New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Intro to Sociology Study Guide Exam 2

by: Michelle Chang

Intro to Sociology Study Guide Exam 2 Introduction to Sociology

Michelle Chang

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is the study guide for the second exam of Introduction to Sociology.
Introduction to Sociology
Jeremiah Bohr
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Introduction to Sociology

Popular in Social Sciences

This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle Chang on Saturday April 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Introduction to Sociology at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Jeremiah Bohr in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Social Sciences at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.


Reviews for Intro to Sociology Study Guide Exam 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/09/16
Chang 1 SOC 101 – Exam II Study Guide Social Networks  Social Networks o Social Networks  A set of relationships (dyads) held together by ties among individuals o Social Ties  The content of a relationship between individuals  Flow of resources  Types of Social Ties  Strong ties  Weak ties o Strength of weak ties  People we are least connected to tend to offer us the most opportunities  Ex. job referrals  The Forbidden Triad  Flow of “resources”  Personal evaluations o Ex. who likes whom?  Transfer of material resources o Ex. exchange of money/services  Information o Ex. who communicates with whom?  Movement of people o Ex. flow of people between organizations  Formal roles o Ex. flow chart of organizational command hierarchy  Kinship o Ex. who is related to whom, by descent or marriage? o Social Capital  Knowledge of people and connections that help individuals enter into and gain power within social networks  “It’s not what you know, it’s who you know”  Ex. Big Brother Big Sisters research o Homophily  Individuals with similar characteristics are more likely to be connected with one another  Ascribed homophily (age, race, sex, etc.)  Achieved homophily (marital/parental status, occupation, etc.) Chang 2  “Birds of a feather flock together” o Propinquity  Individuals who are spatially near one another are more likely to be connected  Ex. neighborhood location and friendship circles o Mutuality  Whether a relationship between two individuals is reciprocal o Popularity  Individuals with more directed connections have more popularity o Structural Bridges  Exclusive path in a network connecting two points  Almost always a weak tie o Structural Holes  Gap in a social network separating two groups of people o Sociograms  Graphs representing social networks Social Class and Stratification  Social Stratification o The way in which social groups are organized into unequal strata within a society o Hierarchical, ranging from least to most privileged o Inequalities may be intended or unintended o Inequalities beyond difference in natural ability  Stratification Systems o Caste systems  Closed systems based on ascribed characteristics o Class systems  Open, but rigid, systems based on strata of similar statuses o Meritocracies  Open systems based upon achievement  Elements of class o Income  Money earned on a regular basis (exchanged for labor or rent)  Class is not equal to income o Wealth  Totality of assets (minus debt) o Education  Extent; type o Culture Chang 3  Important for thinking about social class  Knowledge of specific lifestyles  Socioeconomic Status (SES) o An individual’s position within a stratified social order o Typically, measured as combination of income and education  Poverty o Absolute poverty  Minimum level of substance that no family should be expected to live below o Relative poverty  A relative standard of deprivation whereby the “bottom” are judged as disadvantaged in comparison with the whole o Official poverty  In U.S., calculated as 3x’s minimal food diet  Adjusted by family size  Middle Class o Most difficult class category to define o Americans’ perception of middle class boundaries vary wildly  Common characteristics o Formal education/training beyond HS o $$ comes primarily from income (rather than wealth) o Stability of income  Spend $ on education, health care  The “Old” Rich o American aristocracy?  Comprises much of top 1% o Wealth is inherited  Comes from older industries o Ex. Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, Morgan etc.  The “New” Rich o Wealth tends to be created, not inherited  Comes from news industries (technology, energy)  Concentrated along West Coast o Status differentiation o Still overwhelmingly white and non-Hispanic  Social Mobility o Movement from one social strata to another o Upwards and downwards o Macro-scale opportunity structures expand or contract, vast groups experience mobility  Intergenerational o Mobility within one’s own lifetime o Tends to be modest  Intergenerational Chang 4 o Mobility across multiple generations o Potential for greater variation  Structural Mobility o Macro-scale opportunity structures expand or contrast vast groups experience mobility  Ex. upward – post WWII US (Baby Boomer generation), downward – post Great Recession  Theorizing Social Class o Conflict Theory  Karl Marx  Class defined by ownership, not income  Stratification all about class location  Max Weber  Class defined by common life opportunities  Stratification results from combination of class, status, and power o Functionalism  Davis-Moore thesis (1945)  Class determined by functional utility of labor  Compensation reflects importance  Stratification all about division of labor and functionality o Symbolic Interaction  Socialization Interaction  Socialization occurs within context of social class  Everyday interactions and consumer decisions shaped by class location o Our friends (social network), personal taste  Conspicuous consumption  Consumption that reflects social status o Ex. pet culture o Perspectives on Social Stratification Functionalist Conflict Interactionist Purpose of Facilitates filling Facilitates Influences stratification of social exploitation people’s lifestyles positions Attitude toward Necessary to Excessive and Influences social inequality some extent growing intergroup relationships Analysis of the Talented and Uses ideology to Exhibit eccentric wealthy skilled, creating further their own consumption and opportunities for interests leisure others Chang 5 Race and Ethnicity I Race  Race o Differences in physical characteristics used to categorize large numbers of individuals o As a social construct, these categorizations can have profound life impacts o Racial categories that are culturally transmitted  Thus, definitions of race very across cultures and over time o Racialization  The formation of previously unnoticed identities around boundaries of racial differences  Ethnicity o Group identity based primarily upon common national origin or distinct cultural pattern o Shared culture in forms of language, religion, cuisine, traditions, etc. o Like race, ethnic categories change over time o Ethnic enclaves  Geographic concentration of ethnic group members o Ethnic economies  Establish businesses that serve and employ mainly members of the ethnic group, reinvest in community o Symbolic ethnicity  Nostalgic allegiance to culture of the immigrant generation  Carries minimal risk or stigma  Typically emphasizes a few things (food, e.g.) rather than deep ties to the culture  Ex. German Americans Race and Ethnicity II  Majority and Minority Groups o Majority groups  Group of people holding the majority of power in mainstream society o Minority groups  Group of people at a social disadvantage  Sociologically, refers to position of power, not numbers  Minority-Majority Group Relations o Assimilation  Minority-majority differences dissolved Chang 6 o Pluralism  Minority-majority co-exist, but differences persist o Segregation  Minority-majority groups are separated through legal and/or social practice (usually based on race)  Stages of Assimilation o Cultural assimilation: change cultural patterns to match host society o Structural assimilation: large-scale entrance into cliques o Marital assimilation: large-scale intermarriage patterns o Identification assimilation: development of collective identity based on exclusively on host society o Reception assimilation: absence of systematic prejudice or discrimination o Civic assimilation: absence of value or power conflicts  Types of Segregation o de jure segregation: enforced by law o de facto segregation: informal (without law) segregation  Scapegoat Theory o Blaming of minority groups for problems experienced in wider society  Ex. European Jewish experience during WWII, the Dreyfus Affair (1894), and 1923 Great Kanto earthquake in Japan – thousands of ethnic Koreans executed  Prejudice VS. Discrimination o Prejudice  Refers to biased thoughts and feelings held against a specific group of people o Discrimination  Refers to biased actions taken against a specific group of people o Racism  Directing prejudice onto a specific racial group  Institutional Racism o Social dynamics or rules that seem race-neutral, but disadvantage a minority group in practice  Distinct from more “personal” forms of racism  This bias is usually not noticed by majority group  Ex. racial disparities in criminal sentencing  Theories of Racial Prejudice/Discrimination Theory Explanation Functionalism Racial discrimination functions positively for the dominant group Chang 7 (hence its longevity) Conflict Theory Racial inequality reflects a power struggle among multiple racial groups in society Symbolic Interaction Race provides important symbols as source of personal identity. Prejudice results from isolated interactions with opposite race  Is Race “real”? o Race is not biological, but socially determined  Race is a “social structure”  It does not depend on whether someone “believes” in race or not o Consequences of race  Ex. wealth  Social networks, race, and jobs  Race and resume experiments (multiple examples)  Housing discrimination (matters for intergenerational wealth) Gender I  Sex VS. Gender o Sex  A biological category  Generally refers to genitalia, genetics o Gender  A social category  Cultural characteristics associated with male/female  Gender category assigned by sex category  Gender Identity o Gender Identity  Extent to which one identities as masculine/feminine  Binary? Fluid?  Depends on the culture (socially constructed)  Transgender  Inconsistency between sex and gender categories  Gender Roles o Gender Roles  The behaviors associated with widely shared expectations of how men and women are supposed to act  Gender Difference o Essentialism Chang 8  Explains gender differences as reflection of biological differences o Functional sex roles  Belief that while gender differences may not be biological, nuclear family is ideal  Need for complementary “male” and “female” sex roles  As an institution, gender provides predictable division of labor  Sociological Critique of Essentialism o Ignore historical and cultural variability o Ignore variations within gender groups o Lack of genetic evidence o Ignore the role of power  Theories of Gender in Society Perspective Functionalism Gender roles from traditional nuclear family offer ideal form for society Gender is dichotomous Conflict Gender inequality is the result of patriarchal systems Economic opportunities systematically shut off to women Symbolic interaction We are socially into our genders We “perform” our gender through everyday actions  Social Construction of Gender o Social construction of gender  Gender is routinely re-created  Gender is a process o Gender socialization  Process by which we learn how to perform our gender roles  Norms guide appropriate behavior, expectations of boys and girls  Ex. children’s toys o Gender ideology  Traditional VS egalitarian Gender II Chang 9  Gender Systems o Patriarchy  Subordination of femininity to masculinity  Nearly universal social system o Matriarchy  Subordination of masculinity to femininity  Ex. Mosuo society o Time-use surveys  The “Second Shift” (Arlie Hochschild)  Working women still responsible for domestic duties  Invisible Structures o “Glass ceiling”  Refers to gap in earnings and authority between men and women  “Invisible” in sense that no formal rules enforce it o “Glass escalator”  Men working in female-dominant occupations tend to earn more, get promoted sooner o It is illegal to discriminate on the basis of sex  Feminism o Raising consciousness around idea that gender organizes our social life o General belief that men and women should be treated with equal opportunities o Feminism Movement  First wave: Political  Second wave: Economic and Civil  Third wave: Cultural o “Multiple feminisms” today  Sexuality o Sexual orientation  Emotional/sexual attraction to a particular sex  Attitudes about Sexuality o Attitudes toward sexuality vary greatly by culture  Ex. value places on premarital sex o Double standard of sexuality  Different cultural standards for men VS. women often exist  Connection between cultural attitudes and sexual behavior o Virginity pledges  The Kinsey Reports o Alfred Kinsey (1948-1953)  Refutes sexuality as gay/straight binary Chang 10  Instead, sexuality conceptualized as a spectrum  Diverse empirical reality around sexuality Health and Society I  Medical Sociology o Studies how humans manage issues of health, disease, and health care in society  Doctor/patient relationships within social and cultural context  Socioeconomics of health care  Social construction of attitudes toward health and health care  Social Epidemiology o Studies the causes and distribution of diseases  Focus on connections between disease with:  Social problems  Socioeconomic patterns  Ex. affluence, sedentary lifestyles  Obesity  Heart disease  Diabetes  Social Networks and Obesity o Long-term studies reveal that over time, people gain weight socially  Weight gain associated with similar gain among friends  Especially same-sex friends  But, neighbors’ weight gain does not affect us  Homophily VS propinquity = norms VS behavioral imitation o Conversely, weight loss most successful when occurring among peers  Health and Inequality o The “status syndrome”  The experience of lower status and trying to “keep up” linked to poorer health (recall “relative deprivation)  Ex. education o Lifespan of individuals with PhDs > Masters > Bachelors > Associates > High School > Less than High School o Inequality in access to health care  In U.S., great disparities by class and race  Health and Poverty o Poverty -> ill health o Lack of sufficient health care -> poverty Chang 11  Medical bills cause between 20% - 60% of bankruptcies in U.S. Health and Society II  Models of Illness o Medical model of illness  Illness is an objective label (everyone agrees on what is normal and what is an illness)  Illness is nonmoral, defined scientifically  Illness is apolitical o Sociological model of illness  Illness is a subjective category (people sometimes disagrees on what should be labeled as illness)  Illness is a moral category  Ex. judge people with STDs)  Illness is a political category  Ex. pharmaceutical companies market illness in order to sell drugs for it) o Takeaway: illness is much more than just a physical phenomenon  Sociological Perspectives on Health o Functionalist  Overall health of the population tied to health of society o Conflict  Health of the population tied to issues of equity o Symbolic Interactionist  Perceptions and meanings of health dependent upon social norms and actions  Functionalists: The Sick Role o As a social role, the sick have certain rights and obligations (Talcott Parsons) o Rights  The sick person is exempt from “normal” social roles  Relative to nature and severity of the illness  The sick person is not responsible for their condition  An individual’s illness is usually thought to be beyond his or her own control  A morbid condition of the body needs to be changed and some curative process apart from person will power or motivation is needed to get well o Obligations  The sick person should try to get well  Rights of the sick are contingent upon fulfilling this obligation Chang 12  The sick person should reek technically competent help and cooperate with the physician


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.