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Abnormal Psychology Test 2

by: Brianna Sanguily

Abnormal Psychology Test 2 Psyc

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Brianna Sanguily
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Vocabulary and general notes that are likely going to be on Exam 2
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Nowell
Study Guide
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This 69 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna Sanguily on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc at Auburn University taught by Dr. Nowell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 273 views.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
Chapter 5 – Mood Disorders 02/03/2016  Anterior cingulate: in the subcortical region of the brain, the anterior portion of the cingulate gyrus, stretching about the corpus callosum  Antidepressant: any drug that alleviates depression; also widely used to treat anxiety disorders  Attributional style:  Attributions: the explanation a person has for why an event of behavior has occurred  Behavioral couples therapy: clinical approach to depression in which a couple works to improve communication and satisfaction; more likely to relieve relationship distress than individual cognitive therapy  Bipolar 1 disorder: a diagnosis defined on the basis of at least one lifetime episode of mania. Most people with this disorder also experience episodes of major depression  Bipolar 2 disorder: a form of bipolar disorder, diagnosed in those who have experienced at least one major depressive episode and at least one episode of hypomania.  Cognitive biases: tendencies to perceive events in a negative manner; hypothesized to be driven by underlying negative schemas.  Cushing’s syndrome: an endocrine disorder usually affecting young women, produced by oversecretion of cortisone and marked by mood swings, irritability, agitation and physical disfigurement.  Cyclothymic disorder: a form of bipolar disorder characterized by swings between elation and depression over at least a 2 year period, but with moods not so severe as manic or major depressive episodes.  Deep brain stimulation: a neurosurgical treatment in which electrodes are implanted into specific brain regions  Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: DSM5 disorder defined by severe temper outbursts and observably irritable mood between outburst in youth older than 6years old.  Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: a region of the prefrontal cortex involved in working memory, motor planning, organization, and regulation and implicated in many psychopathologies  Episodic disorder: a condition, such as major depressive disorder, whose symptoms dissipate but that tends to recur  Expressed emotion (EE): hostility, criticism, and emotional over- involvement directed from other people toward the patient, usually within the family  Flight of ideas: a symptom of mania that involves a rapid shift in conversation from one subject to another with only superficial associative connections  Hopelessness theory: cognitive theory of depression that began with learned helplessness theory, was modified to incorporate attributions, and has been modified again to emphasize hopelessness – an expectation that desirable outcomes will not occur and that no available responses can change that.  Hypomania: an extremely happy or irritable mood accompanied by symptoms such as increased energy and decreased need for sleep, but without the significant functional impairment associated with mania.  Lithium: a drug useful in treating both mania and depression in bipolar disorder  Major depressive disorder (MDD): a disorder of individuals who have experienced episodes of depression but not of mania. Depression episodes are marked by sadness or loss of pleasure, accompanied by symptoms such as feelings of worthlessness and guilt; withdrawal from others; loss of sleep, appetite, or sexual desire; and either lethargy or agitation.  Mania: intense elation or irritability, accompanied by symptoms such as excessive talkativeness, rapid thoughts, distractibility, grandiose plans, heightened activity, and insensitivity to the negative consequences of actions.  Melancholic: subtype of major depressive disorder in which the individual is unable to feel better even momentarily when something good happens, regularly feels worse in the morning and awakens early, and suffers a deepening of other symptoms of depression  Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT): recent adaptation of cognitive therapy/restructuring focuses on relapse prevention after successful treatment for recurrent episodes of major depression; aims to “decenter” the person’s perspectives in order to break the cycle between sadness and thinking patterns  Mood disorders: disorders, such as depressive disorders or mania, in which there are disabling disturbances in emotion  Negative triad: in Beck’s theory of depression, a person’s negative views of the self, the world and the future, in reciprocal causal relationship with pessimistic assumptions (schemas) and cognitive biases such as selective abstraction.  Neuroticism: the tendency to react to events with greater than average negative effect; a strong precursor of onset of anxiety disorders and depression  Nonsuicidal self-injury: behaviors that are meant to cause immediate bodily harm but are not intended to cause death.  Persistent depressive disorder: a DSM5 disorder defined by depressive symptoms that last at least 2 years.  Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a DSM5 disorder defined by mood and physical symptoms that consistently emerge the week before menses and clear within a week after menses.  Psychoeducational approaches: especially with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, the component of treatment that helps people learn about symptoms and treatment strategies  Psychomotor agitation: a symptom characterized by pacing, restlessness, and inability to sit still  Psychomotor retardation: a symptom commonly observed in major depressive disorder in which the person moves his or her limbs and body slowly.  Rapid cycling: term applied to bipolar disorders if the person has experienced at least four episodes within the past year.  Reward system: system of brain structures involved in the motivation to pursue rewards. Believed to be involved in depression, mania, schizophrenia, and substance use disorders  Rumination: repetitive thought about why a person is experiencing a negative mood  Striatum:  Suicide: the intestinal taking of one’s own life  Transcranial magnetic stimulation: a noninvasive technique in which pulsing magnets are used to intensify or diminish brain activity in a given region  Tryptophan: amino acid that is the major precursor of serotonin; experimental depletion has found that a lowered serotonin level causes temporary depressive symptoms in people with personal or family history of depression. o DSM-5 recognizes two broad types of mood disorders – depressive symptoms and manic symptoms o Depressive disorder symptoms – profound sadness and/or an inability to experience pleasure. Symptoms are varied  Sleeping too much/too little  Psychomotor retardation or agitation  Weight loss/change in appetite  Loss of energy  Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt o DSM-5 requires 5 depression symptoms to be present for 2 weeks for the diagnosis of MDD. o Diagnosis for persistent DD is chronic depression for more than half of the time for 2 years (1 year for children/adolescents); symptoms do not clear for more than 2 months at a time. o Women are twice as likely as men to experience major and persistent DD. o Socioeconomic status matters (MDD 3x more common in impoverished people) o Depressive disorders are often comorbid with another psych disorder o Bipolar 1 is much rarer than MDD o Milder forms of Bipolar 1 are hard to detect bc some of the commonly used diagnostic interviews are not reliable o Some of mood disorder is genetic; not all o Bipolar is one of the most heritable disorders o Three neurotransmitters are thought to play a role in mood disorders: norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. o Amygdala helps assess how salient and emotionally important stimulus is. Damage can cause no reaction to a threatening stimuli.  MDD patients amygdala reacts greater to upsetting pictures. o Depression patients show diminished activation of straitum during exposure to emotional stimuli  Nucleus accumbens is central component of the reward system and plays key role in motiviation to pursue rewards  People with depression feel less motivated by and less engaged in positive life events o HPA axis may be overly active during episodes of MDD (shows stress is important part of depression) o Cortisol is not well regulated in depression/Cushing’s syndrome patients  Prolonged levels harm body systems like the hippocampus o Interpersonal problems are very common in depression patients  Childhood adversity (early parental death, physical or sexual abuse) increase risk of depression later on.  Life events often precede a depressive episode (losing job, relationship or friendship) o Some people don’t become depressed after a bad life event because some people must be more vulnerable to stress than others. o Beck’s theory: depression is associated with negative views on self, the world, and the future. Negative schemas created by parents or life events.  Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale: tests Beck’s theory; self report scale to see if person believes they are worthwhile or lovable o Hopelessness theory: most important trigger of depression is hopelessness.  Stable vs. unstable  Global vs. specific  Those with global and stable views are more likely to become hopeless and that will lead to depression  Attributional Style Questionaire: to predict depressive symptoms among students who received low grades on a test. o Rumination theory: tendency to dwell on sad experiences and thought is what causes depression. o Predictors of mania: disturbance in the reward system of the brain.  Being highly reward sensitive has also been shown to predict the onset of bipolar disorder and more severe course of mania.  Sleep deprivation has shown a relationship in triggering mania symptoms. o Treatment of depression:  Interpersonal psychotherapy: built on the idea that depression is related to interpersonal problems. examine interpersonal problems, identify feelings, make important decisions and effect changes to resolve the problems.  Cognitive therapy: idea that depression is caused by a negative schema and cognitive biases; alter maladaptive thought patterns; behavioral activation (people are encouraged to engage in pleasant activities) o Treatment for bipolar is mainly educating them on their disorder and educating the family because drugs are needed to control bipolar disorder even when symptoms aren’t present. o Biological treatment for mood disorder:  Electroconvulsive therapy: most controversial; MDD that doesn’t respond to medication; momentary seizure by passing 70-130 volt current through the brain  Medication: most common and best researched; people prescribed antidepressants (3 kinds) o Monoamine oxidase inhibitor o Tricyclic antidepressants o Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors  Transcranial magnetic stimulation o Combining psychotherapy with antidepressants increases odds of recovery by 10-20% o Litium is used for control of manic symptoms but needs to be carefully prescribed bc at too high levels can be toxic o Many persons with mood disorders have suicidal thoughts or engage in suicidal behavior  More than half of the people who try to kill themselves are depressed at the time of the act  Genetics seem to play 50% role of who will attempt suicide.  Serotonin and cortisol are relevant to understanding suicide. Serotonin dysfunction appears to be particularly relevant for understanding violent suicide.  Economic and social factors influence suicide rates. Social isolation and lack of social belonging are among the most powerful predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior.  Researches relate suicide to poor problem-solving skills; if a person has a hard time solving a problem, they are more vulnerable to hopelessness. High levels of hopelessness are associated with a fourfold elevation in the risk of suicide Question 1 0 / 0.8 pts The DSM-5 includes __________ new depressive disorders. 5 4 2 3 Question 2 0.8 / 0.8 pts According to the DSM-5, bereavement-related symptoms are no longer excluded from the diagnosis of Persistent depressive disorder Major depressive disorder Bipolar I disorder Premenstrual Dysphoric disorder Question 3 0.8 / 0.8 pts Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is distinguished from major depression by the addition of symptoms such as All of these other answers are symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Joint or muscle pain. Bloating. Breast tenderness or swelling. Question 4 0.8 / 0.8 pts The most prevalent psychiatric disorder in the U.S. is Major depressive disorder Mood dysregulation disorder Cyclothymia Bipolar disorder Incorrect Question 5 0 / 0.8 pts __________ as many girls as boys are exposed to childhood sexual abuse. Twice Three times Five times Four times Question 6 0.8 / 0.8 pts Which of the following treatments for seasonal affective disorder is now considered a first-line recommendation in the APA Treatment Guidelines for Depression? Regular bright light exposure Traveling to a warmer climate during winter months Psychodynamic therapy Hypnosis Question 7 0.8 / 0.8 pts Which of the following statements is true? An episode of depression is required for the diagnosis of Bipolar II. All of these other answers are correct. All people who experience manic symptoms will experience symptoms of depression at some point during their lifetime. An episode of depression is required for the diagnosis of Bipolar I. Question 8 0.8 / 0.8 pts Which of the following is a chronic, milder form of bipolar disorder? manic-depression hypomanic disorder dysthymic disorder cyclothymic disorder Question 9 0.8 / 0.8 pts What percentage of people diagnosed with bipolar disorder have a dual diagnosis of anxiety? 1/2 1/3 2/3 3/4 Question 10 0.8 / 0.8 pts Which of the following statements is true? There is a negative relationship between bipolar disorders and creativity. Creativity causes improvements in mood. There is a positive relationship between bipolar disorders and creativity. Depression causes creative outbursts. Question 11 0.8 / 0.8 pts Which of the following disorders has the highest heritability estimates? bipolar disorder major depressive disorder cyclothymia persistent depressive disorder Question 12 0.8 / 0.8 pts Tryptophan depletion has been used to deplete norepinephrine levels. raise sensitivity for serotonin. lower serotonin levels. examine dopamine receptors. Question 13 0.8 / 0.8 pts Skip to question text. John is in the middle of a major depressive episode. His friend, Sophie, has never experienced depression and she is trying to be supportive of John. If you were to show both John and Sophie photos of people with sad or angry expressions on their face… functional activation studies would most likely indicate that Sophie has a stronger and more sustained reaction in her amygdala than John. structural activation studies would most likely indicate that John has a stronger and more sustained reaction in his amygdala than Sophie. Based on this information, both Sophie and John would probably have the same amount of activity in their amygdala. functional activation studies would most likely indicate that John has a stronger and more sustained reaction in his amygdala than Sophie. Question 14 0.8 / 0.8 pts Stressful life events are only related to the first episode of depression. are important in triggering episodes of depression. play little role in the onset of depressive episodes. mediate the relationship between genetics and environment. Question 15 0.8 / 0.8 pts Which of the following statements is true? High levels of expressed emotion predict relapse in depression. Depressive symptoms are usually a result of expressed emotion. Symptoms of depression only have a small effect on important relationships. People with depression often elicit positive reactions from people around them because they tend to keep to themselves. Question 16 0.8 / 0.8 pts If Stephanie is characterized as a person high in neuroticism, she is likely to experience low levels of anxiety, but high levels of depression. is not likely to become depressed, but likely to become anxious. is at elevated risk for developing depression. is most likely clinically depressed. Question 17 0.8 / 0.8 pts The hopelessness theory of depression is predicated on cognitive diatheses that lead to negative attributions. biological features of depression resulting in negative attributions. a return to the animal lab to further understand factors leading to depression. depression resulting from previous helplessness situations. Question 18 0.8 / 0.8 pts In bipolar disorder, depressive episodes are typically triggered by aftereffects of manic episodes. similar factors as in major depression. difficulty facing the seriousness of the disorder. neurological changes. Question 19 0.8 / 0.8 pts Jolynn was experiencing major depression, and she went to a therapist who treated her with interpersonal therapy. Her therapist probably encouraged her to attempt to replace depressing memories with happy ones. keep a record of her moods over the course of the day and their relationship to the number of positive contacts she has with other people. confront her parents with her anger at them for neglecting her as a child. examine her own way of relating to others in her environment. Question 20 0.8 / 0.8 pts Across paradigms, treatment of mood disorders typically includes cognitive therapy. psychoeducation. behavioral marital therapy. behavioral activation. Question 21 0.8 / 0.8 pts Electroconvulsive therapy is usually recommended if a person does not respond to SSRIs in the second week of treatment. can be a highly effective in treating some cases of chronic depression, especially depression with psychotic features. is no longer used in the treatment of depression. is so risky that it is only reserved for people who are actively suicidal. Question 22 0.8 / 0.8 pts Medications as a treatment for depression are used most effectively in conjunction with psychotherapy. are no longer used, since psychotherapy has been demonstrated to be more effective. are used almost exclusively, since they have been found to be superior to psychotherapy. continue to be used despite evidence of ineffectiveness and serious side effects. Question 23 0.8 / 0.8 pts A recent study showed that the use of antidepressants for people with bipolar disorder may also help treat manic symptoms. should be considered a first-line treatment. does not confer any benefit in treating depression when added to a mood stabilizer. helps combat depression more so than a mood stabilizer alone. Question 24 0.8 / 0.8 pts Studies of the epidemiology of suicide suggest that rates are lower among regular churchgoers. men are more likely to attempt suicide. suicide rates decrease with age. about 10% to 20% of people report suicidal ideation at one point in their life. Question 25 0.8 / 0.8 pts The Reasons for Living inventory focuses upon the amount of time the person has felt suicidal. the motivation for committing suicide. the things in a person’s life that prevent suicide. how people will react to the examinee’s suicide.  Agoraphobia: literally, fear of the marketplace. Anxiety disorder in which the person fears situations in which it would be embarrassing or difficult to escape if panic symptoms occurred; most commonly diagnosed in some individuals with panic disorder  Anxiety disorder: disorders in which fear or anxiety is overriding and the primary disturbance; include phobic disorders, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and agoraphobia.  Anxiety sensitivity index: a test that measures the extent to which people respond fearfully to their bodily sensations; predicts the degree to which unexplained psychological arousal leads to panic attacks.  Anxiety: an unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension accompanied by increased physiological arousal. Anxiety can be assessed by self-report, by measuring physiological arousal, and by observing overt behavior.  Behavioral inhibition: the tendency to exhibit anxiety or to freeze when facing threat. In infants, it manifests as a tendency to become agitated and cry when faced with novel stimuli and may be heritable predisposition for the development of anxiety disorders.  Benzodiazepines: any of several drugs commonly used to treat anxiety; such as valium and Xanax  D-cycloserine (DCS): a medication that enhances learning which has been found to enhance the effects of exposure therapy for several of the anxiety disorders  Depersonalization: an alteration in perception of the self to which the individual loses a sense of reality and feels estranged from the self and perhaps separated from the body; may be a temporary reaction to stress and fatigue or part of panic disorder, depersonalization disorder or schizophrenia.  Derealization: loss of the sense that surroundings are real; present in several psychological disorders such as panic disorder, depersonalization disorder and schizophrenia  Fear circuit: set of brain structures including the amygdala, that tend to be activated when the individual is feeling anxious or fearful; especially active among people with anxiety disorders.  Fear-of-fear hypothesis: a cognitive model for the etiology of agoraphobia; suggest the condition is driving by negative thoughts about consequences of having a panic attack in public  Fear: a reaction to real or perceived immediate danger in the present; can involve arousal, or sympathetic NS activity  Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): disorder characterized by chronic, persistent anxiety and worry.  In vivo exposure:  Interoceptive conditioning: classical conditioning of panic attacks in response to internal bodily sensations of arousal (as opposed to external situations that trigger anxiety)  Locus coeruleus: the brain region in the fear circuit that is especially important I panic disorder; the major source in the brain of norepinephrine, which helps trigger sympathetic nervous system activity  Medial prefrontal cortex: a region of the cortex in the anterior frontal lobes involved in executive function and emotion regulation that is implicated in mood and anxiety disorders.  Mowrer’s two-factor model: Mowrer’s theory of avoidance learning according to which (1) fear is attached to a neutral stimulus by pairing it with a noxious unconditioned stimulus, and (2) a person learns to escape the fear elicited by the conditioned stimulus, thereby avoiding the unconditioned stimulus  Panic attack: a sudden attack of intense apprehension, terror, and impending doom, accompanied by symptoms such as labored breathing, nausea, chest pain, feelings of choking and smothering, heart palpitations, dizziness, sweating, and trembling.  Panic control therapy: a cognitive behavior treatment, based on tendency of individuals with panic disorder to overreact to bodily stimuli, in which sensations are induced physically and coped with under safe conditions.  Panic disorder: an anxiety disorder in which the individual has sudden, inexplicable, and frequent panic attacks  Prepared learning: in classical conditioning theory, a biological predisposition to associated particular stimuli readily with the unconditioned stimulus  Safety behaviors: behaviors used to avoid experiencing anxiety in feared situations, such as the tendency of people with social phobia to avoid perceiving negative feedback or the tendency of people of people with panic disorder to avoid exercise  Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs): any of the various drugs that inhibit the postsynaptic reuptake of the NT serotonin, thereby prolonging its effects on postsynaptic neurons  Social anxiety disorder: a collection of fears linked to the presence of other people  Specific phobia: an unwarranted fear and avoidance of a specific object or circumstance o Anxiety disorders as a group are the most common type of psychological disorder. o Criteria for anxiety disorder:  Symptoms interfere with important areas of functioning or cause marked distress  Symptoms are not caused by a drug or medical condition  Symptoms persist for at least 6 months or at least 1 month for panic disorder  The fears and anxieties are distinct from the symptoms of another anxiety disorder  Two most common phobias are claustrophobia (fear of closed spaces) and acrophobia (fear of heights).  Specific phobias are highly comorbid o Panic attacks are believed to be a misfiring of the fear system o Panic disorder is unexpected panic attacks to unknown situations; if triggered by a specific situation it is more related to a phobia; also must be recurrent panic attacks. o Agoraphobia used to (in DSM4) be a subset of panic disorder but now is a separate diagnosis o Half people with agoraphobia don’t experience panic attacks o More than half people with one anxiety disorder meet the criteria for another. o Anxiety disorders are highly comorbid with other anxiety disorders, psychological disorders and even substance abuse o Women are more vulnerable to anxiety disorders than men o Culture and environment influence what people come to fear  Kayak-angst: disorder that is similar to panic disorder in Inuit people; fear of drowning, disorientation, and intense fear  Taijin kyofusho: fear of displeasing or embarrassing other; Japanese disorder related to social anxiety disorder  Koro: sudden fear that one’s genitals will recede into one’s body; southern and eastern asia  Shenkui: intense anxiety and somatic symptoms attributed to loss of semen; china, india, and sri lanka)  Susto: fright illness; belief that severe fright has caused the soul to leave the body; Latin America o People with panic disorder appear to sustain classically conditioned fears longer. o The amygdala has shown to be critical for conditioning fear. It sends signals to a range different brain structures involved in the fear circuit. o Less activity in the medial prefrontal cortex is shown for people with anxiety disorders. o Behavioral inhibition appears to be a strong predictor of social anxiety o Neuroticism predicts the onset of both anxiety disorders and depression o Anxiety disorders often develop after a serious life event o Panic attacks develop when a person interprets bodily sensations as signs of impending doom according to interoceptive conditioning Question 1 Original Score: 0 / 0.8 pts Regraded Score: 0.8 / 0.8 pts Dylan is walking through the jungles of Africa, and he suddenly comes across a ferocious tiger. Which of the following reactions is most adaptive in this scenario? moderately high anxiety focused attention panic strong fear Question 2 0.8 / 0.8 pts In the DSM-5, all of the following are separate chapters EXCEPT anxiety disorders. obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. panic disorders. trauma- and stress-related disorders. Question 3 0.8 / 0.8 pts John is persistently and excessively afraid of snakes. Whenever he sees a snake, he feels intense anxiety and thus avoids them at all costs. John realizes, however, that this fear is unrealistic. John most likely has obsessive-compulsive disorder. social anxiety disorder. a specific phobia. panic disorder. Question 4 0.8 / 0.8 pts Julie has social anxiety disorder. Given this information, it would not be surprising if she also met DSM-5 criteria for obsessive compulsive personality disorder. borderline personality disorder. avoidant personality disorder. schizophrenia. Question 5 0.8 / 0.8 pts Depersonalization and derealization are common symptoms of which disorder? obsessive-compulsive disorder panic disorder specific phobia social anxiety disorder Question 6 0.8 / 0.8 pts The DSM-5 differs from the DSM-IV-TR in that agoraphobia is a distinct disorder rather than a subtype of panic disorder none of these other answers are correct. agoraphobia is a subtype of panic disorder rather than a distinct disorder. agoraphobia is a subtype of phobic disorders rather than a distinct disorder. Question 7 0.8 / 0.8 pts The most common disorder comorbid with anxiety disorders is avoidant personality disorder. major depression. borderline personality disorder. obsessive compulsive disorder. Question 8 0.8 / 0.8 pts In Japan, taijin kyofusho involves the fear of embarrassing others. the fear of going outside. the fear of rice. the fear of closed spaces Question 9 0.8 / 0.8 pts Individuals with anxiety disorders have an overactive fear circuit. have weak fear circuits. have fear circuits that do not activate correctly when they are fearful or anxious. have an underactive amygdala. Question 10 0.8 / 0.8 pts Josie has panic disorder, while Herbie does not have an anxiety disorder. They are both shown pictures of sad and angry faces. The researchers studying Josie and Herbie’s brain responses while they look at the pictures will most likely note that Josie’s amygdala is more active than Herbie’s. Herbie’s fear circuit is more active than Josie’s. none of these other answers are correct. Josie’s amygdala is less active than Herbie’s. Question 11 0.8 / 0.8 pts To protect against feared consequences of anxiety, people will often engage in recessive behaviors. safety behaviors. protection behaviors. avoidant behaviors. Question 12 0.8 / 0.8 pts Lola is low in neuroticism. Compared with people who have high levels of neuroticism, Lola is more likely to experience anxiety and depression. is less likely to develop an anxiety disorder. is probably characterized by a tendency to react to events with negative effect. is more likely to have OCD. Question 13 0.8 / 0.8 pts Researchers training those with GAD to focus on a positive set of words over a long period of time using the dot probe task have found that participants do not experience any changes in their levels of anxiety following the trainings. report less anxiety in interview measures but more anxiety in self-report measures. report less anxiety in both interview and self-report measures following the trainings. are more likely to report anxiety following the trainings. Question 14 0.8 / 0.8 pts Which of the following has NOT been proposed as a way that the development of anxiety through conditioning could take place? seeing someone else harmed repressed memories direct experience verbal instruction Question 15 0.8 / 0.8 pts Ivan reported a traumatic history with dogs, resulting in his fear of dogs. However, Sven also reported a traumatic history with dogs, but does not have a fear of dogs. This provides support for the two-factor theory. a diathesis for phobia. a preparedness view of phobia. a psychoanalytic theory of phobia. Question 16 0.8 / 0.8 pts Both Lindsay and Nicole just completed a solo in a musical competition. The judges awarded them both 9 out of 10. Lindsay has social anxiety disorder and Nicole does not. Based on this information, None of these other answers are correct. Lindsay is more likely to think she sang more poorly than Nicole. Lindsay is less likely to worry about how others perceived her performance. Nicole is more likely to have higher standards than Lindsay. Question 17 0.8 / 0.8 pts Panic attacks can be triggered by which of the following? all of these other answers are correct. exercise. caffeine. adrenaline. Question 18 0.8 / 0.8 pts As opposed to people without a history of panic disorder, those with a history of panic disorder are quicker to extinguish their conditioned fears. fail to develop conditioned fears. are slower to extinguish their conditioned fears. none of these other answers are correct. Question 19 0.8 / 0.8 pts What is the main symptom of GAD? worry. increased heart rate. dizziness. fear of dying. Question 20 0.8 / 0.8 pts While a therapist might consider adding cognitive therapy to treatment of _________, research suggests that outcomes are no better when cognitive therapy is added in the treatment of ________ specific phobias, social anxiety disorder. anxiety disorders; depression. social anxiety disorder; specific phobias. depression, social anxiety disorder. Question 21 0.8 / 0.8 pts Which of the following has NOT been shown to be effective for the treatment of panic disorder? Logo therapy Internet-based cognitive therapy Panic control therapy Psychodynamic therapy Question 22 0.8 / 0.8 pts Extinction involves completely erasing any conscious memory of a specific phobia. learning new associations to stimuli that inhibit activation of the fear response. a system like an eraser. flooding of memories. Question 23 0.8 / 0.8 pts Which of the following is a prominent behavioral technique for the treatment of GAD? relaxation training imaginal exposure cognitive restructuring SSRIs Question 24 Original Score: 0.8 / 0.8 pts Regraded Score: 0.8 / 0.8 pts This question has been regraded. Some of the most commonly prescribed medications for social anxiety disorder are __________, which are proposed to work by ____________. mood stabilizers; inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin. beta blockers; diminishing the effects of endogenous opiates. mood stabilizers; diminishing agitation. beta blockers; diminishing the effects of adrenaline on the body. Question 25 0.8 / 0.8 pts The diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder requires that symptoms be present for at least 2 months for adolescents, 6 months for adults 3 months for adults, 6 months for children 3 months 6 months  Acute stress disorder (ASD): a short lived anxiety reaction to a traumatic event; if it lasts more than a month, it is diagnosed as PTSD  Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD): a disorder marked by preoccupation with imagined or exaggerated defect in appearance  Caudate nucleus: a nucleus within the basal ganglia involved in learning and memory that is implicated in body dysmorphic disorder and OCD  Compulsions: the irresistible impulse to repeat an irrational act or thought over and over again.  Dissociation: a process of whereby a group of mental processes is split off from the main stream of consciousness or behavior loses its relationship with the rest of the personality  Exposure and response prevention (ERP): the most widely used and accepted treatment of OCD, in which the sufferer is prevented form engaging in compulsive ritual activity and instead faces the anxiety provoked by the stimulus, leading eventually to extinction of the conditioned response  Hoarding disorder: a disorder in which the person has a compulsive need to acquire objects and extreme difficulty in disposing of those objects  Imaginal exposure: treatment for anxiety disorders that involves visualizing feared scenes for extended periods of time. Frequently used in the treatment of PTSD when in vivo exposure to initial trauma cannot be conducted  Obsessions: an intrusive and recurring thought that seems irrational and uncontrollable to the person experiencing it.  Obsessive compulsive disorder: an anxiety disorder in which the mind is flooded with persistent and uncontrollable thoughts or the individual is compelled to repeat certain acts again and again, causing significant distress and interference with everyday functioning  Orbitofrontal cortex: the portion of the frontal lobe located just above the eyes; one of three closely related brain regions that are unusually active in individuals with OCD.  Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): an anxiety disorder in which a particularly stressful event, such as military combat, rape or a natural disaster, brings in its aftermath intrusive re-experiencing of the trauma, a number of responsiveness to the outside world, estrangement from others, and a tendency to be easily startled  Thought suppression: key feature of OCD; has the paradoxical effect of inducing preoccupation with the object of thought  Yedasentience: the subjective sense of knowing that one has achieved closure on an action or thought; theorized to be a deficient among persons with OCD o Thoughts = obsessions and behaviors = compulsions o Compulsions include:  Pursuing cleanliness and orderliness, sometimes through elaborate rituals  Performing repetitive, magically protective acts  Repetitively checking on things o OCD tends to begin either before age 10 or in late adolescence/early adulthood o Those with BDD compulsively check mirrors, ask for reassurance, compare themselves to others or avoid mirrors thinking they can avoid remembering they are “ugly” o BDD typically begins in adolescence o Hoarding is equally common among men and women but fewer men seek treatment o 1/3 of people who hoard also hoard animals o hoarding usually begins in childhood or early adolescence but is kept under control by parents and limited by income so does not appear until middle age or older o OCD and BDD are slightly more common in women than men o OCD, BDD and hoarding all tend to co-occur with depression and anxiety disorders o OCD and BDD tend to co-occur with substance abuse disorders o Heritability for OCD, hoarding, and BDD is estimated around 40-50% o Activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus, and anterior cingulate is present when symptoms are provoked.  OCD shows activity in all three when provoked  BDD shows activity in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate nucleus  Hoarding shows activity in the orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate o Cognitive Behavioral Model  People with OCD develop a conditioned response to a stimulus and are slower to change their responses to that stimulus after it is no longer rewarded.  People with OCD have a deficit in yedasentience; they fail to gain a sense of completion and security o Thought Suppression  People with OCD try harder to suppress their obsessions than others and by doing so actually make it worse. o Hoarding is related to poor organizational skills, unusual beliefs about possessions, and avoidance behaviors. o These disorders respond to antidepressant medications  Clomipramine is the most commonly used for OCD o Deep brain stimulation (electrodes implanted into the brain) is used for those who fail to respond to treatment  Treatment remains experimental due to complications that can arise o Diagnosing PTSD:  Exposure to trauma  Intrusively re-experiencing the traumatic event  Avoidance of stimuli associated with the event  Negative mood and thought that developed after the trauma  Increased arousal and reactivity o PTSD tends to be highly comorbid with other conditions – mainly anxiety disorders, major depression, substance abuse, and conduct disorder o Women are 2x as likely to develop PTSD as men o Ataque de nervios: in Puerto Rico, involves physical symptoms and fears of going crazy in the aftermath of severe stress. o PTSD appears to be related to genetic risk for anxiety disorders o Traumas caused by humans are more likely to cause PTSD than natural disasters o PTSD appears to be uniquely related to the function of the hippocampus  Volume of the hippocampus is smaller among people with PTSD o Mowrer’s two factor model of condition has been related to PTSD o Question 1 0.8 / 0.8 pts One way in which the DSM-5 differs from the DSM-IV-TR is that the DSM-5 makes OCD and trauma-related disorders part of the anxiety disorders category. eliminates OCD and trauma-related disorders. makes OCD and trauma-related disorders their own category. none of these other answers are correct. Question 2 0.8 / 0.8 pts Which of the following is an obsession? having excessive worry over finances. humming a tune over and over. having a recurring fear that one is giving others illnesses when they actually are not. repeatedly checking that the water is turned off. Question 3 0.8 / 0.8 pts Commonly reported compulsions include all of the following EXCEPT performing repetitive, magical protective acts. pursuing cleanliness and orderliness by requesting help from others. repetitive checking to ensure that certain acts are carried out. engaging in elaborate rituals. Question 4 0.8 / 0.8 pts How is body dysmorphic disorder similar to OCD? both engage in compulsive behaviors both spend inordinate amounts of time of their obsessions all of these other answers are correct. both have obsessive preoccupations Question 5 0.8 / 0.8 pts The compulsive need to acquire objects and the inability to discard any objects is known as collecting disorder. none of these other answers are correct. hoarding disorder. refuse disorder. Question 6 0.8 / 0.8 pts The estimated heritability for OCD ranges from __________ to __________ percent. 10; 20 60; 80 90; 100 40; 50 Question 7 0.8 / 0.8 pts Substantial evidence shows that symptoms of OCD are a result of increased worry. related to over-activity in the locus coeruleus. adaptive. related to over activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus and the anterior cingulate Question 8 0.8 / 0.8 pts __________ is defined as the subjective feeling of knowing and is thought to be deficient in people with __________. Yedasentience; Panic Disorder Yedasentience; OCD. Assuredness; OCD. Assuredness; Panic Disorder. Question 9 0.8 / 0.8 pts All three OCD-related disorders respond well to norepinephrine enhancers. GABA enhancers. dopamine inhibitors. serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Question 10 0.8 / 0.8 pts Which of the following treatments has been shown to be more effective than either medication or supportive psychotherapy in treating posttraumatic stress disorder? progressive muscle relaxation group psychotherapy with other trauma victims EMDR exposure that focuses on trauma-related events Question 11 0.8 / 0.8 pts The DSM-5 divides symptoms for PTSD into __________ categories. 6 2 8 4 Question 12 0.8 / 0.8 pts According to the DSM-5, all of the following are symptoms of ASD EXCEPT: dissociative reactions (flashbacks) since the trauma. recurrent distressing dreams about the trauma. recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive distressing memories since the trauma. all of these are symptoms of ASD. Question 13 0.8 / 0.8 pts As with the anxiety disorders, PTSD appears to be related to a greater activation of the amygdala and diminished activation of the temporal lobes. frontal cortex. occipital lobes. medial prefrontal cortex. Question 14 0.8 / 0.8 pts Treatment of acute stress disorder is important, as it reduces the risk of developing PTSD. dangerous, as reliving the event increases the trauma. unnecessary, as most people recover anyway with time. difficult, as it is hard to recreate the original trauma. Question 15 0.8 / 0.8 pts __________ therapy is designed to help victims of rape and childhood sexual abuse to dispute tendencies towards self-blame. Imaginal exposure Exposure None of these other answers are correct. Cognitive processing Question 16 0.8 / 0.8 pts In spite of strong ethics that would prevent it, Tony experiences recurrent and unwanted thoughts that he might behave inappropriately toward a supervisor at work. To be given a diagnosis of OCD, he must also: have difficulty discarding possessions regardless of their value. engage in a superstitious ritual to prevent the behavior from occurring. be unaware that the worry about behaving in such a way is irrational. actively attempt to ignore the thoughts. Question 17 0.8 / 0.8 pts Taken as a whole, the criteria for Acute Stress Disorder and the criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder are __________ in the DSM-5 than in the DSM-IV- TR. unchanged more distinct particularly different in terms of severity of symptoms more similar Question 18 0.8 / 0.8 pts Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding exposure and ritual prevention treatment for OCD? It is very intensive, causing as many as 25% of patients to refuse treatment. It is at least partially effective for over half of the patients treated. It is considered the first-line treatment approach. It is especially effective when hoarding is present. Question 19 0.8 / 0.8 pts A strictly behavioral therapist treating Steve for contamination fear due to OCD would use which of the following interventions? Have Steve purposely get dirty. Have Steve say ‘stop’ to himself quietly when he feels he must wash. Have Steve challenge the idea that it is necessary to be clean. Have Steve meditate daily. Question 20 0.8 / 0.8 pts In more religious cultures, obsessions involved in OCD are less prevalent than in less religious cultures. more likely to involve themes of identity. more likely to involve religious themes. considered blasphemous. Question 21 0.8 / 0.8 pts Rather than being considered part of the avoidance cluster of symptoms, the DSM-5 considers numbing symptoms such as feeling distant from others to be part of the ___________ category. Decreased arousal and increased reactivity Re-experiencing the trauma Increased social withdrawal Negative alterations in cognition and mood Question 22 0.8 / 0.8 pts In PTSD, criteria for negative alterations in mood or cognition include all of these except: Blaming others More frequent negative mood in children Inability to recall specific aspects of the trauma Social withdrawal in women Question 23 0.8 / 0.8 pts Symptoms of PTSD are grouped into which of the following major categories? Hypervigilance, avoidance of stimuli associated with event, and exaggerated startle response Avoidance of stimuli associated with event, symptoms of increased arousal, and symptoms of suicidality Re-experiencing of traumatic event, avoidance of stimuli associated with event, and anxiety Re-experiencing of traumatic event, avoidance of stimuli associated with event, negative alterations in mood or cognition, and increased arousal or reactivity Question 24 0.8 / 0.8 pts If hoarding symptoms develop as part of schizophrenia, hoarding disorder ________ should not be diagnosed. should not be diagnosed unless the individual is particularly unaware of the problem. probably will be considered instead. must be listed as a co-morbid diagnosis. Question 25 0.8 / 0.8 pts Which of the following symptoms is not part of the diagnosis of Hoarding Disorder? Distress when thinking about discarding useless items. Compromise in the usefulness of living spaces due to the accumulation of possessions. Perceived flaw or flaws in the appearance of the home or workplace. Difficulty discarding items regardless of their value.  conversion disorder: a disorder in which sensory or motor function is impaired, even though there is no detectable neurological explanation for the defects  depersonalization/derealization disorder: a dissociative disorder in which the individual feels unreal and estranged from the self and surroundings enough to disrupt functioning. People with this disorder may feel that their extremities have changed in size or that they are watching themselves from a distance  dissociative amnesia: a dissociative disorder in which the person suddenly becomes unable to recall important personal information to an extent that cannot be explained by ordinary forgetfulness  dissociative disorder: disorders in which the normal integration of consciousness, memory, or identity is suddenly and temporarily altered; include dissociative amnesia, dissociative identity disorder, and depersonalization/Derealization disorder  dissociative identity disorder: a rare dissociative disorder in which two or more distinct and separate personalities are present within the same individual, each with his or her own memories, relationships, and behavior patterns, with only one of them dominant at any given time.  explicit memory: memory involving the conscious recall of experiences; the area of deficits typically seen in dissociative amnesia  factitious disorder: disorder in which the individual’s physical or psychological symptoms appear under voluntary control and are adopted merely to assume the role of a sick person  fugue: subtype of dissociative amnesia disorder in which the person experiences total amnesia, moves, and establishes a new identity  iatrogenic: inadvertenly induced by treatment  illness anxiety disorder: a disorder defined by excessive concern and help seeking about health concerns in the absence of major physical symptoms  implicit memory: memory that underlies behavior but is based on experiences that cannot be consciously recalled; typically not compromised in cases of dissociative amnesia.  malingering: faking a physical or psychological incapacity in order to avoid a responsibility or gain an end, where the goal is readily recognized from the individual’s circumstances; distinct from conversion disorder, in which the incapacity is assumed to be beyond voluntary control  posttraumatic model: etiological model of DID that assumes the condition begins in childhood as a result of severe physical or sexual abuse  sociocognitive model: etiological model of DID that considers the condition to be the result of learning to enact social roles, thought not through conscious deception, but in response to suggestion.  somatic symptom and related disorders: a group of disorders defined by anxiety about health and excessive focus on physical symptoms  somatic symptom disorder: a DSM5 diagnosis defined by excessive concern and help seeking regarding physical symptoms o dissociative disorders and somatic symptom-related disorders tend to be comorbid o core feature of dissociative disorder involves some aspect of emotion, memory, or experience being inaccessible consciously o for depersonalization/derealization disorder, symptoms must be persistent or recurrent o DDD is usually triggered by stress, begins in adolescence and can start abruptly o Dissociative amnesia might involve unusual response to stress o DID requires at least 2 different identities; most commonly 2 to 4 are present o DID is much more common in women than men o Other diagnoses often present are PTSD, MDD, and somatic symptoms disorders. o DID commonly accompanied by other symptoms such as headaches, hallucinations, suicide attempts and self injurious behavior. o PT model for DID – use of dissociation to cope with trauma; mainly children who were sexually abused o SC model for DID – those who have been abused seek explanations for their symptoms and distress and alters appear in response to something (suggestion by therapist, media repots) o People are capable of role playing DID o Implicit memory tests are used to test memory of DID patients o Those with somatic symptom and related disorders tend to seek frequent medical treatment o Sigmund Freud believed that anxiety and psychological conflict were “converted” into physical symptoms. o Symptoms of conversion disorder usually develop in adolescence or early adulthood o Little heritability is found for somatic symptom disorder or conversion disorder. o Increase in activity in the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex have strong connections with somatosensory cortex (involved in processing bodily sensations. o Once somatic symptoms develop, two cognitive variables appear important: attention to body sensations and interpretations of those sensations. o 1. The DSM5 includes all of the following dissociative disorders EXCEPT: o dissociative anxiety disorder 2. Why are there many questions regarding the role of memory under stress with respect to dissociative disorders? o Some lines of research indicate that high levels of stress enhance memory 3. The prognosis for dissociative amnesia usually involves a _____ remission with ____ recovery o Sudden; complete 4. Following a dissociative amnesia subtype dissociation fugue episode, the person often o Does not remember the events that occurred during the episode 5. Ms Hall consulted a physician because of the following experience: the week before, she felt that another voice was talking to her, although she tried to ignore it. She then had a period of hours that she was unable to recall, but her boyfriend reported later that during that period she behaved like a completely different person, being loud and boisterous in contrast to her usual shy and sedate personality. She has had a similar experience in the past and is at a loss to explain them. Ms Hall’s symptoms most likely meet the criteria for o Dissociative identity disorder 6. All of the following have been cited as reasons for changes in prevalence of DID over the years EXCEPT: o Changing definitions of schizophrenia 7. One major theory of the etiology of DID is that it results from o Suggestion by therapist or media influences 8. Although different alters report an inability to share memories, o Studies suggest that alters can share some implicit memories 9. The most commonly diagnosed comorbid disorders with DID are o 10. Which of the following is NOT present in the text as a criticism of the somatic symptom disorder? o All above o Diagnosis can be considered subjective; there is remarkable diversity among people diagnosed with somatic symptom disorders; a diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder carries a stigma and is not often diagnosed 11. Which of the following is most similar to somatic symptom disorder o Dissociative disorder 12. Anesthesia and aphonia are examples of ___ disorder o Conversion 13. A factitious disorder imposed on another is referred to as o Munchausen syndrome by proxy 14. Once somatic symptom develops, the cognitive variable that appears important is o Both attention and interpretation are important 15. Which of the following is a potential symptom of conversion disorder? o Paralysis in the hand 16. Conversion disorder occupies a central place in psychodynamic theory because it provides a clear example of the role of o The unconscious 17. Contemporary psychodynamic research on hysterically blind individuals indicates that they repress o The awareness that they see 18. Behavioral reinforcer for someone with somatic symptom disorder would be o Receiving attention and sympathy 19. Cognitive treatments for somatic symptom disorders seek to o Reduce attention to the body and challenge negative thoughts 20. Cognitive behavioral treatment therapists help people do which of the following? o All above o Identify and change emotions that trigger the somatic concerns; change their behaviors so they stop playing the role of a sick person and gain more reinforcement for engaging in other types of social interactions; change their cognitions regarding their somatic symptoms 21. Conversion disorder symptoms typically begin o In adolescence or early adulthood 22. Claudia is experiencing intermittent pain in her stomach and back. Medical examination and testing have revealed no physical explanation for her symptoms. Most likely DSM5 diagnosis for Claudia is o Somatic symptom disorder 23. An insurance company hired a private investigator to ascertain whether a claimant alleging a back injury was really disabled, or whether the person was acting that way to receive financial gain. Such behavior is known as ___. o Malingering 24. A factitious disorder imposed on another, a person causes symptoms in another person and then presents that person as ill in order to: o Receive reinforcement for being an attentive, loving caregiver 25. Conversion disorder is not a likely diagnosis for someone o With memory issues.


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