Human Communication Sciences Exam 1 Study Guide
Human Communication Sciences Exam 1 Study Guide SLSH 2010 001
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Funk on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SLSH 2010 001 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Ryan Pollard, Ph.D. CCC-SLP in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 174 views. For similar materials see Science of Human Communication in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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If Alexandra isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!
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Date Created: 02/16/16
1. We can describe how humans interact with each other as Speech, as Language, and/or as Communication. How do these three differ? Speech –verbal means of communicating which includes phonemes (speech sounds) and our brain functions that enable us to do this Language - communicating using a “socially-shaped code” (letter, signs) Communication – and exchange of ideas 2. What is Paralinguistic Communication? Give examples. Howe we say things (signals, attitude, emotion, intention, sarcasm, urgency, doubt) 3. What is Nonlinguistic Communication? Give examples. Not using language (facial expressions, Kinemics(gestures, body/eye movement), Promxemics(study of distance between people)) 4. When a person listens to a speaker, his or her perception depends on both “bottom up” and “top down” information. What are these? How are they different? Bottom-up – bringing in basic features and working towards a bigger meaning Top-down – breaking down a big idea to better understand it 5. What is the Speech Chain? The different forms of a spoken language in its progress from the brain of the speaker to the brain of the listener. What is the prototypical example? Linguistic level – Psychological level – Acoustic level – Psychological level – Linguistic level 6. How many different languages are spoken in the world today? Around 7000 How many of those have a large number of speakers? 389 How many are endangered? Half 7. What does it mean to say that a language is dying/moribund? Very little speakers Dead? Handful of speakers (3,000) not a first language Extinct? Completely gone – the last speaker died Areas of Language Grouping 1 Phonetics Phonology Morphology Semantics Syntax Pragmatics Discourse Grouping 2 Output Form Meaning Use 8. How do these two organizational schemes correspond to one another? Which areas of language (in Group 1) correspond to which Functional Categories (in Group 2)? Form – phonology, morphology, and syntax Output – Phonetics Meaning – Semantics Use – Pragmatics and Discourse 9. What is Grammar? What is the difference between Descriptive and Prescriptive Grammars? Rules on how to structure a message Perscriptive – what we learn in school Descriptive – what speakers actually do 10. What is Phonetics? What is the basic unit of Phonetics? Study of speech productions and perception. A Phone is a basic unit. A speech sound – THEY CAN BE PRONOUNCED DIFERENTLY BUT DON’T CHANGE MEANING. 11. What is Phonology? How does it differ from Phonetics? What is the basic unit of phonology? Study of sound system in a language and how they are used to get meaning. A Phoneme is a basic unit. A sound that CHANGES MEANING. 12. How do Phones, Phonemes and Allophones relate to one another? Phones are speech sounds (consonants or vowels), Phonemes are the smallest unit that can change meaning (like a letter), and Allophones are the different sound(s) that change the meaning of a word. 2 different phones, not different phonemes. 13. What is a Phonological Inventory? Is the Phonological Inventory the same for each language? Explain. It is all the sounds that are stored in our brain – there can only be so many that we can remember. These are different for different languages because each language as its own set of sounds 14. What is Phonotactics? Are Phonotactics the same for each language? Rules for combining phonemes. This is different for different languages. EX: in English we can say ‘spa’ but not ‘psa’ 15. What is Morphology? What is a Morpheme? Study of how the basic units of meaning are combined to make meaning. A Morpheme is the smallest unit of meaningful language EX: ‘un- speak-able’ = 3 morphemes but ‘salamander’ is only 1 16. What is the difference between Free and Bound morphemes? Between Roots and Affixes? Between Content and Function morphemes? Free – a morpheme that has meaning on its own EX: legible Bound – there are two morphemes in one word that give it its meaning EX: readable Roots – the original morpheme in a combined word EX: strawberry Affixes – the added morpheme in a combined word EX: strawberry 17. What is Syntax? What is the difference between a Simple Sentence, a Compound Sentence, and a Complex Sentence? Syntax is how to legally combine phrases and sentences 18. How do Word Order languages differ from Case Marked languages? Word Order Languages are like English – we always have a subject, then a verb, and then an object Case Marked Languages are like Spanish – they add morphemes to the root word to explain things like gender, if it’s plural, and what tense it’s in 19. What is the relation between Form and Meaning in Grammar? Something can be grammatically correct yet have no meaning EX: Soft spoons swim in the dancing door. 20. What is Semantics? How does it relate to Phonology? The meaning of words. The relationship of the way a word sounds and its meaning is arbitrary (there is no real reason why we call a rose a rose) 21. What is the Lexicon? Mental inventory of words and morphemes 22. What is Pragmatics? How does it relate to Semantics? Our language use and function, depends on context and the culture 23. What is Discourse? Storytelling/Conversing 24. What are the Universal Features of Language? Pronouns, almost all languages have nasal consonants ( /m/, /n/), many languages also mark gender ( not English) 25. Is language Static or Dynamic? Give examples. Can be both but ultimately, it is dynamic. It changes over time. Dynamic – the word ‘selfie’. Static – grammar rules don’t change. 26. Is language Universal? For humans at least… The words, phrases, and sentences we say each have meaning, this isn’t necessarily true for all animals. 27. Is language unique to humans? In some ways, animals communicate, but not with the same spoken language of humans. How complex are the communication systems of birds, bees, vervet monkeys, and squids? Birds – they have ‘songs’ that they teach to their offspring. Bees- they have “dances’ that indicate where pollen is located. Vervet Monkeys- they have different calls for air verses land predators. Squid – they change color, shape and texture. 28. Can nonhuman animals be taught to speak human language? No, animals can learn words but cannot recombine them – they lack syntax. 29. Can nonhuman animals be taught other human language systems? Yes, from what we’ve seen in Chimps, they are able to learn many different signs in ASL 30. What is unique about human language? Something that animals are missing that makes language unique to humans is arbitrariness – connection between symbols and its meaning, displacement – ability to express meaning beyond the present, Productivity – ability to create novel messages by recombining, and Duality – ability to take a finite number of meaningless units and recombine them to get meaning 31. Parts of a neuron: Cell Body - maintenance and processing, Axon – transmits neurons away & Dendrite – receiver of the impulses. What do these do? 32. What is a synapse? Neurotransmitters released and attached to receptors of next neurons 33. What are the main divisions of the nervous system? Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System. What are the anatomical differences between these? CNS – structures in the brain and spine. PNS – Voluntary and involuntary parts (autonomic) + all other parts that branch out 34. What are the different nerve types? Afferent – sensory neurons(out in) Efferent Nerves – motor neurons (in out) 35. What is the structure that separates the two halves of the brain? Longitudinal Fissure. What is the structure that links the two halves? Corpus Callosum 36. What are the four lobes of the brain? What are their major functions? Frontal Lobe – includes the pre-frontal cortex (high level thought), pre-motor cortex, and the motor cortex Parietal Lobe – contains primary somatosensory cortex which involves tactical sensations, also plays a key role in orientation and info processing Temporal Lobe – speech input and memory Occipital Lobe – vision center 37. Do both hemispheres perform the same functions? What are the two lines of evidence that support your answer? No. 1) Contralateral relationship – each side of our brain controls the opposite side of our body 2) Cerebral dominance – each hemisphere is responsible for different functions 38. What are the three ways we can learn about how language is organized in the brain? 1) We observe language behavior in a person with brain damage. Relate findings to the site of lesion. 2) Observe behavior of a person who is or will be going through surgery. Relate behavior to result of surgical procedure. 3) Observe psychological activity in the brain as a person does a language task. Regions most active are likely to be the site of processing in the brain. 39. Which method did Dax, Broca and Wernicke use? Observing language behavior in a person with brain damage and relate it to the sight of lesion 40. What is Broca’s area? Where is it? What language functions does it control? Or, what are the consequences of a lesion (damage) to Broca’s area? A type of non-fluent aphasia, lesion is typically found in the frontal lobe. Basically slow, difficult speech 41. What is Wernicke’s area? Where is it? What language functions does it control? Or, what are the consequences of a lesion to Wernicke’s area? A type of fluent aphasia, lesion is found posterior to the temporal lobe. Basically random, empty speech. 42. What is the structure that connects Broca’s area to Wernicke’s area? What do we call damage to that structure? What are the consequences of damage to that structure? Arcuate Fasciculus, if damaged is called conduction aphasia. They can understand and produce speech but have problems relating/repeating 43. What is the Wernicke-Geschwind Model of Language Processing? Finding the doubled association between Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas and what they do. The WG model is the process of this. 44. How does the WG Model account for repeating a spoken word? Primary auditory cortex, wernicke’s area, arcuate fasciculus, broca’s area, motor cortex 45. How does it account for reading a written word aloud? Primary visual cortex, angular gyrus (links visual and auditory), wernicke’s area, arcuate fasciculus, broca’s area, motor cortex 46. What is cerebral commisurotomy? What does it treat? How successful is it? What are the language results of commisurotomy? Split-brain operation? It treats epilepsy as a last resort option but does work well. The ability to name objects would only work if the object was presented on the right side. If it’s presented on the left side, they will know what it is but will not be able to name it at first, until they look at it with their right side because the right visual field is linked to the left hemisphere of the brain which controls language. 47. Describe contralateral wiring in the visual system? Each hemisphere projects what the opposite eye sees 48. For patients who have undergone a cerebral commisurotomy, what happens when they see a picture or word in their Left Visual Field (LVF)? They wouldn’t be able to name the object. In their Right Visual Field (RVF)? They would be able to name the object. 49. What is the Wada Test? Why would a patient submit to this procedure? What are the language findings from this procedure? (Transient Hemispheric Anesthetization) It makes one hemisphere stop functioning to find out what functions that hemisphere controls. Almost always the LH controls language. 50. What is cortical mapping? Why would a patient submit to this procedure? What are the language findings from this procedure? What are the limits of this procedure? Applying a small current to sections of the brain to see what happens. This helps surgeons find out the specific, individual areas that control a person’s ability to name things, or do things. If they need surgery to remove a brain tumor, this helps them so they don’t remove something important to their everyday life functions. 51. For Neuroimaging, what is Temporal Resolution? The time scale in which we measure neurological brain activities. What is Spatial Resolution? How we measure the size of the space that they brain activity is taking place in is. 52. What two measurements are necessary for neuroimaging studies? Baseline (no-task activity) and Functional (task activity). What is the rationale for collecting these two measures? To find an average amount of time that our brains are doing active task verses non-active tasks. What technique is used to compare these measurements? An average is found by adding up the totals of each and then subtracting the baseline from the functional. And what do these measurements tell us about brain function? Which ones we use most. 53. What is the “sequence of neural events” that we exploit in neuroimaging? Parts of the brain will activate during a function but not during other functions or no functions. 54. What do Single Unit Recordings and Local Field Potentials measure? What is the temporal resolution? What is the spatial resolution? What are the limitations? They measure the change in electrical potential. Temporal Resolution – the time it takes. Spatial Resolution – the localization of where in the brain the action is. 55. What does Computed Tomography (CT) measure? The structural information – not functional! What is the temporal resolution? What is the spatial resolution? What are the limitations? It can take a while 56. What does Positron Emission Tomography (PET) measure? The functional processed of the brain. What is the temporal resolution? What is the spatial resolution? What are the limitations? Can also take a while 57. What does Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) measure? What is the temporal resolution? What is the spatial resolution? What are the limitations? Don’t need to know. 58. What is PET? What exactly does it measure? How invasive is it? What temporal resolution does it provide? Spatial resolution? What are the advantages and disadvantages? Already stated above. 59. What is SPECT? What exactly does it measure? How invasive is it? What temporal resolution does it provide? Spatial resolution? What are the advantages and disadvantages? Don’t need to know. 60. What is MRI? Magnetic Resonance Imaging Describe the difference between structural and functional MRI. A structural MRI would should the anatomy while an fMRI shows the functions (like the actions in our brain). What exactly does fMRI measure? Hemodynamics – blood oxygenation. How invasive is it? Non- invasive, meaning nothing gets injected into the body, it’s just a scan. What temporal resolution does it provide? Fairly good – a few seconds. Spatial resolution? Good – 1.7-4 mm. What are the advantages and disadvantages? Most common neuroimaging technique, yet it is expensive. 61. What is TMS? Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation – electric current generated across the scalp, no physical contact. How invasive is it? Non- invasive, nothing touches the body. Why would you use TMS? It can be used to treat mood problems, or even things like depression. 62. What is EEG? Electroencephalography. What exactly does it measure? Changes in electrical fields. How invasive is it? Non- invasive. What temporal resolution does it provide? Great – milliseconds to microseconds. Spatial resolution? Poor – doesn’t pin-point activity. What are the advantages and disadvantages? It’s cheap but the spatial resolution isn’t the best. 63. What are EP and ERP? Evoked Potentials and Event Related Potentials. Why would you use these methods? Shows brain activity associated with a specific task. 64. What is MEG? Magnetoencephalography. What exactly does it measure? Magnetic fields produced by electrical activity. How invasive is it? Non-invasive. What temporal resolution does it provide? Good Spatial resolution? Better than EEG. What are the advantages and disadvantages? One plus is that unlike electrical fields, the surrounding tissues don’t disrupt the magnetic fields. 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