BIO 192 Exam II Study Guide
BIO 192 Exam II Study Guide BIO 192
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Wryan Mitchell on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 192 at DePaul University taught by Dr. Windsor Aguirre in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 209 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at DePaul University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
BIO 192 Study Guide Exam II 1. Phylogeny a. Define: “phylogenetics” and “phylogeny” b. Define: “phylogenetic tree” i. Define: taxon (taxa), branch, ancestral lineage, branch point (node), polytomy, and sister taxa ii. Know how to interpret and create a phylogenetic tree iii. Species in a phylogenetic can be rearranged, but still have the same interpretation/meaning c. Understand Darwin’s input on phylogenetics i. See the phylogenetic tree in The Origin of Species d. Define: “characters” i. Be able to identify characters on a phylogenetic tree and determine which species have or don’t have those characters ii. Know how to mark a character as “present” in a species in a phylogenetic tree using tick marks e. Define: “character state” i. Define: “ancestral state”, “derived state”, “uniquely derived character state”, and “shared derived state” ii. Understand how ancestral character states and derived character states are placed on phylogenetic trees iii. Understand how these states are coded in a matrix and how this matrix is used to create a phylogenic tree iv. Understand how character states are used to create a phylogenetic tree v. Understand the importance of “shared derived characters” for creating phylogenetic trees f. Define: “ingroup” and “outgroup” i. Understand the importance of the outgroup and its role on creating a phylogenetic tree g. Define: “cladistics” and “clade” i. Explain how cladistics may relate to evolution ii. Willi Hennig iii. Define: “monophyletic group” h. Understand how convergence can cause possible mistakes in creating a phylogenetic tree i. Define: convergence (convergent evolution) i. Understand the “principle of parsimony” and its role in phylogenetics j. Define: “homology” and “homoplasy” i. Understand their differences k. Define: “paraphyletic group” and “polyphyletic group” 2. Biological Statistics a. Define: “descriptive statistics” and “inferential statistics” i. Understand the importance of inferential statistics in research b. Define: “test statistics”, “degrees of freedom”, “critical value”, “p-value”, and “statistical distribution”. i. NOTE: PLEASE REFER TO THE HANDOUT THAT WAS GIVEN ON STATISTICAL TERMS c. Understand how to perform a two-sample t-test i. NOTE: PLEASE REFER TO THE HANDOUT THAT WAS GIVEN ON STATISTICAL TERMS d. Understand how the critical value is determined e. Define: “biological hypothesis” f. Be able to identify when statistical tests are performed with paired samples i. Two sample t-test vs. paired sample t-test g. Define: “null hypothesis” and “alterative hypothesis” i. Understand their differences 3. Ecology a. Define: “ecology” i. Define: “abiotic factors” and “biotic factors” ii. Explain the role that biotic and abiotic factors have on the relationship between the organism and its environment iii. Identify what elements of the environment are considered abiotic or biotic b. Understand the levels of organization in ecology c. Explain the role that abundance and distribution plays in ecology d. Define: “behavioral ecology” i. Understand how behavioral ecology plays a role in biological fitness e. Define: “mating system” i. Define: “sexual selection” ii. Define: “intersexual selection” and “intrasexual selection” iii. Understand the difference between intersexual and intrasexual selections iv. Understand how sexual selection plays a role in biological fitness f. Identify monogamous and polygamous behaviors is males and females i. NOTE: RECALL THE VIDEO WE SAW OF THE MALE HIPPOS FIGHTING FOR MATES (POLYGAMY), THE MALE STALK-EYED FLIES MODIFYING THE WIDTH OF THEIR EYES TO ATTRACT POTENTIAL MATES (POLYGAMY), AND THE GREBES DANCING IN UNISON FOR POTENTIAL COURTSHIP (MONOGAMY) 4. Parental Care a. Explain what parental care is regarding the relationship betwe en the parent and their young b. Define: “internal fertilization” and “external fertilization” c. Identify the three types of communication d. Define: “legitimate receiver” and “illegitimate receiver” i. Be able to identify who a legitimate and illegitimate receiver may be ii. Understand how fitness is affected by communication e. Identify and define the two kinds of signals there are found in communication i. Identify the potential harm each signal could bring to the signaler/receiver f. Define: “threat displays” i. Understand how threat displays act as a form of communication between individuals g. Explain how chemicals play a role in honest signals (especially in underwater locations) h. Identify the information that honest signals give to females i. Define: “conspecifics” j. Define and contrast between “learned behaviors” and “innate behaviors” i. Identify the types of learned behaviors 5. Behavioral Ecology a. Define: “altruism” i. Define: “kin selection” and “reciprocal altruism” ii. Understand how fitness is incorporated in kin selection iii. Be able to identify altruistic acts that happen between individuals b. Explain the conditions for altruism c. Identify the two elements of kin selection i. Direct and indirect fitness d. Understand the role of direct and indirect fitness on inclusive fitness i. INC= DF+IF ii. Explain inclusive fitness iii. Understand how to calculate inclusive e. Define: “population ecology” i. Define: “population” f. Understand what a population dispersion pattern is i. Identify and understand the three population dispersion patterns 6. Population Ecology a. Define: “population demography” b. Define: “life table” i. Define: “cohort life table” c. Define: “survivorship curve” i. Distinguish between type 1, type 2, and type 3 survivorship curves d. Define: “population growth” e. Identify the two population growth models i. Exponential growth model (J-shape model) ii. Logistic model (S-shape model) f. Be able to interpret the growth models i. The logistic model rises then plateaus, the plateau level represents K ii. The exponential growth model shows that there is no limit to resources▯ unlimited population growth iii. The logistic growth model shows that there is a limit to resources▯ limited population growth g. Equations for the exponential growth model ∆▯ i. ∆▯ = b-d *N 1. ∆N = the change in population size 2. ∆t = the change in time 3. “b”= the birth rate 4. “d”= the death rate 5. N= size of the population ii. “r”= b-d 1. “r” is the rate of the population growing 2. If “r” declines, it means that the population size is decreasing h. If the birth rate is greater than the death rate, the rate of the population growth is grater than zero i. If the birth rate is lower than the death rate, then the rate of population growth is less than zero j. If the birth rate is equal to the death rate, then the population growth equals zero k. Equation for logistic growth model i. ∆▯ = rN * ( ▯▯▯ ) ∆▯ ▯ 1. K= the amount of resources l. Define: “life history traits” m. Define: “samelparous” n. Define: “iteroparous” i. Understand the difference between semelparity and iteroparity o. Define, distinguish, and explain “K-selected traits” and “r- selected traits” p. Understand the two types of population regulation▯ “density dependent” and “density independent” q. NOTE: PLEASE REFER BACK TO THE LIFE TABLE HANDOUT
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