotype – i.e., the phenotype codes for a specific expression of the  genotype.

∙ Genotype and phenotype are not related. If you want to learn more check out What is a psychosocial crisis?

∙ Genotype refers to the actual genetic composition of the gene(s) responsible for a  trait; phenotype refers to the physical expression of the trait (what we “see”).

2. The ability of an organism to respond adaptively to environmental variation is known as: ∙ Phenotypic variability

∙ Phenotypic plasticity

∙ Genotypic variability

∙ Genotypic plasticity

3. In the British moth example, which of the following is the mechanism by which the better  camouflaged moth is preferred?

∙ Predation rates – birds prey upon the moths that are visible, thus those that are  better camouflaged survive and reproduce at higher rates. We also discuss several other topics like Nervous tissue contains 2 types of cells

∙ Interaction between the pollution and fertility – those that are melanistic are more resistant to  the effects of pollution, and thus survive and reproduce at higher rates.

∙ Wing fragility – the higher levels of pollution caused the wings of the peppered variant to  become quite travel, therefore these moths died at higher rates.

∙ None of the above

4. Which of the following is true about Natural Selection?

∙ It operates on existing heritable variation in the population, favoring the expressions of traits  that are most suitable for the environmental conditions.

∙ It may lead to differential survival of individuals in the population, with those possessing  favorable traits surviving in higher numbers than those without favorable traits. ∙ It may lead to differential reproduction of individuals in the population, with those possessing  favorable traits leaving more descendents in future generations than those without favorable  traits.

∙ All of the above

Weekly Quiz No. 3

5. What is the difference between proximate and ultimate causation?

∙ Proximate causation explains the why of the behavior, while ultimate causation explains  the how of the behavior.

∙ Proximate causation explains the how of the behavior, while ultimate  causation explains the why of the behavior.

∙ Proximate causation explains how the behavior arose over our evolutionary history,  while ultimate causation explains how the behavior arises over our lifespan.

∙ Proximate causation explains how the behavior arises over our lifespan, while ultimate  causation explains how the behavior arose over our evolutionary history.

Weekly Quiz 4

1. What is the Swiss army knife analogy as a description of brain evolution? ∙ The brain evolved as an all-purpose computing mechanism.

∙ The brain is a collection of specialized tools, each of which was separately  shaped by natural selection.

∙ The brain is designed to be very sharp but compact.

∙ All brains have lots of potential.

2. Studying children with William’s Syndrome is useful in what way?

∙ These children lack the ability to pick up on social and emotional cues, so studying images of  their brains may clue us in to the areas of the brain associated with social and emotional  cognition.

∙ These children are born without one hemisphere of their brain. Studying how they still develop  normally helps to identify how the brain is essentially a “blank slate” that can develop normally  even when large parts are missing.

∙ These children are quite precocious with their social, emotional, and  language skills, but are at a deficit with skills related to math and spatial  orientation. Studying images of their brains may help us determine which  areas of the brain are utilized for very specific functions.

∙ Studying children with William’s Syndrome is not useful with respect to understanding evolution  and human behavior.

3. Object permanence represents:

∙ One of the ways in which humans are “inferior” to chimpanzees – chimps possess object  permanence from birth, but humans don’t develop a sense of object permanence unless they  are taught.

∙ One of the important variations present in humans as a whole – certain groups possess object  permanence while others don’t. If researchers can learn why some groups don’t possess object  permanence, this would give us insight into the evolution of the human brain.

∙ One of the important human universals present in humans as a whole – part of our human nature. The fact that all humans possess this trait cues  us in to shared selection pressures over much of our evolutionary history. ∙ None of the above.

4. A modern Hutterite community is potentially relevant to our evolutionary past because: ∙ Hutterites eat many of the same foods that our ancestors consumed on the African savannah. ∙ Hutterites have the same work ethic and social strictures that our evolutionary ancestors had. ∙ Hutterites live in groups of human that are about the same size as our  

ancestors, and possibly share aspects of their social structure. ∙ None of the above

5. Which of the following is not an example of a human universal? ∙ Motherese

∙ Writing

∙ Mental Maps

∙ Complex Language

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