SLHS Exam #1 - Study Guide
SLHS Exam #1 - Study Guide SLHS 2010
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by KatherineFord on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SLHS 2010 at University of Colorado taught by Ryan Pollard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 192 views.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
1. We can describe how humans interact with each other as Speech, as Language, and/or as Communication. How do these three differ? Speech: verbal means of communicating or conveying meaning Language: Socially shared code or conventional system for representing concepts by using arbitrary symbols and combinations of those symbols Communication: process by which participants exchange information and ideas 2. What is Paralinguistic Communication? Give examples. Paralinguistic Communication: communication that happens along with language but uses means that do no involve linguistic elements (how something is said versus what is said) Examples: body language (crossed arms), loudness in different cultures (Arabs speak aggressively) 3. What is Nonlinguistic Communication? Give examples. Nonlinguistic Communication: kinemics, proxemics Examples: pointing, sticking out tongue, how close/far you stand 4. When a person listens to a speaker, his or her perception depends on both “bottom up” and “top down” information. What are these? How are they different? BottomUp: processing information on the actual perceptions – no prior knowledge TopDown: processing information that is influenced by other knowledge Both are strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering 5. What is the Speech Chain? What is the prototypical example? The Speech Chain: information flow from sender to receiver 5 Phases of Speech Chain: 1) linguistic level (speaker) 2) physiological level (speaker) 3) acoustic level 4) physiological level (listener) 5) linguistic level (listener) Prototypical Example: facetoface communication 6. How many different languages are spoken in the world today? How many of those have a large number of speakers (more than 100 million)? How many are endangered? Number or Languages: approx. 60007000 Languages With 100m+ Speakers: 8 languages (0.1%) have more than 100m speakers (38.7% of all people) 1) Chinese 2) Spanish 3) English 4) Arabic 5) Hindi 6) Bengali 7) Portuguese 8) Russian Endangered Languages: about ½ of all languages are considered endangered 7. What does it mean to say that a language is dying? Dead? Extinct? Extinct Language: extinct if no living people speak this language Dead Language: if it has no native or fluent speakers Dying Language: if its speakers die out or speaking shifts to another language 8. How do these two organizational schemes correspond to one another? Which areas of language (in Group 1) correspond to which Functional Categories (in Group 2)? Areas of Language Grouping 1 Phonetics Phonology Morphology Semantics Syntax Pragmatics Discourse Grouping 2 Output Form Meaning Use Group #1: these make up language structure – all work together to create meaningful communication among individuals 9. What is Grammar? What is the difference between Descriptive and Prescriptive Grammars? Grammar: the rules that determine the structure of sentences – how you take words and combine them Descriptive Grammar: what speakers of a language actually do Prescriptive Grammar: what you would learn from a language textbook 10. What is Phonetics? What is the basic unit of Phonetics? Phonetics: the study of speech and perception Basic Unit: the phone – generally either vowels or consonants 11. What is Phonology? How does it differ from Phonetics? What is the basic unit of phonology? Phonology: the study of the sound system in a language and how sounds are used to encode meaning (how sounds are formed, combined, produced) Basic Unit: phonemes – smallest unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another (bat, cat) Phonology vs Phonetics: phonetics = “phone” (perception of speech sounds), phonology = phoneme (the smallest unit of sound) 12. How do Phones, Phonemes and Allophones relate to one another? Allophones: any of the variants making up a single phoneme Relation: allophones are variations in the realization (or sound) of phonemes 13. What is a Phonological Inventory? Is the Phonological Inventory the same for each language? Explain. Phonological Inventory: a finite number of sounds that humans can produce Phonological Inventory Among Languages: every language uses a small subset of these possible sounds What is Phonotactics? Are Phonotactics the same for each language? Phonotactics: rules of how phonemes can be combined to form syllables Phonotactics and Languages: differ for each language because languages do not have the same sound consonant clusters 14. What is Morphology? What is a Morpheme? Morphology: the study of how basic units are combined in language to convey ideas meaning Morpheme: the smallest meaningful unit of language (“skills” has two morphemes – skill + s) 15. What is the difference between Free and Bound morphemes? Between Roots and Affixes? Between Content and Function morphemes? Free vs Bound Morphemes: Free Morphemes: are words by themselves Bound Morphemes: can only provide meaning when combined (readable, legible) Roots vs Affix Morphemes: Root Morphemes: carry the primary meaning of the word (strawberry, microscope) Affix Morphemes: attach to the root to add/modify the meaning (prefixes, suffixes) Content and Function Morphemes: Content Morphemes: carry meaning (“read” and “able” in “readable”) Functional Morphemes: are used to provide grammatical information and syntactical agreement – can modify the meaning of the word (making a word plural) 16. What is Syntax? What is the difference between a Simple Sentence, a Compound Sentence, and a Complex Sentence? Syntax: how to legally combine phrases and sentences / specifying the relationships between the components of a sentence (all languages have a form of syntax) Simple Sentence: contain one subject and one predicate Compound Sentence: contain at least two sentences joined by a conjunction Complex Sentences: contain a simple sentence and at least one dependent clause 17. How do Word Order languages differ from Case Marked languages? Case Marked Languages: indicate the relationships between words by morphemes added to root words – Latin and Slavic languages (he kissed her) – word order can vary Word Order Languages: English sentence structure (the boy kissed the girl) – SVO (subject – verb object) 18. What is the relation between Form and Meaning in Grammar? Meaning in Grammar: semantics Form in Grammar: the specific sentence structure of a specific grammar rule 19. What is Semantics? How does it relate to Phonology? Semantics: relation between signifiers (words, phrases, signs, symbols) and what they stand for – word meaning Relation to Phonology: the relationship between sound (phonology) and meaning (semantics) is arbitrary 20. What is the Lexicon? Lexicon: our inventory of words – “mental dictionary” 21. What is Pragmatics? How does it relate to Semantics? Pragmatics: language use and function – the organization of conversation Pragmatics and Semantics: pragmatics are used for different purposes (greetings, informing) and changing language according to the needs of a listener or situation 22. What is Discourse? Discourse: storytelling 23. What are the Universal Features of Language? Universal Features of Language: all languages have pronouns most have nasal consonants if gender in nouns, then gender in pronouns 24. Is language Static or Dynamic? Give examples. Language is Dynamic: it is generative and changes over time Examples: “very” = “hella“ “mad“ (morphological) 25. Is language Universal? For humans at least… Is Human Language Universal?: yes 26. Is language unique to humans? How complex are the communication systems of birds, bees, vervet monkeys, and squids? Animal Communication Systems: small number of communication signals (vocal, gestural, chemical) each signal has on specific function (alarm, food, mating) one call = one meaning can’t string together calls to create new meanings 27. Can nonhuman animals be taught to speak human language? Kind of, some animals like chimpanzees can produce some words, but do not have the ability to form those words into meaningful language. 28. Can nonhuman animals be taught other human language systems? Yes, they can use symbols to form meanings, as well as speak by means of sign language. 29. What is unique about human language? arbitrariness duality of patterning syntax 30. Parts of a neuron: Cell Body, Axon & Dendrite. What do these do? Parts of Neuron: Cell Body: maintenance, processing Axon: transmits impulses away from cell body Dendrite: receives impulses from other cells, transmits to cell body 31. What is a synapse? Synapse: small gap separating neurons – establishes a link between two neurons 32. What are the main divisions of the nervous system? What are the anatomical differences between these? Central Nervous System (CNS): Mass of nerve cells and fibers that coordinate and direct large part of voluntary activity Brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Bundles of nerve fibers (neurons) that link all portions of body to CNS Includes both voluntary and involuntary parts (automatic nervous system All parts of nervous system that AREN’T brain and spinal cord 33. What are the different nerve types? Afferent Nerves: transmit information to CNS from other body parts (typically sensory neurons) Efferent Nerves: transmit information from CNS to body (typically motor neurons) 34. What is the structure that separates the two halves of the brain? What is the structure that links the two halves? Structure that Separates: longitudinal fissure Structure that Links: corpus callosum 35. What are the four lobes of the brain? What are their major functions? Frontal: reasoning, planning, parts of speech and movement (motor cortex), emotions, problem solving Temporal: auditory processing and memory Parietal: primary sensory cortex – tactile sensations, spatial orientation, information processing Occipital: visual center of brain 36. Do both hemispheres perform the same functions? What are the two lines of evidence that support your answer? Left Hemisphere Functional Specializations: Language abilities Math Logic Right Hemisphere Functional Specializations: Visuospatial abilities Face recognition Music 37. What are the three ways we can learn about how language is organized in the brain? Brain Damage (Behavioral Evidence): observe language behavior in person with brain damage – relate behavior to site of brain lesion Brain Surgery: observe person’s language behavior who’s undergone/undergoing brain surgery – relate behavior to result of surgical procedure Physiological Activity: observe brain activity as person does a language task – most active regions are most likely to be site of processing in brain 38. Which method did Dax, Broca and Wernicke use? Behavioral Evidence: they observed language impairment due to brain injury 40. What is Broca’s area? Where is it? What language functions does it control? Or, what are the consequences of a lesion (damage) to Broca’s area? Broca’s Area (nonfluent): lesion in ventroposterior region of left frontal lobe (just above the left temple) that affects language production Language Production in Broca’s Area: Nonfluent Effortful Syntactic deficits – language primarily consists of nouns Problems with rapid processing of complex syntax 41. What is Wernicke’s area? Where is it? What language functions does it control? Or, what are the consequences of a lesion to Wernicke’s area? Wernicke’s Area (fluent): lesion in the posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus (just above/behind left ear) that affects language production Language Production in Wernicke’s Area: Production is fluent, but not always meaningful Significant problems with semantics Subtle problems with morphology and syntax Auditory comprehension problems 42. What is the structure that connects Broca’s area to Wernicke’s area? What do we call damage to that structure? What are the consequences of damage to that structure? Arcuate Fasciculus: bundle of fibers connecting Wernicke’s and Broca’s area Conduction Aphasia: lesions occurring in the arcuate fasciculus Problems relating perception (temporal lobe) to production (frontal lobe) Auditory comprehension and language production preserved, but difficult to repeat heard speech 43. What is the WernickeGeschwind Model of Language Processing? Reflects the dichotomies of Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas: double dissociation (2 related processes function independently of each other) Decoding in temporal lobe (Wernicke’s area) Encoding in frontal lobe (Broca’s area) 44. How does the WG Model account for repeating a spoken word? Repeating a spoken word involves: Primary auditory cortex Wernicke’s area Broca’s area Arcuate Fasciculus Motor cortex 45. How does it account for reading a written word aloud? Speaking a written word involves: Primary visual cortex (occipital lobe) Angular gyrus (links visualauditory areas) Wernicke’s area Broca’s area Arcuate fasciculus Motor cortex 46. What is cerebral commisurotomy? What does it treat? How successful is it? What are the language results of commisurotomy? Cerebral Commisurotomy: surgical procedure where hemispheres are disconnected by severing the corpus callosum (splitbrain procedure) – done for cases of sever epilepsy Success of Procedure: very successful at treating epilepsy Language Results: asymmetry in ability to verbalize answers to questions posed separately to the two hemispheres 47. Describe contralateral wiring in the visual system? Contralateral Wiring: each half of visual field projects to the opposite hemisphere Right Hemisphere (RH): Sees objects LEFT of fixation (left visual field) Left Hemisphere (LH): Sees objects RIGHT of fixation (right visual field) 48. For patients who have undergone a cerebral commisurotomy, what happens when they see a picture or word in their Left Visual Field (LVF)? In their Right Visual Field (RVF)? LVF Processing: stimuli is not processed verbally (patients report “nothing there”) RVF Processing: stimuli processed fine Absence of response is a consequence and demonstration that LH controls language in most people 49. What is the Wada Test? Why would a patient submit to this procedure? What are the language findings from this procedure? Wada Test: transient hemispheric anesthetization used to determine which cerebral functions are lateralized to which hemisphere Language Findings: reveals information about lateralization 50. What is cortical mapping? Why would a patient submit to this procedure? What are the language findings from this procedure? What are the limits of this procedure? Cortical Mapping: determines precise locations of key language zones by interfering with how the area normally works (expressive speech, naming, comprehension) Limits of Procedure: can lead to overgeneralization Key Concepts: Patient actively participates in mapping process Identifies patientspecific language areas 51. For Neuroimaging, what is Temporal Resolution? What is Spatial Resolution? Temporal Resolution: the time scale at which we observe brain activity (minutes, seconds, milliseconds) Spatial Resolution: size of the area we are observing activity is (hemispheres, lobes, centimeters, millimeters) 52. What two measurements are necessary for neuroimaging studies? What is the rationale for collecting these two measures? What technique is used to compare these measurements? And what do these measurements tell us about brain function? Two Measurements: 1) Baseline (no task activity) 2) Functional (task activity) Rational For Two Measurements: parts of the brain engaged in a process function differently from when not engaged in that process Technique for Comparing Measurements: Functional Neuroimaging (block design experiment) 53. What is the “sequence of neural events” that we exploit in neuroimaging? Action potential at neurons Electric field generation Increased blood flow (when neurons fire they use energy and need to replenish) Support cells replenish neurons from blood supply 54. What do Single Unit Recordings and Local Field Potentials measure? What is the temporal resolution? What is the spatial resolution? What are the limitations? Measurement: measure the change in electrical potential (ion balance at cell membrane) – the action potential Limitations: invasive, not generalizable 55. What does Computed Tomography (CT) measure? What is the temporal resolution? What is the spatial resolution? What are the limitations? CT Measurement: internal structure of an object Limitations: provides structural information, not functional information 56. What does Positron Emission Tomography (PET) measure? What is the temporal resolution? What is the spatial resolution? What are the limitations? PET: nuclear imaging technique that provides 3D images of functional processing in the body PET Measurement: provides information about metabolic activity during a particular neural process Limitations: offers good spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution / invasive and costly 57. What is SPECT? What exactly does it measure? How invasive is it? What temporal resolution does it provide? Spatial resolution? What are the advantages and disadvantages? SinglePhoton Emission Computed Tomography: a nuclear imaging test used to create 3D pictures of internal structures Shows what areas of brain are more or less active Used to diagnose brain disorders (dementia, epilepsy) 58. What is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)? Describe the difference between structural and functional MRI. What exactly does fMRI measure? How invasive is it? What temporal resolution does it provide? Spatial resolution? What are the advantages and disadvantages? Structural MRI: studies brain anatomy Functional MRI: studies brain function measures changes in brain due to neural activity (specifically measures blood flow and blood oxygenation in the brain) fMRI: measures auditory, visual, and somatomotor neural activity – used to localize function in the cortex 59. What is TMS? How invasive is it? Why would you use TMS? Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): used to show that a particular region of the brain is responsible for a given function Tested by disrupting function in the area and seeing if person can still perform the task Generates an electric current across the scalp and skull without physical contact Depolarizes neurons, disrupting normal function 60. What is EEG? What exactly does it measure? How invasive is it? What temporal resolution does it provide? Spatial resolution? What are the advantages and disadvantages? Electroencephalography (EEG): electrophysiology technique that measures changes in electrical fields on the head Generated when neurons fire in the brain When compared to baseline activity, reveals changes in brain state An indirect measure of neural activity Limitations: poor spatial resolution 61. What are EP and ERP? Why would you use these methods? EPs and ERPS: measures synchronous activity from groups of neurons Computed from multiple small segments of EEG recordings Tells us about brain activity associated with a specific task Each small segment is timelocked to a stimulus event 62. What is MEG? What exactly does it measure? How invasive is it? What temporal resolution does it provide? Spatial resolution? What are the advantages and disadvantages? Magnetoencephalography (MEG): measures magnetic fields produced by electrical activity Surrounding tissues distort electrical fields, but not magnetic fields so MEG has greater spatial resolution than EEG MEG is limited to events near the skull
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