Intro to Entomology Study Guide One
Intro to Entomology Study Guide One ENTO 2010
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Popular in Entomology
This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bethany on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE Entomology - The study of insects Jan 13 Malaria is the most important insect vectored disease in the world Silent Spring by Rachel Carson, 1962* Insect cells: very similar to human cells Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda* o Arthro = jointed / poda = foot Exoskeleton made of chitin Body composed of segments Jointed appendages Open circulatory system Bilateral Symmetry Sexual reproduction o Class Chilopoda Chilo = lip / poda = foot Centipedes, 3,000 species One pair of legs per segment* Predators*; eat small arthropods Live in soil and humus o Class Diplopoda* Diplo = two / poda = foot Millipedes, 8,000 species Two pair of legs per body segment* Feed on decaying organic matter o Class Crustacea* Crust = hard; shell-like Lobsters, crabs, shrimps, 26,000 species Branched appendages Aquatic Marine equivalent of insects o Class Arachnida* Arachne = spider / 57,000 species No antennae Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE Two body segments Terrestrial Carnivorous o Class Insecta* In = into / sect = cut 1,000,000 [named*] species Three body segments* o Head, Thorax, Abdomen* Six legs Most adults have wings Two antennae Breathe through openings in body Terrestrial or aquatic Only invertebrates that can fly* Jan 15 Phylum: Arthropoda Class: o Chilopoda- centipedes o Diplopoda- millipedes o Crustacea- lobsters, crabs, shrimp o Arachnida- spiders o Insecta- insects- 1,000,000 named species DDT use in the 1940’s and 1950’s: o A new way to collect insects o Add DDT to gin -> happiness o A miracle chemical o Led to an “Era of Optimism” o Farmers: “when the chemicals came along… you had your crop” Pesticide: a chemical used to kill pests Insecticide: substance that kills insects DDT: chlorinated hydrocarbon Othmar Zeidler synthesized DDT in Germany o Ph. D 1874 Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE Paul Muller discovered DDT in 1938 In 1942, DDT was sent by Swiss to US o Secret Army Lab was set up in Orlando, FL o Tested DDT against lice (which spread typhus) o US Army first used DDT in North Africa and Italy Frank Mayo o Atlanta chemist during WWII o DDT Production was a military secret o Process was published in Germany o Where could he find the publication? New technology right after WWII: pesticides, plastics, fertilizers DDT saved millions of lives in WWII o First war where enemy killed more than disease o DDT was used to control typhus (spread by lice) Massive growth of chemical industry Jan. 20 Silent Spring Dedicated to Albert Schweitzer* “Man has lost the capacity to foresee and to forestall. He will end by destroying the earth.” -Albert Entomologists [E] o Before 1950, E were “figures of fun” o After 1950, E worked for chemical companies o E started to see “side effects” o E evaluated “degrees of badness” o E at UGA and Velsicol made Goodbye, Mrs. Ant o E; “without DDT, insects would inherit the Earth.” Ethical issues for E o Should UGA E work for chemical companies? E may not get $ if he/she gets “wrong” result o Can E assess pesticide damage to environment? SILENT SPRING by RACHEL CARSON o Bill of Rights should protect us o Powerful pesticide industry fought her Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE o Government withheld information o Frequent cover-up of wildlife damage o Most insects controlled by other insects o “You can’t eradicate an insect with a chemical” o Dieldrin on fire ants in Georgia Everything had died: “no effect” o Toxic chemical in the grocery store Rachel Carson lived during the Depression o → 1932 M.A in Marine Biology at John Hopkins* o → 1936 US. Bureau of Fisheries* o → 1962 Silent Spring was published One of the most important books ever published Silent Spring’s impact due to Carson’s eloquence Jan. 22 In 1964: Ruth Harrison* wrote: Animal Machines*, Foreword by Rachel Carson Silent Spring o Carson wrote with “emotionality” o Velsicol tried to stop the publication o JFK & Udall became “aware” o SS became best seller o Industry: “SS full of errors” o Jukes: “No pesticide residues in foods” Sales Soared o Within 1 year, pesticide bills introduced in 40 states o CBS TV interview o Opposition: Dr. Robert White-Stevens o What is “The Balance of Nature?” o U.S. Senate hearing “The modern scientists believe that man is steadily controlling nature.” Robert W-S “The balance of nature is built of a series of interrelationships between living things and between living things and their environment.” Rachel Carson Victor Yannacone* of the Environmental Defense Fund Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE o Led the fight against DDT use Hearings held in Wisconsin 1968-1969; if DDT is so bad, why doesn’t it make people sick? Turning point: DDT present in Human Breast Milk! DDT use was banned 1962 Silent Spring was published* 1970 Environmental Protection Agency established* 1972 DDT banned by EPA* Silent Spring o Carson did not want to ban pesticides o Carson was a revolutionary o She made us aware of the environment Jan. 25 DDT was very cheap and very stable DDT interferes with nervous system DDT is fat-soluble* DDT causes reduced calcium in bird eggs* DDT was banned in US in 1972* DDT production in US continued for many years DDT is still used in many parts of the world DDT BIOMAGNIFICATION* o DDT is trapped in animal fat o As DDT travels up the Food Chain, the concentration increases Pesticides in US o Farmers use 75% o Govt and industry use 10% o Homeowners use 10% o Forestry uses 1% Pesticides for sale in US o 25,000 products o 750 active ingredients Pesticides (P): o P contaminate groundwater o P persist in deep soil because low O2 and few bacteria Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE o Most P untested for cancer [C] o C tests are for one P, but most crops get several P Pesticides (P) and Cancer [C] o Farmers are at higher risk- especially migrant workers o Does long-term exposure cause C? o Most P has not been tested for C o Synergistic [Two or more P may act together to be worse than one P] o David Pimentel, Department of Entomology, Cornell University* Each year $4 billion is spent in US to apply pesticides Increased yield from this expense = $16 billion Pimentel: o Pesticide applications seem to yield $12 billion profit, however hidden environmental and social cost may be $8 billion o Less than .1% of pesticides applied to crops reach target pest* 1994: UGA student suffers from pesticide spraying in her dorm 1996: She works in Georgia legislature and this leads to new state law: “State buildings must post notice when pesticides are sprayed” Jan. 27 EPA and pesticides o We must “trust” pesticide industry o “old chemicals” protected o Many old pesticides may cause cancer Migrant workers are often exposed to very high levels of pesticides Pesticide Treadmill o Insects becomes resistant to pesticide o Must apply greater amount of chemicals to kill pest insects o Then apply more toxic pesticides Pesticides and children o Pesticide levels are 5 times too high o Developing bodies are more susceptible o Residue levels calculated for adults o Balance health v. profit Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE The US spends a lot less money on their food than people in any other countries do Human sex hormones and pesticides o “Every man in this room is half the man… Some pesticides mimic human sex hormones Human Sex Hormones and Pesticides o 2010 Sperm count ½ 1950 o 2010 Testicular Cancer 3 times 1950 Theo Colborn 1996 – Danger of Environmental Estrogens Man-Made Chemicals [C] (including pesticides) in the environment mimic estrogenic hormones (H) In the body, H interact with a receptor in a lock and key fashion C fits into receptor site and acts like H C blocks H action and affects H metabolism Florida: Lake Apopka o Major DDT spill in 1980 o Decline in number of alligators (A) o 75% A eggs are dead o 25% male (M) have a small dick o Many M turtles are “intersex” Estrogens are added to shampoo and skin creams o Girls around the world are reaching puberty at an earlier age DES = a synthetic estrogen o From 1940-1970, DES was given to 5 million pregnant women to reduce miscarriages o DES was given to girls who were “too tall”, had acne, and to stop flow of mother’s breast milk o DES given to chickens and cows to promote growth o 1971: Women whose mothers took DES are much more likely to develop vaginal cancer o DES effect takes place 20 years later Jan. 29 ← we don’t need to know anything from this day? Thalidomide [T] was given to pregnant women to combat morning sickness Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE In 1962, T shown to cause birth defects Placenta does not protect fetus from chemicals T is now used to treat leprosy Caitan is probably carcinogenic Applied to Florida strawberries Canada has set lower tolerance levels C still provides economic benefit to farmers Silent Springs o Chapter 17: The Other Road o Robert Frost o “Road less traveled by” = use biological control, instead of chemical pesticides IPM “integrated pest management” o Know the pest o Judicious use of pesticides o Host plant resistance o Biological control Know the Pest o Life cycle of insect o How does the pest reproduce? o When is the pest a problem? o Which stage of the insect is most susceptible? o Attack the pest when it is most vulnerable Judicious Use of Pesticides o Apply pesticides when pest is present and vulnerable o Use of “scouts” or pheromone traps to monitor pest o Monitor environmental conditions o Use of ultra low volume sprayers Host Plant Resistance o Breeding programs o Introduction of resistance by crossing with “new” varieties Chemical Physical Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE Introduction of resistance by recombinant DNA technology Designer genes Monsanto: B.t. Cotton Leaves of “wild” insect-resistant potato plants [PP] from South America have two kinds of hairs [H] o Sticky H trap aphids [A] o H make “alarm pheromone” that deters A o Goal: Breed these traits into domestic PP Split-Screen video o B.T. gene was put into soybean o The caterpillar on the leaf with B.t. keeps moving and does not feed For the last 50 years, seed companies did not bother to have insect resistance in their crop varieties (because they would recommend a chemical pesticide) Now they want Host Plant Resistance Most of our crop plants are not native to US Search for resistance ® in native country Breed R traits into high-yield varieties Ethical Issue rd o Seed companies take genes from plants in 3 world countries o Produce insect-resistant plants o Should company share the profits? Biological Control o Sterilization o Beneficial insects o Bacteria that attack insects Bacillus thuringiensis B.t. Viruses that attack insects Feb. 1 Sterilization o Pest insects Rear in lab Sterilize Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE Release Insects mate in field No progeny Problem: Most insects hard to rear in lab Beneficial Insects o Parasitoids Parasitic wasps Parasitic flies o Predators Praying mantis Dragonflies Paper wasps Spiders Parasitoid o Insect whose larvae consume their host Predator o An animal that kills and eats animals External Parasitoid o Female wasp [FW] paralyzes caterpillar [C] with venom o FW lays eggs on outside of C o Larvae hatch and feed on C o FW determines sex of her young* Fertilized egg -> female* Unfertilized egg -> male* Internal Parasitoid o Female adult wasp lays eggs inside caterpillar [C] o Wasp larvae hatch and eat C from inside, but don’t damage internal C organs* o Larvae ooze out of host and spin cocoon Bacillus Thuringiensis B.t. (bacterium) o There are several varieties o Each variety is specific for one group of insects o Bacteria produce toxic protein which kills insect o B.t. protein is not toxic to higher animals Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE o Current use: Gypsy moth in N. Georgia B.t. o B.t. must be eaten o Toxin destroys the insect stomach o B.t. is NOT slow acting o New strains are being sought Bacillus B.t. attacks insects Anthrax is also a Bacillus bacterium* Viruses [V] that attack insects o V are very specific: only a few insect species are attacked by each type of V o V have no effect on higher animals o V multiply in great quantities in host insect o V act too slowly. Pest insect lives for several days after eating V* UGA and American Cyanamid o Mite [M] Toxin [T] is insect-specific o Insert gene for M T into virus DNA o PEST INSECT DIES VERY QUICKLY* o Virus still has narrow host range o No effect on humans or other animals o Also use T from scorpions and spiders Feb. 3 Biological classification: arrangement of living organisms into categories Taxonomy: classifying organisms into categories Carolus Linnaeus – Swedish naturalist – 1753 o Responsible for Linnaean binomial system Genus species Phylum* – Arthropoda Class* – Insecta Order* – Diptera Family – Muscidae Genus – Musca Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE Species – Domestica Species: organisms that closely resemble one another and can produce fertile offspring Scientific name: Genus species Musca domestica Common name: house fly Ten reasons why insects are so successful + = positive and - = negative o Hard Exoskeleton [E] E provides protection + Muscles attach to E + E limits water loss + When insect grows it must molt - o Jointed Appendages [A] A on head used for feeding A on Thorax used for locomotion A on Abdomen used for reproduction Jointed A allow for specialization o Wings Escape from predators Find food Find a mate o Small Size Can hide or escape from predator. Light enough to be blown by wind + Large surface-volume ratio. Water evaporates quickly. - Metamorphosis* o Incomplete Metamorphosis* (13% of insect species) Egg - Nymph - Adult o Complete Metamorphosis* (87% of insect species) Egg - Larva - Pupa - Adult-Nymph or Larva may occupy different habitat that adult + Escape from Adverse Conditions o Migration o Diapause [D] D = period of arrested development D in Fall is triggered by short days Caterpillar increases weight 3000X Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE Butterfly (B) wings (W): great color diversity o Bright W warn predators (P) o W may provide camouflage o Random flight of B protects it from P Feb. 5 Methods of Reproduction Sexual= provides genetic variation Parthenogenesis= Reproduction without mating Solve the Water Problem a.) extract water from host sugar C6H12O6+6O2=> 6CO2+6H20+ENERGY b.) Limit water evaporation Cuticular Lipids- Prevent dehyrdation c.) Limit Water excretion Most insects excrete waste through uric acid Insect Walking Six legs are used with two tripods Insect Wings Advanced insect wings fold=> easier to escape from predators Primitive insect wings do not fold Insect Cuticle Chitin= Amino acid polymer=> major component of cuticle Open Circulatory System Hemolymph= insect blood=> distribute hormones and nutrients Pheromones Pheromones- chemical produced by an animal that affects another animal of the same species The 4 Insect Pheromones 1. Sex- find mate 2. Alarm- warn others of danger(bees, wasps) 3. Aggregation- attract others to food(bark beetles) Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE 4. Trail- follow leaders to find food(ants,termites) Gypsy Moth Use pheromones to find mate Male Gypsy moth can find female from up to 5 miles away Biological Control Saturation of pheromones in forest Effective control of Gypsy moth reproduction b/c male moth cannot find female Few pheromones have been discovered Feb. 8 Insect chemical ecology - The relationship between a chemical, an insect, and the insect’s environment Thomas Eisner – Department of Entomology – Cornell University* A black beetle is attacked by ants Bombardier beetle [BB] is not attacked* BB sprays toxic chemical from abdomen [A] Mouse kills BB; forces end of A into soil Bombardier Beetle* Chemical reaction takes place in special gland in the abdomen Reaction produces: Quinones* + Heat + Oxygen + Noise The toxic spray can be aimed Bombardier Beetle = Quinones Bolas Spider* Spider spins a silk strand with sticky ball on end Throws ball at prey and then reels it in Catches moths of only one species* All moths are males* Spiders emits smell = female moth sex pheromone Male moth is attracted to spider and caught Use GC/MS to identify insect chemicals* → GC/MS = gas chromatography/mass spectrometry* Many insects produce (or sequester) toxic chemicals for defense Aposematic: bright coloration warns potential predators of chemical defense* Monarch Butterfly Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE o Larvae feed on milk weed o Sequester toxic alkaloids o Larvae and adults are aposematic o Protected from predators Caterpillar [C] eats toxic plant C and adult moth [M] are Aposematic [A] Spider [S] rejects toxic M S accepts “lab M’ with no toxin Birds learn to avoid A M* S do not learn to avoid A M* Male M [MM] gives toxin to female M [FM] FM selects most toxic MM Eisner: “We should form a global alliance to protect the environment”* Feb. 10 Insect Ecology o The relationship between insects and their environment Grizzly Bear Habitat o Bears and people compete for space o Bears have become a danger o Bears need to find “old” food sources Mutualism: relationship between two species that benefits both parties Symbiosis: intimate relationship between two species, usually involving coevolution Coevolution: occurrence of genetically determined traits in two species selected by the mutual interactions controlled by these traits Dan Janzen in Costa Rica Ants [A] live in Acacia tree [T] A and T have mutualistic relationship A provide: protects T from leaf-eating insects T provides: o A live in the thorns o A eat sugar from glands at leaf base o A eat Beltian bodies [rich in fat] from leaf tip Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE o Beltian bodies are produced by the Acacia tree but eaten by the ants Other interactions on the ANT – Acacia Beetle protected with thick cuticle 2 wasp species protect each other (mutualism) Bird nest; ants attack for a while In trees with no wasps Monkey attacks bird nests Monkey spreads plant seeds Environmental Concern: Threat to Monarch Butterflies [M] M larvae fed milkweed with pollen from B.t. – Corn die. [lab study] Pollen may blow from B.t. –Corn to nearby plants and cause death of M Field studies show pollen does not go far Mistletoe Butterfly Lays eggs on mistletoe (M)` Larvae eat M leaves M is a parasite of eucalyptus Mistletoe birds feed on M berries Birds defecate M seeds ONTO eucalyptus branch M seeds germinate on eucalyptus Feb. 12 Biodiversity o Humans have disproportionate impact on all other species o Species loss is greater than ever before o Deforestation = 27 million acres/year o Research should use biodiversity to increase food production and yield new medicines E.O. Wilson o Harvard University, 1992 o The Diversity of Life Named species of plants and animals: 1.82 million* 1 million insects have been subscribed* Biodiversity Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE o Bird species in New Guinea Museum collection says 125 Natives say 124 Birds species are distinct o Ant species in New Guinea Museum collection says 95 Natives say 1 An ant is an ant There is greater biodiversity in the tropics. From one tree in Peru: 43 species of ants Equal to the number of all ant species in the UK Forest Canopy [FC] o Many of the unknown species of insects are in the FC o Get into the FC with ropes, cranes, and walkways How many insect species are there? Terry Erwin focused on beetles* Smithsonian Institute o Washington, DC ESTIMATE: Arthropod Tropical Biodiversity o Look at 1 tree species in Panama o Fog Tree with pesticide o Found 1,200 beetle species o 163 are host-specific* o There are 50,000 tropical trees* o There are 8,000,000 beetles* o Beetles = 40% arthropod, therefore total = 20,000,000* o Ground-dwelling = 10,000,000* Total Tropical Arthropods = 30,000,000* There are between 10-30 million insect species on earth** E.O. Wilson → The Theory of Island Biogeography o Loss of Biodiversity [B] due to habitat destruction* o Species loss: Dinosaur age = 1/1000 years … Today = 1/day** o Food plants have lost B* 1970 corn blight in US → $5 billion in damage! Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE Feb. 15 Order: Isoptera o Iso = equal o Ptera = wings o Common name = termites o Species = 2,230 Termites Incomplete metamorphosis Highly social Castle system (social class) Symbiosis with protozoa or fungi to degrade the cellulose in wood* Reproductives have wings Beneficial: recycle nutrients Pest: destroy wood structures Social insects have guests T are related to cockroaches* T architecture is free form T architecture is adjusted to environment T use saliva as cement Termite Castes: o Soldiers o Workers o King o Queen Termite (T) Mound: Royal cell contains queen, king, and workers T fee each other and exchange chemical messages Eggs are taken to nursery where nymphs are reared T keep fungus garden to break down cellulose T keep mound cool by water evaporation Termites have the largest colonies of all social insects* Traits of Social Insects* Reproductive division of labor Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE Cooperative care of young Overlap in generations Termites [T] T build and tend fungus gardens T adults; only reproductives have wings T fly off, meet a mate and break off wings T female and male start a new colony T have many kinds of predators Termites follow trail pheromone (TP) TP is present in ink of some pens Termites (T) in Kenya Men own the T mounds Kenyans collect, process and eat winged adult T T are 40% fat and 40% protein Termes = the end Feb. 17th Order: Ephemeroptera o ephemera - short lived o ptera - wings o Common name: Mayflies Mayflies 1. Incomplete metamorphosis 2. Eggs laid in water 3. Nymphs breathe with gills 4. Nymphs feed on plants 5. Nymphs live 1 to 3 years 6. Adults emerge at same time 7. Adults do not feed 8. Adults have 2 pair wings 9. Adults have 2 to 3 tails 10. Adults mate & die in 1 to 2 days Know differences between adult and nymphs for multiple choice questions on the exam Intro to Entomology Study Guide: EXAM ONE Taxonomy - Naming and arranging of species and groups into a system of classification Lumpers - have fewer orders Splitters - have more orders Approximately 26 insect orders Key insects to Order & Family 1. Use Adult Insects 2. Use Couplets or Triplets (normally we use these) Key to Insect Orders 1. Without wings at all stages...2 2. Without wings at certain stages...10 3. Always with wings as adults...12 12(1) With one pair of wings = Diptera With two pair of wings...13 Process repeats until you find your species Mayflies 1. Mayflies have a good sense of timing 2. Mayfly nymphs live 1-3 years 3. Mayfly adults live 1-2 days Fisherpeople - use lures that mimic insects present in the stream Fisherpeople use Mayflies as lures: 1. Mayfly nymph has gills and tails 2. Emerging mayfly adult is vulnerable 3. Fisherpeople match the mayfly “hatch” 4. Fisherpeople observe behavior of fish Use aquatic insects to monitor water quality: 1. If water is clean, there are many kinds of insects 2. Insects are sensitive to oxygen levels & water acidity Insects that walk on water o Springtails have tail under body o Water measurer has piercing/sucking mouthparts
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