ABAS 3450 - Test #1
ABAS 3450 - Test #1 ABAS 3450
Popular in Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals
Popular in Agricultural & Resource Econ
This 30 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allison Collins on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ABAS 3450 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Kevin Downs in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
SKELETAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS • Protection o Skull – brain, ribs – heart and lungs, spine – spinal cord, pelvis – reproductive organs • Support o Ex: appendicular skeleton – rigid long bones in legs • Muscle attachment o Increased by tubers and trochanters o Greatest muscle attachment is on flat bones • Calcium, phosphorus, and some magnesium storage • White blood cell, red blood cell, and platelent production (in marrow) THE CLASSIFICATION OF BONES • Long bones – axis longer in one dimension than another, perform as levers o Ex: bones of the limbs • Short bones – approximately equal dimensions o Ex: many grouped together at carpus and tarsus • Flat bones – have broad surfaces that allow for attachment of large muscle groups o Ex: scapula, bones of the pelvic girdle, many skull bones • Sesamoid bones – very small, most encapsulated in muscle ligaments/tendons o Prevents tendon wear, increases leverage exerted by muscle o Ex: patella, wrist bones • Pneumatic bones – full of air spaces to reduce weight o Mammals: skull – has sinuses o Birds – most bones are pneumatic • Irregular bones – miscellaneous bones – vertebrae • Axial skeleton – midline (head, spine) • Appendicular skeleton – appendages (arms, legs) BONE ANATOMY • Compact bone – cortex of solid bone that determines form of the bone • Cancellous bone – spongy bone o 3D lattice of interlacing spicules, plates, and tubes of various density o Occupies extremeties of a bone • Medullary cavity – houses marrow – in center of bone • Epiphysis – 2 heads of a long bone o Separated from shaft by epiphyseal cartilage o Head is cartilage when bone is still growing • Metaphysis – neck/slope between epiphysis and shaft • Diaphysis – shaft • Articular cartilage – coat articulation points o Calcified at bone cortex, then fibrous toward periphery, where it blends with the periosteum • Periosteum – connective tissue layer on outside of bone o Contains living cells • Endosteum – lines medullary cavity • Osteoblasts – cells that build bone 2 o Live in periosteum (outside) • Osteoclasts – cells that destroy bone o Live in endosteum (inside) o Work with osteoblasts to expand bone without getting too thick • Suture lines – where multiple bones fit together • Foramen(a) – hole(s) o Allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through or into bone o Vary in size BONES OF THE SKULL • Nuchal crest – top of skull • Cornual process – technical term for horns o “Process” = projection/outgrowth of bone • Frontal bone – largest bone of the skull; covers brain • Supraorbital foramen – hole over each eye • Parietal bone – behind eye; superior to temporal bone • Temporal bone – behind eye; inferior to parietal bone o Together, parietal and temporal bones make up ear canal • Lacrimal bone – extends from bottom of inner eye, covers tear ducts o Medial to zygomatic bone • Zygomatic bone – Lateral to lacrimal bone o Carnivores have zygomatic arch – more space for muscle attachment • Nasal bone – top of nasal cavity • Maxilla – inferior to nasal bone, rostral to eye socket 3 o Holds upper teeth • Infraorbital foramen – holes in maxilla • Facial tuber – protrusions from bone surface that increase muscle attachment • Palatine bone – inferior to maxilla • Incisive bone o Ruminants: expanse of bone in front of teeth o Carnivores: hold incisors • Mandible – jaw bones – 2 of them connect in front • Occipital condyle – articulates with atlas (first cervical vertebra) o Condyle – rounded part at end of the bone that articulates with another bone CERVICAL BONES • Cervical vertebrae – bones of the neck o C1-‐C7 • Atlas: C1 o Articulates with C2 • Axis: C2 o Transitional bone -‐ longest vertebra o Has specialized lips -‐ connects atlas to other cervical bones o Articulates with C3 • Spinous process – tall projection on top of a vertebra • Caudal articular process – between spinous process and transverse process and next to cranial articular process – toward tail • Cranial articular process – next to caudal a.p., toward head 4 • Transverse process – processes on either side of a vertebra – look like wings • Transverse foramen – holes next to each transverse process • Vertebral foramen – large hole in middle of vertebra o Spinal cord passes through • Vertebral body – solid middle section of a vertebra o Convex when facing toward head THORACIC BONES • Thoracic vertebrae – articulate with the ribs – vary in number o Have long spinous processes and short transverse processes • Intervertebral arch – form of bone under transverse process/over vertebral foramen o Arch = strength • Vertebral foramen/vertebral body – same as cervical vertebrae • Ribs – flat bones – articulate with sternum and thoracic vertebrae o Cartilage in between articulations • Sternum – has xiphoid process for additional muscle attachment LUMBAR BONES • Lumbar vertebrae – longest transverse processes, shorter spinous processes than thoracic vertebrae • Long transverse processes aid in stabilization – large muscles on top of them • Larger vertebral foramen than other vertebrae 5 SACRUM • Young animals – sacral vertebrae – 5 bones • Adults – sacrum – 5 vertebrae fused together • Protects reproductive organs • Articulates with hips • Foramen present, processes are fused together • Coccygeal (caudal) vertebrae – make up tail • Wing of sacrum – flared cranial end FRONT LEGS • Scapula (shoulder blade) – flat bone – lots of muscle attachment o Articulates with humerus o Scapular spine – protrusion perpendicular to flat bone of scapula • Humerus – long bone that articulates with scapula and ulna-‐radius • Radius – articulates with humerus and carpals – larger than ulna • Ulna – articulates with humerus and carpals – smaller than radius o In quadrupeds, radius and ulna are fused for rigidity/support o In humans and birds, radius and ulna not fused – flexibility • Olecranon tuber – projection of ulna o Lever of movement, additional muscle attachment • Carpals – analogous to wrist bones – vary in number among animals o “Carpus” = front • Metacarpals – analogous to hands o Humans have 5 o Cows have 1 bone – metacarpus 6 • Phalanges – fingers o Singular: phalanx o Proximal, middle, and distal phalanges o Cloven hooves – 2 phalanges – covered by hooves PELVIC BONES • Hip: technically 2 bones – left and right • Ilium – flared/wider end at top of hip bones; cranial to ischium o Tuber coxae – rough protrusions from outside/top of ilium o Tuber sacrale – narrow points at inner/top of ilium • Acetabulum – articulates with head of femur; knobby area between ilium and ischium • Ischium – narrower, bottom end of hip bones; caudal to ilium o Tuber ischiadicum – rough protrusion at end of ischium • Pubis – on either side of pubic symphysis, cranial to acetabulum • Pubic symphysis – loose connection between two pelvic bones o Move apart during parturition • Obturator foramen – largest foramen in body – inferior to acetabulum o All nerves from head to legs pass through here BACK LEGS • Femur o Femoral head – articulates with acetabulum o Femoral neck – thin area between head and shaft o Greater trochanter – protrusion/rough bone at top of shaft; provides more muscle attachment 7 o Lesser trochanter – small protrusion inferior/medial to greater trochanter o Lateral condyle – spool-‐like protrusion at inferior end of femur; away from body o Medial condyle – next to lateral condyle, toward body § Lateral and medial condyles articulate with tibia/fibula • Patella – knee bone, in front of lower end of femur; sesamoid bone • Tibia – tibia and fibula are fused and referred to as tibia only; articulates with femur • Tarsals – 3 in each leg – between tibia and metatarsus o Calcaneal tuber – protrusion going 45 degrees from tibia § Provides more muscle attachment, leverage § Calcaneus – name for entire bone, includes calcaneal tuber o 1 flat tarsal bone o 1 cube-‐shaped tarsal bone – talus • Metatarsals o Fused together into one bone – metatarsus o Articulate with tarsals • Phalanges – 3 of them – just like phalanges of front legs 8 AVIAN ANATOMY EXTERNAL ANATOMY • Comb o Attracts mate (larger in males) – size correlates with testosterone o Made of integument (skin) o Aids in temperature regulation • Wattles – same function as comb, but under beak • Beak – maxilla (top) + mandible (bottom) + keratin (covers the bone) • External nares – holes at base of beak where air enters • Nasal turbinate bones – curled bones under nares o Lined with mucosa covered in scent receptors o The more curled the bones, the more surface area for scent receptors o More scent receptors = better sense of smell. Chickens have poor sense of smell • Sinuses – function as air pockets to keep head light o Largest sinus is directly in front of eye o Outwardly visible as an indentation • Eyelids – outer eye coverings like in other animals • Nictitating membrane – third eyelid o Goes front to back o Moistens and cleans eyeball • Eyes – relatively large; sight is a bird’s most important sense • Sclerotic ring – bones inside eyes o Multiple tiny overlapping bones in a circle 9 o Size of eyes requires bone support • Ear coverts – feathers that cover and protect ear holes • Ears – opening above ear lobes • Ear lobes – white or red circle under ears – no function Feathers • Neck (hackle feathers) – males’ feathers are larger and pointed – expand to intimidate • Breast feathers • Back (back feathers) – bulk of area between the wings – front of the back • Saddle (saddle feathers) – lower back • Uropygial gland/preen gland/oil gland – little bump right above tail o Coats feathers with oil o Larger in water fowl • Tail (sickle feathers or rectrices) – curved in males • Abdomen (fluff feathers) – incubation of eggs • Primary flight feathers (remiges) o Distal to body o Each wing has 10 of these • Secondary flight feathers (remiges) o Proximal to body o Each wing has 10 • Wing coverts (tetrices) – conceal the down feathers • Remiges – flight feathers of the wings • Tetrices – only refers to the wing coverts • Rectrices – flight feathers of the tail 10 • Pterylae – tracts at which feathers are concentrated o i.e. line of feathers • Apterylae – bare areas covered by feathers from pterylae Leg = thigh (femur) + drumstick (tibia) + shank + foot • Scales occur from the hock joint down (i.e. shank and foot) o Indicator of relation to reptiles • Toes – three in front, one in back – for grasping and climbing • Spur – smooth oval superior to back toe o Used as a weapon – larger in males • Foot pad – used as cushioning CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM ANATOMY Heart – 4 chambers • Atria (left and right) – top half of heart o Turn the blood • Ventricles (left and right) – bottom half of heart o Larger than atria, pump the blood o Left ventricle – thick walls, pump blood to body o Right ventricle – thin walls, pump blood to lungs • Aorta – largest artery o Comes out of left ventricle • Pericardium – thin membrane around heart o Prevents heat from friction; lubricates the muscle 11 EXCRETORY SYSTEM ANATOMY **Birds have no urinary bladder*** • Kidneys – each made up of 3 lobes o 3 arteries for each of 2 divisions o Embedded in hips o Filter blood • Ureters – transport urine from kidneys to cloaca RESPIRATORY ANATOMY **Birds have no thoracic cavity – only abdominal** • Palatine cleft – air passageway on inside of maxilla o Connects with nasal cavity • Larynx – caudal to the base of the tongue o Mound of tissue • Glottis – medial slit in larynx o Closes entrance to larynx – blocks food particles • Trachea – accompanies esophagus through the neck o Made of tightly stacked cartilaginous rings o Splits into 2 primary bronchi • Syrinx – flattened area right before bronchial split o Operates sounds o Common site of obstruction by foreign objects since it’s so narrow • Primary bronchi – extend from trachea, pass diagonally through lungs, narrowing until it becomes continuous with abdominal air sac • Secondary bronchi – branch off of primary bronchi 12 o 2 primary bronchi each give way to 40-‐50 secondary bronchi o Have various connections with the air sacs o Inside the lungs • Lungs – don’t expand and contract o Air passes through them into air sacs, then back into lungs again o No alveoli o Controlled by intercostal (between the ribs) and abdominal muscles • Air sacs – move air through the passive lungs o Allow fresh air to be moved through lungs both on inspiration and expiration o Lighten the body and reduce heat o 9 air sacs total Flow of air through respiratory system: External nares à palatine cleft à mouth à glottis/larynx à trachea à syrinx à primary bronchi à secondary bronchi à lungs à air sacs à lungs à secondary bronchi à primary bronchi à syrinx à trachea à glottis/larynx à mouth à palatine cleft à external nares -‐ -‐ and so on NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM ANATOMY • Cerebral hemispheres – pear-‐shaped o Rostral ends (olfactory bulbs) located between large orbits o Small and smooth o Right and left separated by median fissure • Cerebellum o Relatively large o Separated from hemispheres by a transverse fissure 13 • Optic lobes o Located caudoventral to the hemispheres o Very large o Optic chiasm is correspondingly large DIGESTIVE SYSTEM ANATOMY • Mouth – no soft palate o Thick, mucosal saliva o Prehension – take food into mouth by pecking at it o Swallow food whole • Tongue – triangular, supported by a bone • Linguinal papillae – ridges at back of tongue that direct ingested foodstuff toward the back of the throat • Palatine ridges – set of ridges at hard palate o Serve same function as linguinal papillae • Cervical esophagus – section of esophagus that moves food from the mouth to the crop • Crop – outpocket of esophagus; not all birds have one o Primarily for storage, especially for migratory birds o Has distention reception that lets birds know when to stop eating o Houses population of bacteria § Includes lactobacillus (in yogurt), which produces lactic acid • Drops the pH of the crop so that dangerous microbes are destroyed o Salivary amylase 14 § Not all birds produce it § Digests starch § In humans – produced in mouth – birds produce it in the crop • Thoracic esophagus – muscular transport of food from crop to proventriculus • Proventriculus – analogous to stomach in humans o Primary function: digesting protein CHEMICALLY o Has pH of about 2 o Chemical digestion by hydrochloric acid and pepsin (proteolytic enzyme) o Also produces mucus for protection • Gizzard (ventriculus) – site of PHYSICAL protein digestion o Consists of 2 opposing muscles o Bird eats small rocks, and together with muscles grinds foodstuff • Koilin lining – specialized for gizzard • Duodenal loop – site of protein, lipid, and carb DIGESTION o NOT absorption o Follows curvature of gizzard • Pancreas – lies between limbs of the duodenal loop o Produces digestive enzymes, insulin, and sodium bicarbonate • Liver – produces bile o Bile emulsifies fat – i.e. it breaks down lipid droplets • Gallbladder – stores bile • Lower small intestine (jejunum + ileum) o Major site of nutrient ABSORPTION 15 • Meckel’s diverticulum – marks the bird’s former connection with the yolk sac • Ceca – site of fiber fermentation o Most ruminants have one – chickens have 2 • Large intestine – reabsorbs water and electrolytes from liquid urine by reverse peristalsis o Includes colon • Cloaca – 4 connections, 1 exit o Large intestine, oviduct, 2 ureters **Birds don’t have liquid urine – urine is excess nitrogen – white excrement = nitrogenous waste Passage of food through a chicken’s digestive system: Mouth à cervical esophagus à crop à thoracic esophagus à proventriculus à gizzard à duodenal loop à jejunum + ileum (lower small intestine) à ceca à large intestine à cloaca à vent IMMUNOLOGICAL SYSTEM ANATOMY • Thymus – consists of several separate lobes that accompany the jugular veins o Produces T-‐cells (thymus lymphocytes) • Bursa of fabricius – produces B-‐cells • Spleen – filters cellular debris • Cecal tonsils – produce B and T cells FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ANATOMY • Ovary – only ONE o On the bird’s left side 16 o Not easily visible because it’s covered in follicles o No placenta • Follicular hierarchy o Large yellow follicles (LYF) – most mature o Yellow – yolk material o Small yellow follicles (SYF) o Small white follicles (SWF) – least mature o Contain ova and yolk – cholesterol, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals • Stigma – avascular line – where follicular membrane ruptures o Ruptured follicular membrane = ovulation • Infundibulum – funnel o Catches ova o Site of fertilization o Ovum spends 15 minutes there o Beginning of oviduct • Magnum – largest segment of oviduct o Thick albumen § Albumen – protein and water o Magnum produces half of albumen in egg o Egg takes 3.5 hours to pass through the magnum • Magno-‐isthmal line – demarcates magnum from isthmus • Isthmus o Thinner, fewer mucosal folds than magnum o Also secretes large amount of albumen o Produces inner and outer cell membranes 17 o Physical barrier to microbes o Between albumen and shell o Ovum in isthmus for 1.5 hours • Uterus (shell gland) o Thinner walls o Some watery albumen added to and absorbed by egg o Egg in uterus for about 20 hours o Next add shell and shell pigments and cover with outer glaze (cuticle) • Vagina o Egg passes through in a few seconds o Egg is laid blunt end first – is flipped in vagina and pushed with muscles § Stronger on blunt end § Egg is made of arches – weak from inside, strong from outside • Cloaca – has connections to left and right oviducts • Vent – final opening through which egg passes • Vestigial right oviduct – on right side of cloaca o Never develops Passage of egg through reproductive system: Ovary à follicular hierarchy à Infundibulum (15 minutes) à magnum (3.5 hours) à magno-‐isthmal line à isthmus (1.5 hour) à uterus (20 hours) à vagina (a few seconds) à cloaca à vent **entire process takes about 25 hours** 18 MUSCULAR ANATOMY Thoracic/breast muscles • Pectoralis major – deeper than p. minor o Downstroke of wing • Pectoralis minor – superficial to p. major o Upstroke of wing o Both attached to sternum Wing muscles • Biceps brachii – superior to triceps o 2-‐headed muscle • Triceps humeralis – inferior to biceps o 3-‐headed muscle Thigh muscles • Sartorius – thin strip of muscle cranial to iliotibialis • Iliotibialis – wide muscle on outside of thigh • Semitendinosus – thin strop of muscle caudal to iliotibialis • Biceps femoralis – between iliotibialis and semitendinosus • Semimembranosus – caudal to semitendinosus o Barely visible from outside leg – more visible from inside Drumstick muscles Gastrocnemius – analogous to calf muscle Peroneus longus – next to gastrocnemius – closer to bone 19 *CORRECT TERM IS PERONEUS LONGUS
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