study guide for 1st exam
study guide for 1st exam JOURN 1100
Popular in Principles of American Journalism
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Ronecker on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to JOURN 1100 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Joesph Moore in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Principles of American Journalism in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Study guide for 1st j1100 exam I. Exam a. 50 mc b. 10 short answer c. Will cover i. Craft and Davis 1-‐3 ii. Patterson 1-‐2 iii. Supplemental readings iv. Lecture d. Class lecture examples and case studies e. 3 metaphors and their democratic function f. John Milton’s ideas (market place and racial man) relate to democracy g. Craft and Davis definition of journalism word for word h. Shield laws (define journalists, why difficult to agree) i. 7 news values and meanings, sere news gathering, examples j. Gatekeeping process k. Patterson’s argument about media fragmentation and fairness doctrine l. Paterson’s structural biases-‐people say partisan but that’s not necessarily the case something under the surface m. Lipmann vs. Dewey n. Hutchins commission (why formed, recommendations) Chapter one -‐The mirror, the watchdog, and the marketplace What democracy needs from journalism? • Information dissemination-‐ democracy requires some method for distributing all the information people needed to make decisions and govern themselves (framing, giving capacity for self rule) • Press has to make decisions about what we need to do our job as citizens in a democracy • Accountability-‐ democracy’s need for some way to hold those in power responsible for their actions (threat to the power) • Representation-‐ all people are visible to others and have the chance to be heard (insure that voices are heard) • Deliberation and conflict resolution-‐democracy’s need for a forum in which the interests of the public can be aired and debated and conclusions can be reached (diversity of ideas find the way to the public) • Hutchins Commission o Commission of freedom of press o Henry Luce commissioned o They published the danger of the press was the press itself-‐not living up to responsibilities § Rights come with responsibilities § Positive vs. negative freedom § Journalism was a public service § Social responsibility of the press § Great power comes great responsibility § 1sr amendment –freedom of the press is essential to political liberty § Guarantors to all over freedoms o The recommendations § Truthful, comprehensive, and intellectual account of day’s events • Authentic sources • Avoid hearsay • Know what questions to ask • Clearly state facts and opinions • Take care in reporting • Context is king § A forum for the exchange of comment and criticism • Promote freedom of expression • Represent important view points and promote alternative thoughts • Avoid anonymous sources when possible § The projection of a representative picture of the constituent groups in society • Challenging stereotypes by promoting facts • Remember out shared humanity • Build respect and understanding for all groups § The presentation and clarification of goals and values of the society • US values • Hard with competing values, US is a melting pot § Full access of the day’s intelligence • Make information available to as many people as possible • Write for a broad base audience • How does press fulfill democratic needs? o Journalism informs, analyzes, interprets and explains § Journalism takes raw information and makes news § Help explain the complex stuff o Journalism investigates § Expose corruption o Creates public conversation § Public forum where people can speak freely without government interruption o Helps generate social empathy § Appreciate diversity and difference o Encourages accountability § Journalism as fourth estate § More power=more scrutiny • Lippmann and Dewey o Lippmann-‐ pessimist about founder’s view; dissemination of information and watchdog § Believed world was too complex for ordinary people § Limitations in the US • Believed that there were limitations of a social contract • Little time in the world to be paying attention to public affairs • Structural issues like 30 second segments or one column-‐> distortion • Hard to transfer our news to others that do not speak English • Fear of change and the unknown § The business of the government should be left to the elites o Dewey-‐ optimistic about the founders view; conservation and educations § Democracy is more than info § Conversation is the root of democracy § Democracy is a process not an outcome § If channels of communication are open then so is democracy o Dewey saw democracy as process while Lippmann saw as outcome o Different social institutions play a role o They are both “right” addressing different aspects of democracy and different roles of journalism • 3 metaphors o Mirror § Reflect society as it is so showing what is exactly happening the democracy o Watchdog § Sounding the alarm thus its journalism’s job to hold the government accountable o Marketplace § Diversity of ideas and perspectives; there is no authority to decide what is a good idea • Reason for journalism o Social institution o Economic, politics, legal, cultural, and technological o Principles of accuracy, verification and credibility • US journalism; US society o History of US journalism mirrors history of US o Publication as an extension of free speech o Free competition leads to triumph of truth over falsehood o Free press best achieved through free market idea o 1 paper was Publick Occurrences both domestic and foreign • John Milton o Was against the licensing order of 1643 o Originator of “marketplace of ideas” concept § Truth will emerge from the free flowing of ideas; no one deems what is a good idea o Notion of “truth and falsity grappling” and the “self righting policy” o Didn’t believe that Jews or Catholics should have freedom of speech o Thought that government could punish for libel after something was published o Rational man argument § Reason as the source of truth • Cannot be taken away o “Because I said so”, “God says so”, “Government says so”, nor tradition dictates § Shift away from authoritarian to democracy § In order to exercise reason then must have access to information • Free speech o 1 amendment o Journalism is the only profession mentioned in the bill of rights o Is restrictions like can’t yell fire in a crowded theater o Government isn’t he only threat to journalism § Cutbacks, ratings, cost of entry into marketplace, advertiser pressure, and source pressure Chapter 2-‐what is journalism • Dividing lines in journalism o Information vs. advocacy, info vs. entertainment, hard news vs. soft news, and professional vs. citizens • Question of whether it is more important to be focusing on the process rather than the people doing the journalism and whether a journalism degree is necessary? • Distinguishing journalists from non-‐journalists shows o Emphasis credibility of journalist o Help the audience navigate the media system o Increasing legal matters-‐> shield laws • Shield laws (the different clarifications of journalists and protect journalists from the courts with sources o Each state has a different definition of what is a journalist o Difficult to make a legal definition because not all kinds of journalism are covered like weatherman, layout. • The elements of journalism st o Journalism’s 1 obligation is the truth o Its 1 loyalty is to its citizens o Its essence is a discipline of verification o Its practitioners must maintain an independence from those they cover o It must serve as an independent monitor of power o It must provide a forum for public criticism and compromise o It must strive to make the significant interesting and relevant o It must keep the news comprehensive and proportional o Its practitioners must be allowed to exercise their personal conscience • What is a journalist? o Some editors say that they do not need to be defined because they know it when they see it o Some say that it is dangerous to define journalist because creating a definition could limit which would be restriction on the 1 amendment o Some say that it needs professionals § Professionals usually deal with the 3: divinity, medical or law § Different characteristics like monopoly over field, need license, standardized education system, codes of professional ethics, membership in associations, full time occupation § If by those standards then journalism may not be a profession -‐> free lance o But: journalists have long exerted monopoly in field-‐> large organization, barriers to enter, no other means of mass dissemination of info o Not being a strict professional does not mean that professionalism is abandoned • Citizen Journalist o People with no journalism background, education or training breaking down journalism’s monopoly o Many have technology o Wikipedia is an example; people can edit and it is a collective intelligence model o Believe to cover what journalism misses o Not a new phenomenon-‐> Publick had a blank page where people could put comments and then it would be passed to others o People who happen to be in the right place at the right time (JFK assassination-‐> people sold their videos to the news) § Really shows during tragedies (9/11) o Wikileaks-‐ some consider Citizen journalism because showing corruption and others consider illegal o Leads to Craft & Davis definition of journalism § “Journalism is a set of transparent, independent procedures aimed at gathering, verifying and reporting truthful information of consequence to citizens in a democracy” § Transparency • Show sources • Collaborate with audience • Curate info responsibility • Offer disclosures • Correct errors effectively • Build trust with public § Independence • Free of external influences • Goal to maintain independence from those you cover • Appearance of conflict can be damaging § Process • Gathering info, verifying it and reporting it o The definition gives a yardstick of journalism § If yes, then using definition is journalism and vice versa Chapter 3-‐ how is news made • Through the journalistic process, raw information is transformed into news • Journalists must organize, synthesize and digest raw info • Journalists help navigate the information • Gatekeeping o Decide not only what is news but how and where we hear it o Channels § Routine-‐press releases, documents § Informal-‐talking to journalists, seeing someone else’s news § Enterprise-‐ spontaneous events, investigative o Journalists may not be conscious of the academic terms but are still doing it • News-‐ anything that is interesting, happening in the world, what’s of interest to the audience o Deviant acts often attract news • News Values o Timeliness § Happen within 24 hours § Often ignores events/ processes that unfold over a longer period of time o Impact § The number of people affected by a news event o Currency § On going issues § May have happened last week but people can not stop talking about it § Different sub events to make it on going (OJ Simpson trial) o Conflict § Narrative framework that gives drama; whether they need them or not § Usually political; which can cause people to become cynical of government o Novelty § Something unusual; human interest stories § Deviant § People are naturally attracted to stories that are out of the ordinary (psyche) o Prominence § Public figures § Lives of celebrities deviant o Proximity § Events that happen closer to audience are of more importance § Geographical and cultural proximity • Competition of information o Gatekeepers choose the information that becomes news o Information competes to convince gatekeepers on whether it is news o Sometimes high reliance on “information subsidies” –press releases § Can be caused by budget cuts • Types of reporting o Beat stories § Assigned to a beat for awhile § Cause journalist to gain expertise about institution § Can gain sources and contacts-‐> know what to and not to report § There are prestige beats o Soft news § Human interests, features § Narrative stories, interviews, analysis of hard news o Enterprise reporting § Freelance, investigative, or explanatory § Stories that rely upon sources they have developed through their area of coverage to keep them informed and pass along news items to create original works of journalism o Beats and soft are generally assigned and enterprise is not • Roles o Each person has a specific job and they all interconnect • News look like o Newspaper § Strength: space –time for depth, context § Constraint: space is finite o TV § Strength: visual, audio § Constraint: time (broadcast not cable) o Radio § Strength: audio, imaginative visuals § Constraint: times, actual visuals o Online § Strength: space, depth, context, multimedia § Constraint: bandwidth • News story o Inverted pyramid-‐most important info, then les important and then even less important info § Convey as must of the most important info at beginning § Lead, nut graf, supporting details, context info, kicker o Broadcast structure: martini glass § The lead: key facts in inverted pyramid form § Chronology of events § Kicker o Benefits of inverted pyramid § Recognizable structure § Standardized practice § Forces to create strong leads § Hone what is most newsworthy o Criticisms of inverted pyramid § Antiquated model § Not for features § Assumes that scarce attention requires frontloading information § Products of very specific medium o Alternatives to inverted pyramid § Info graphs, data visuals, timelines, story telling in bite sized chunks, Q&A o The Kabob model § Anecdote, nut graf, meat of story, anecdote § Used with trends § Events where you want to show actual people • Journalists must understand their role in the news making process …as well as understand that role is always changing Patterson Chapter 1 • Patterson arguments o Americans have become increasingly misinformed about # of issues o The news media are primarily to blame for that: increasing partisanship, systemic biases, and soft news o Democracy is underserved by modern journalism • Information problem o Study by Harvard that people’s estimate of wealth and ideal of wealth is very different from reality • The fairness doctrine o Administrative law stating that the FCC would give license to broadcast and that they had to tell liberal and conservative opinions st o Issue with 1 amendment cause it was giving definition and the market place of ideas o Ended in 1987 o Patterson states that revoking the Doctrine lead to one sided political talk radio o Shift in cultural • Media fragmentation o Simultaneous increase in the number of available media outlet and the shift in audience’s behavior to consume products from multiple media o Implication: media has to compete with one another not within their own media § Ex) cable networks vs. internet papers o Information consumes the attention of its recipients • Diversity paradox o The greater and more fierce the competition in the marketplace then the incentive to produce good and services similar to other competitors o The likelihood of a market place producing diverse content decreases o Crime stories-‐> report of spending more money to fix crime when crime rate was actually going down during these stories • Patterson’s arguments o Journalists aren’t giving citizens what they need o Market forces have contributed to this o Government regulation is not the solution o Patterson believes that we need to change the culture of journalism and that it needs to be specialized • Patterson writes that the public getting timely updates outweighs the occasional errors that results; says errors will be seen and corrected in follow up story o Some say that isn’t true o Hard to go back and correct something in the mind • To change journalism culture means reexamining biases o Too simplistic to think news is all partisan o There is deeper bias • Bias toward novelty o Ex) black president in 2008 but worn off in 2012 o Ex) politicians transgressions become more novel o Implication for journalism: sustained, thematic reporting on one topic becomes difficult because it compares with the newest story just around the corner • Bias toward negativity o The harder the news, the better o It should be proportional o Solution: following an objective method will help journalists determining the appropriate time and level of criticism • Bias against government o Does not apply to foreign affairs or war o Stems on the focus of conflict o Press is a watchdog against the government o Not considered news when the government is doing its job o Problem: fairness and criticism are not mutually exclusive o But: criticism can turn into unfairness if not a objective method • “Big story” bias o Ex) mad cow disease story o Big story is more influential; drive to get a story is bias o Personally obsessive v personally vested • How should journalists conceive of harm? o Knowledge based journalism o Completely independent in their field; autonomous o May have saved a life with mad cow disease story but caused mass panic Patterson Chapter 2 • Source of dependency o Journalistic accuracy is compromised by dependence on sources o Public officials are the primary source of news o News flows down from top • Why do journalists use sources o Credibility, predictability, accessibility, and objectivity • The problem o Vietnam/ Watergate era § Journalists trusting what government was saying about winning the war but shown differently with the Tet offense o The barriers to adversial war § Journalistic norms § Risk losing access § Time and financial cost • The solution o “He said, she said” journalism § Go shopping for quotes § Put sides against one another o Well-‐adapted for 30 minute broadcast o Added elements of drama, conflict and narrative structure • The response o Politicians weren’t use to the scrutiny o Ex) Spiro Agnew o By the 1990s, politicians had adapted to the new attack journalist o Most extreme ends get the most coverage o Political wordplay (affordable care at-‐> “Obamacare” • Waterboarding case • The consequences o Policy statements are largely ignored o Emphasis on political conflict rather than policies o Cooperative efforts are sidelined o Overwhelming emphasis on conflict over substance • The “memogate” case • The seduction of power o He said she said is power not truth o Indexing – aligning coverage to the range of elite political debate • The democratization of truth o People process information that allows them to believe what they want o People are more likely to believe something if it is endorsed by a source they trust o Can cause people to choose their preference • The problem with objectivity o Become synonym with balance o Balance can leas to “false equivalencies” o Stenography journalism • Journalists too critical? o Can lead to increase distrust of government o More inaccuracies less people are likely to pay attention o Normative disputes are factually unimpeachable • The way forward o Neutrality v investigation o Fair mindedness v critical edge o Disengaged v impactful o Journalism needs a new paradigm § Journalist become more specialized to their fields
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